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Laghu Yoga Vd.nshtha, Vdsutfevamanana 
&c. &o. &o. 


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1. Muktikopanishad 

of S ukla-Yajurveda ... 1 

2. Sarvasara-Upamshad 

of Krshna-Yajurve^a . . 13 

3. Niralamba-Upanishad 

^ of S ukla-Yajurveda . . 18 

4. Mai$reya-Upanishad 

of Samaveda ... 24 

^5. Kaivalya-Upanishad 

of Krshna-Yajurveda . . 31 

6. Amrtabindu-Upanisliad 

Do. ... 34 

7. Atmabodha-Upanishad 

ofRgveda ... 37 

8. Skan4a-Upanislia(jl 

of Krshna-Yajurveda ... 41 
^9. Paihgala-Upanishad 

of S ukla-Yajurveda ... 43 
10. Adhyatma-Upanishad 

Do. ... 55 

xll. Subala-Upanishad 

Do. . 61 

12. Tejobindu-Upanishad 

of Kyshna-Yajurveda . . 78 

13. Brahmopanishad 

Do. . . 106 

14. Vajrasuchi-Upanishad 

of Samaveda . . . HO 


15. S ariraka-Upanishad 

of Kyshna-Yajurve^a . . 113 

16. Garbha-Upanisha4 

Do. . H6 




17. Tarasara-Upanishad 

of S ukla-Yajurveda . . . ^ 124 

18. Narayana-Upanishad 

1 of Krshna-Yajurveda . . 128 

19. Kalisan^arana-Upamslia^ 

Do. ... 130 


20. Bhikshuka-Upanishad 

of S ufcla-Yajurveda . . 132 

21. Naradaparivrajaka-Upauishad 

of Atharvanaveda . . 134 


22. S andilya-Upamshad 

of Atharvanaveda . . . i 173 

23. Yogatattva-Upanishad 

of Krshna- Yaj arveda . . 192 

24. phyanabindu-Upanishad 

of Samaveda . . . 202 

25. Hamsa-Upanishad 

of S ukla-Yajurveda . . . 212 

26. Amrtanada-Upanishad 

of Kyshna-Yajurve^a . . 216 

27. Varaha-Upanishad 

Do. ... 220 

28. Mandalabrahmana-Upanishad 

of S ukla-Yajurveda . 243 

29. Nadabindu-Upanishad 

ofRgveda ... 254 

30. Yogakundali-Upanishad 

of Kysliiia-Yajurveda . . 260 

INDEX 273 


FOR the first time it is, I believe, that the English translation 
of so many as 30 Upanishads is being put forth before the pub 
lic in a collected form. Among the Hindu Scriptures, the Vedas 
iiold the pre-eminent place. The Upanishads which are culled 
from the Aranyaka-portions of the Vedas so-called because 
they were read in the Aranya (forest) after the learner had 
given up the life of the world are regarded as the Vedanta, or 
the end or final crown of the Vedas. Vedanta is also the 
end of all knowledge, since the word Vedas means according 
to its derivation knowledge \ Rightly were the Upanishads so 
considered, since their knowledge led a person to Atma, the 
goal of life. The other portion of the Ve(jas, viz., Samhi^as and 
Brahmanas, conferred upon a man, if he should conform to the 
requisite conditions, the mastery of the Universe only which 
is certainly inferior to Atma. It is these Upanishads that to 
the western philosopher Schopenhauer were the " solace of life ". 

There are now extant, in all, 108 Upanishads, of which the 
principal or major 12 Upanishads commented upon by S ri S an- 
karacharya and others were translated into English by Dr, Roer 
and Raja Rajendra Lai Mitraand re-translated by Max Muller 
in his " Sacred Books of the East," together with one other Upa- 
nishad called Maitrdyanl. Of the rest, 95 in number, two or three 
Upanishads have appeared in English up to now, but never so 
many as are here presented to the public, so far as I am aware. 

Many years ago, the late Sundara S astri, a good Sanscrit 
Scholar and myself worked together to put into English garb 
the Upanishads that had not been attempted before, and 


succeeded in publishing most of those which are here gathered in 
the monthly issues of The Theosophist. The EJarmic agents 
willed that my late co-worker should abandon his physical gar 
ment at a premature age. Then I resolved upon throwing up 
my worldly business of pleading the cause of clients before the 
bench for that of pleading the cause of Grod before the public. 
The incessant travel in that cause since then for over 18 years 
from place to place in all parts of India left me no leisure until 
now to republish all the above translations in a book form. But 
when this year a little rest was afforded me, I was able to revise 
them as well as add a few more. I am conscious of the many 
faults from which this book suffers and have no other hope in it 
than that it will serve as a piece of pioneer work, which may 
induce real Yogins and scholars to come into the field and brin 
out a better translation. < 

There are many editions of the Upanishads to be found in 
Calcutta, Bombay, Poona, South India and other places. But 
we found that the South Indian editions, which were nearly the 
same in Telugu or G-rantha characters, were in many cases ful 
ler and more intelligible and significant. Hence we adopted for 
our translation South Indian editions. The edition of the 108 
Upanishads which the late Tukaram Tatya of Bombay has pub 
lished in Devanagari characters approaches the South Indian 
edition. As the South Indian edition of the Upanishads is not 
available for the study of all, I intend to have the recensions of 
that edition printed in Devanagari characters, so that even those 
that have a little knowledge of Sanscrit may be able to follow 
the original with the help of this translation. 


In the transliteration of Sanscrit letters into the English 
alphabet certain difficulties present themselves. Let me take 
first the letter ^\. There are three letters in Sanscrit ^ ^ and 
q\ They are differently pronounced and one should not be con 
founded with another. For the first letter we have the English f 
equivalent S and for the last Sh. But for the second one we 


have none whatsoever. The prominent writers in the field of 
r .ftieosophy have been transliterating this letter into Sh. 

Hence in writing the word ^flftr they made it Kashi in the 

English language. They utter it also in the same manner. To 
a South Indian ear, it is rather grating. The mantras espe 
cially depend for their efficacy upon proper pronunciation. 
When we therefore utter the words wrongly, there is committed 
according to Sanscrit writers, Varna-Hajtya-J)osha or the sin of 
the murder of letters or words. In my translation I have 
represented the letter ^ by S and not by Sh, since I con 
sider the latter to be a mistake. Other transliterations 
are :- 

* It would be well if our 

a j u R N f 

leaders of thought conferred together and came to some agree 
ment upon the question of transliteration. 

The Order of the Upanishads 

The Upanishads translated have been classified under the 
headings of (1) Vedanta, (2) Physiology, (3) Mantra, (4) San- 
nyasa and (5) Yoga. But these are not hard and fast divisions. 
For instance in the Sannyasa and Yoga Upanishads, mantras 
also are given. But in the Mantric Upanishads, Mantras alone 
are given. 

Vedanta and Toga Upanishads 

The Upanishads that come under the headings of Vedauta 
and Yoga are the most important, But it is the latter Upani 
shads that are most occult in their character, since it is they 
that give clues to the mysterious forces located in nature and 
man, as well as to the ways by which they may be conquered. 
With reference to Vedanta, the ancient teachers thereof have 
rightly ordained that none has the right to enter upon a study 
of it, unless he has mastered to a slight degree at least 
x the Sadhana-Chatushtaya, or four means of salvation. He 
should not only be convinced in theory of the fact that A^ina 


is the only Reality, and all else are but the ephemeral things 
of the world, but he should also have outgrown in practice the 
craving for such transitory worldly things : besides he v should 
have developed a fair mastery over the body and the mind. A 
non-compliance with these precedent conditions leads men into 
many anomalies. The orthodox and the clever without any 
practice are placed in a bad predicament through a study of 
these Upanishads. In such Upanishads as Maitreya and others, 
pilgrimages to holy places, the rituals of the Hindus, ceremonial 
impurities at the time of birth and death, Mantras, etc., are made 
light of. To the orthodox that are blind and strict observers of 
rites and ceremonies, statements like these give a rude shock. 
Hence Upanishads are not meant for persons of this stamp. 
Nor are they intended for mere intellectual people who have 
no knowledge of practice about them, and are immersed in the 
things of the world. Some of us are aware of the manner in 
which men with brains alone have made a travesty of the 
doctrine of Maya. Not a few clever but unprincipled persons 
actually endeavour to justify arguments of all kinds of dis 
sipations and wrong conduct by the assertion that it is all Maya. 
The old Rshis were fully aware of the fact that Vedanta would 
be desecrated by those that had not complied with its precedent 
conditions. Only when the desires and the self are overcome 
&,nd the heart is made pure, or as Upanishadic writers put it, 
the heart-knot is broken, only then the Atma in the heart 
will be truly realised : and then it is that the Atma in all uni 
verse is realised also, the universe being then seen as Maya. 
But so long as the Atma in the heart is not realised through 
living the life, the universe will not be realised as Maya, and 
" God everywhere " will be but in words. 

One special point worthy of notice in the Upanishads is 
that all the knowledge bearing upon a subject is not put for 
ward in one and the same place. We have to wade through a 
mass of materials and a number of Upanishads, ere we can have 
a connected view of a subject. In modern days when a subject 
is taken up, all the available information is given in one 
place in a systematic manner. But not so in the Upanishads. 

Take the subject of Pranas which refer to life itself. In one 
Upanishad, one piece of information is given, another 
in another and so on. And unless we read them all to 
gether and reconcile the seemingly discrepant statements, we 
cannot have a complete and clear knowledge of the subject. 
This process was adopted by the Rshis, probably because 
they wanted to draw out thereby the intellectual and 
spiritual faculties latent in the disciple, and not to make him a 
mere automaton. In these days when knowledge is presented 
in a well-assimilated form, it is no doubt taken up easily but it 
does not evoke the latent reasoning power so much. When 
therefore the disciple went in the ancient days to the teacher 
for the solution of a difficulty, having been unable to find it 
ftimself after hard thinking, it was understood easily and per 
manently because of the previous preparation of the mind, and 
was also reverently appreciated as a boon and godsend, because 
of the difficulty previously experienced. The function of the 
teacher was not only to explain the difficult points to the taught, 
but also to make him realise those things of which understand 
ing was sought. As an illustration, we might take the case of 
the soul. The Guru not only explained the difficult passages or 
points relating to the soul, but also made the disciple leave the 
body or bodies and realise himself as the soul. As we cannot 
get such Grurus in the outer world nowadays, the only thing 
left to do instead is to secure the publication of simple treatises on 
matters of Vedanta and Yoga for the benefit of the public. 
I hope, I shall before long be able to make a start in this 

In studying the Upani shads on Vedanta and Yoga, we find 
certain peculiarities which throw a light on their greatness. 
Both of them lay stress upon certain centres in the human body 
for development. The 12 major Upanishads as well as the 
Vedanta Upanishads herein published deal with the heart and 
the heart alone ; while the Yoga Upanishads treat of many 
centres including the heart. For the purpose of simplification, 
^ all the centres may be divided under the main headings of head, 
heart and the portion of the body from the navel downwards. 


But why ? The key which will unlock these secrets seems 
to be this. All religions postulate that the real man is the soul, 
and that the soul has to reach God. Christianity states that 
God created the soul in His own image and that the 
soul has to rise to the full stature of God in order to reach Him. 
Hinduism says that Jivatma (the human soul) is an Ams a or 
portion of Paramatma, or God, which is to eventually unfold the 
powers of God, and compares it with a ray of the sun of God, or 
a spark out of the fire of God. In all religions, there is an un 
animity of opinion that the soul is a likeness of God, having 
God s powers in latency to be unfolded hereafter. Let us there 
fore first understand the attributes of God. He is said to have 
omnipresence, omniscience and omnipotence. Hinduism tran 
slates these ideas into Sat, Chit and Ananda. They are eterne 
existence, infinite knowledge, and unlimited power. The k>ul 
identifying itself with the body thinks it lives for the life-term 
of the body only ; cooped up by the brain, it imagines, it has 
only the knowledge circumscribed by the brain ; carried away by 
the pleasures of the senses, it whirls about in the midst of them as 
if they constituted the Real Bliss. But when it wakes up from 
the dream of the lower things of the body and glances upwards 
to the higher world of Spirit, it discovers its delusions and finds 
itself to be of the same nature as the God above, who is eternal, 
all-knowing and all-powerful. And this discovery has to be 
made by each soul in the human body, in which it is functioning, 
through the three main centres of head, heart and navel. 
Through the heart, it cuts the heart-knot and realises its all- 
pervading character when it realises its eternity of existence ; 
through the brain, it rises beyond it through its highest seat, 
viz., Sahasrara which corresponds to the pineal gland in the 
physical body, and obtains its omniscience ; through the navel, 
according to the Upanishads it obtains a mastery over that 
mysterious force called Kundalini which is located therein, and 
which confers upon it an unlimited power that force being 
mastered only when a man arises above Kama or passion. 
Psychologists tell us that desires when conquered lead to the,* 
development of will. When will is developed to a great degree, 


naturally great power, or omnipotence, ensues : our statement is 
that Kundalini when conquered leads to unlimited powers and 
perfections, or Siddhis like Anima, etc., and that Kundalini can 
only be conquered through rising above the desires of the senses. 

From the foregoing it is clear, that the Vedanta Upani 
shads are intended only for those devotees of God that want to 
have a development of the heart mainly, and not of the brain 
and the navel, and that the Yogic Upanishads are intended for 
those that want to have an all-round development of the soul 
in its three aspects. Here I may remark that SVi S ankaracharya 
and other commentators commented upon the 12 Upanishads 
only, since other Upanishads treating of Kundalini, etc., are of 
an occult character and not meant for all, but only for the select 
fc*v who are fit for private initiation. If they had proceeded to 
comment upon the minor Upanishads also, they would have 
had to disclose certain secrets which confer powers and which 
are not meant, therefore, for all. It would be nothing but fatal to 
the community, were the secrets leading to the acquisition of 
such powers imparted indiscriminately to all. In the case of 
dynamite, the criminal using it may be traced, since it is of a 
physical nature, but in the case of the use of the higher powers, 
they are set in motion through the will, and can never be traced 
through ordinary means. Therefore in the Upanishad called 
Yog a- Kundalini , the final truths that lead to the realisation of 
the higher powers are said to be imparted by the Guru alone to 
the disciple who has proved himself worthy after a series of births 
and trials. 

In order to expound the Upanishads, especially those 
that bear upon Yoga, some one who is a specialist in Yoga better 
still, if he is an Adept should undertake the task of editing 
and translating them. The passages in Yoga Upanishads are 
very mystic sometimes ; sometimes there is no nominative or 
verb, and we have to fill up the ellipses as best as we can. 

One more remark may be made with reference to the 
Upanishads. Each Upanishad is said to belong to one of the Vedas. 
Even if we take the 12 Upanishads edited by Max Muller and 
others, we find some of them are to be found in the existing 


Vedas and others not. Why is this ? In my opinion this but 
corroborates the statement made by the Vishnu- Pur ana about 
the Vedas. It says that at the end of each Pwapara Yuga, a 
Veda-Vyasa, or compiler of the Vedas, incarnates as an Avatara 
of Vishnu a minor one to compile the Vedas. In the Yugas 
preceding the Kali Yuga we are in, the Vedas were " one " 
alone though voluminous. Just before this Kali Yuga began, 
Krshna-Dwaipayana Veda-Vyasa incarnated, and, after with 
drawing the Vedas that were not fit for this Yuga and the 
short-lived people therein, made with the aid of his disciples a 
division of the remaining portions into four. Hence perhaps 
we are unable to trace the Vedas of which some of the extant 
Upanishads form part. 





ADDRESSING with devotion and obedience SVi-Rama the Lord 
Hari, at the end of His Samadhi, who being Himself changeless 
is the witness of the thousands of changes of Buddhi, and who 
ever rests in Swarupa-Dhyana (the meditation on Reality) 
while seated under the bejewelled dome of the palace in the 
lovely city of Ayodhya, in the midst of Sita, Bharata and Sou- 
mitri (Lakshmana) S atrughna and others, eulogised day and 
night by Sanaka and other hosts of Munis, as well as by Va- 
sishtha, S uka, and other devotees of Vishnu Hanuman, after 
praising them, asked : " Rama, Thou art Paramatma of the 
nature of Sachchidananda. O foremost of the family of Raghu, 
I make prostrations to Thee again and again. Rama, I wish 
to know for the sake of emancipation, Thy nature as it really 
is. Rama, be Thou gracious enough to tell me that by which 
I shall be easily released from the bondage of mundane exis 
tence and by which I shall attain salvation." 

(SVi-Rama replied :) " mighty-armed one, well asked : 
hearken then to the truth uttered by Me. I am well established 
in Vedanta (or the end of Vedas or knowledge). Have thou 
recourse to Vedanta well." 

(Hanuman again asked :) " foremost of Raghus, what are 
Vedantas ? where do they abide ? Pray enlighten me." (SVi- 
Rama replied :) " Hanuman, listen to Me. I shall truly describe 


to you the nature of Vedanta. Through the expiratory breath 
of Myself -Vishnu, the Vedas were generated as many. Like 
the oil in the sesamum seeds, Vedanta is well established (or 
latent) in the Vedas." 

(Hanuman asked again :) " Rama, how many are the Vedas 
and their branches ? O Raghava, what are the Upanishads ? 
Please, through Thy grace, tell me truly." 

(S rl-Rama said :) " Through the divisions of Rgveda and 
others, the Vedas are said to be four in number. Their branches 
are many. So also the Upanishads. In Rgveda, there are 
branches, 21 in number. son of Vayu, there are 109 branches 
in Yajurveda. conqueror of enemies, there are 1,000 branches in 
Samaveda. best of Monkeys, there are 50 branches in Atharva- 
naveda. In each branch, there is one Upanishad . Whoever wj^li 
devotion to Me studies even one of the Rks (hymns) in t&ese, 
attains the state of absorption, rare for the Munis to attain." 

(Hanuman asked :) "0 Rama, some excellent Munis have said 
there is one kind of salvation only, while others [stated that 
salvation is attained] through the uttering of Thy name or the 
initiation into Taraka (Om) at Kas i (Benares) ; others through 
Sankhya-Yoga, others through the Yoga of Devotion ; other 
Maharshis through the meditation upon the meaning of Maha- 
vakyas (the sacred sentences of the Vedas). Salvation is 
stated to be of four kinds through the divisions of Salokya and 

(SVi-Rama replied :) " There is only one true emancipation. 
Kapi (Monkey), even a person addicted to evil practices 
attains the salvation of Salokya (My world) through the uttering 
of My name, but not of other worlds. Should one die in 
Brahma-nala (the lotus-stalk also street) in Kas i, 1 he attains My 
Taraka (Mantra). Such a person attains salvation without any 
rebirth ; wherever he may die in Kas i, Mahes wara initiates him 
by whispering My Taraka (Mantra) into his right ear. Such 
person, freed from all sins, attains My Swarupa (Form). It is 
this that is termed Salokya-Sarupya salvation. The twice-born 
who is of virtuous conduct and who, without diverting his, 
1 There is a street in Kasi called Brahma-nala. 


intelligence on any other, meditates upon Me, the All-A^ma, 
attains Samipya (nearness) to Me. 

"It f is this that is termed Salokya-Sarupya-Samlpya salva 
tion. The twice-born who according to the path opened by the 
teacher, meditates upon My immutable Reality attains Sayujya 
(absorption) into Me, like the caterpillar into* the wasp. This 
is the Sayujya salvation which is productive of Brahmic bliss 
and auspicious. Thus these kinds of salvation arise through 
the Upasana (worship) of Me. 

" The only means by which the final emancipation is at 
tained is through Mandukya-Upanishad alone, which is enough 
for the salvation of all aspirants. If Jnana is not attained 
thereby, study the ]0 Upanishads; thou shalt soon attain Jnana, 
ai^i then My Seat. son of Anjana, if thy Jnana is not made 
firm, practise (study) well the 32 Upanishads. Thou shalt get 
release. If thou longest after Videhamukti (or disembodied 
salvation), study the 108 Upanishads. I will truly state in order 
the (names of the) Upanishads with their S anti (purificatory 
Mantras). Hearken to them. (They are:) Is a, Kena, Katha, Pras na, 
Munda, Alandukya, Tittiri, Aitareya, Chhandogya, Brhadaranya- 
ka, Brahma, Kaivalya, Jabala, S wetas watara, Hamsa, Arum, 
Garbha, Narayana, (Parama) -Hamsa, (Amrta)-Bindu, (Amrta)- 
Nada, (Atharva)-S ira, (AtharvaJ-S ikha, Maitrayani, Kaushitaki, 
(Brhat) Jabala, (Narasihma) -Tapani, Kiilagnirudra, Maitreyi, 
Subala, Kshurika, Mantrika, Sarvasara, Niralamba, (S uka)- 
Rahasya, Vajrasuchika, Tejo-(Bindu), Nada-(Bindu), Dhyana- 
(Bindu), (Brahma) -Vidy a, Yoga-Tattwa, Atmabodhaka, Farivrat 
(Narada-Parivriijaka), (Tr^-S ikhi, Sita, (Yoga)-Chuda-(Mani) 
Nirvana, Mandala-(Brahmana), pakshina-(Murti), S arabha, 
Skanda, (Tripadvibhuti)-Maha-Narayana, Adwaya-(Taraka), 
(Rama)-Rahasya, (Rama) -Tapani, Vasudeva, Mudgala, S andilya, 
Paingala, Bhikshu, Mahat-S r ariraka, (Yoga)-S ikha, Furiyatlta, 
Sannyasa, (Paramahamsa)-Parivrajaka, Akshamalika, Avyakta, 
Ekakshara, (Anna)-Purna, Surya, Akshi, Adhyatma, Kundika, 
Savitr, lAtma, Pas upata, Parabrahma, Avadhuta, Tripuratapani, 
Qe vi, Tripura, Kara, Bhavana, (Rudra) -Hrdaya, (Yoga) -Kundalini, 
Bhasma-( Jabala) ^udraksha, Ganapati, Dars ana, Tarasara, 


Mahavakya, Panchabrahma, (Prana)-Agnihotra, Gopala-Tapani, 
Krshna, Yajnavalkya, Varaha, Satyayani, Hayagrlva, Datta- 
treya, Garuda, Kali-(Santarana), Jabala, Soubhagya, Saraswati- 
rahasya, Bahvricha, and Muktika. These 108 (Upanishads) are 
able to do away with the three Bhavanas [of doubt, vain thought, 
and false thought] , conferring Jfiana and Vairagya, and destroy 
ing the three Vasanas [of book-lore, world and body] . 

" The twice-born after learning the 108 Upanishads, to 
gether with the S anti as prescribed both before and after from 
the mouth of a Guru well versed in the observances of Vedic 
knowledge and study become Jivanmuktas till the destruction of 
their Prarabdha ; in course of time as Prarabdha is destroyed, 
they attain My disembodied salvation. There is no doubt of it. 
son of Vayu, these 108 Upanishads, which are the essejx/e 
of all the Upanishads, and are capable of destroying all sins 
through their mere study, have been imparted by Me to you as a 
disciple. This science of the 108 Upanishads taught by Me, is 
an occult one, and will free persons from bondage, whether they 
read them with or without knowledge. To gratify the desire 
of a supplicant, a kingdom may be given or wealth, but never 
shall the 108 Upanishads be imparted to an atheist, an ungrateful 
person, one intent on vicious actions, one having no devotion 
towards Me, or one who loses his path in the cave of books. On 
no account shall they be given to one devoid of devotion. 
Maruti, it is only after a thorough examination that they should 
be imparted to a disciple doing service (to a Guru), to a well- 
disposed son, or to one devoted to Me, following good obser 
vances, belonging to a good family, and being of good intelligence. 
Whoever studies or hears the 108 Upanishads attains 
Me. There is no doubt of this. This is stated in the Rk 
(verse) thus Vidya (Saraswati) went to a Brahmana (and ad 
dressed him) thus : Protect me. I shall be thy treasure. Do 
not confide me to the envious, to one not treading the right 
path, or to the rogue. Then I shall be potent/ Impart this 
Atmanishtha- Vidya relating to Vishnu to one after well ex 
amining him, who had studied much, is alert, intelligent, obser 
vant of the vow of celibacy, and serving [the Guru] ." 


Then Hanuman asked S ri-Ratnachandra to relate the 
of each Upanishad according to the divisions of Rgveda and 
others p to which they belong. To which S^ri-Rama replied : 
"Aitareya, Kaushitaki, Nada-(Bindu), Atma-Bodha, Nirvana, 
Mudgala, Akshamalika, Tripura, Soubhagya and Bahvricha 
these 10 Upanishads are of Rgveda and have the S anti beginning 
with c Vanme-Manasi, etc . Is a, Byhadaranyaka, Jabala, Hainsa, 
(Parama)-Hamsa, Subala, Mantrika, Niralamba, Tris ikhi-Brah- 
mana, Mandala-Brahmana, Adwaya-Taraka, Paingala, Bhikshu, 
Turiyatita, Adhyatma, Tarasara, Yajnavalkya, S atyayani, and 
Muktika these 19 Upanishads are of S ukla Yajarveda and 
have the S anti beginning with Purnamada, etc . 

" Katha, Tittiri, Brahma, Kaivalya, S wetas watara, Garbha, 
l^rayana, (Amrta)-Bindu, (Amrta)-Nada, Kalagnirudra, Kshu- 
rika, Sarvasara, S ukarahasya, Tejo-(Bindu), Dhyana-(Bindu), 
(Brahma) -Yidy a, Yoga-Tattwa, Dakshina-(Murti), Skanda, S ari- 
raka, (Yoga)-S ikha, Ekakshara, Akshi, Avadhuta, Kara, (Rudra)- 
Hrdaya, (Yoga)-Kundalini, Panchabrahma, (Prana)-Agnihotra, 
Varaha, Kali-(Santarana), and Saraswatirahasya, these 32 Upa 
nishads are of Krshna Yajurveda and have the S anti beginning 
with Sahanavavatu, etc . 

" Kena, Chhandogya, Aruni, Maitrayani, Maitreyl, Vajra- 
suchika, (Yoga)-Chuda-(Mani), Vasudeva, Mahat-Sannyasa, 
Avyakta, Kundika, Savitri, Rudraksha, Jabala, Dars ana, and 
Jabali, these 16 Upanishads are of Samaveda and have the 
S anti beginning with Apyayantu, etc ; . 

"Pras na, Mundaka, Mandukya, (Atharva)-S ira, (Atharva)- 
S^ikha, (Brhat)- Jabala, (Nrsihma) -Tapani, (Narada-Parivrajaka), 
Sita, S arabha, Maha-Narayana, (Rama)-Rahasya, (Rama) -Tapani, 
S andilya, (Paramahamsa)-Parivrajaka, (Anna)-Purna, Surya, 
Atma, Pas upata, Parabrahma, Tripuratiipani, Devi, Bhavana, 
Bhasma-( Jabala), Ganapati, Mahavakya, Gopala-Tapani, Krshna, 
Hayagrlva, Dattatreya, and Garada, these 31 Upanishads of 
Atharvana-Veda have the S r anti commencing with * Bhadram- 
Karnebhih, etc . 

" Persons desirous of emancipation and having developed 
the four means of salvation should, with presents in their hands, 


approach a Guru full of faith, of good family, proficient in 
Vedas, scripture-loving, of good qualities, straightforward, 
intent upon the welfare of all beings, and an ocean v of com 
passion ; and after studying under him, according to the rules, 
the 108 Upanishads, he should ever be going through the 
process of studying, thinking and reflecting upon them. With 
the cessation of the three bodies through the destruction of 
Prarabdha, they attain the state of Plenum without any Upadhis 
like the ether in the pot (after the pot is broken). This is the 
embodied salvation, this is the final emancipation. Therefore 
even those in Brahmaloka through the studying of Vedanta 
from the mouth of Brahma attain with Him the final emancipa 
tion. Hence to all these is stated the final emancipation through 
the Jfiana path, and riot through Karma, Sankhya-Yoga, ax/d 
other Upasanas. Thus is the Upanishad. " 


Again Maruti (Hanuman) addressed S ri-Rarnachandra thus : 
" What is Jivanmukti ? what is Videhamukti ? what is the autho 
rity therein ? what about its perfection ? what is the object of 
such a perfection ? " 

(8Vi-Rama replied:) "The Dharma of a man s Chitta that 
has the characteristics of agency and enjoyment is fraught with 
pains and hence tends towards bondage. The control of it (the 
Chitta) is Jivanmukti. Videhamukti follows when through the 
extinction of Prarabdha, the removal of the vehicles [of the bodies] 
takes place like the ether in the pot [after the pot is broken] . The 
authority on the points of Jivanmukti and Videhamukti is the 
108 Upanishads. Its object [of perfection] is the attaining of 
eternal bliss through the removal of the pains of agency, etc. 
This has to be achieved through human efforts. Like progeny 
obtained through the Putrakameshti sacrifice, wealth in trade, 
or heaven through the Jyotishtoma sacrifice, so Jivanmukti is 
gained through Samadhi arising through Vedantic study, and 
accomplished through human efforts. It has to be won througlj 
the extinction of all Vasanas. Regarding it, there are verses 


thus : The efforts of man are stated to be of two kinds, those 
that transcend scriptures and those that are according to scrip 
tures. Jliose that transcend scriptures tend to harm 
while those that are according to scriptures tend to Reality. 
To men, true Jnana does not arise through the Vasanas of the 
world, scripture and body. Vasana is divided into two, the 
pure and the impure. If thou art led by the pure Vasanas, 
thou shalt thereby soon reach by degrees My Seat. But should 
the old impure Vasanas land thee in danger, they should be 
overcome through efforts. This river of Vasanas towards ob 
jects, which flows in the pure and impure paths, should be 
diverted to the pure path through human efforts. The impure 
ones have to be transmuted into the pure. That which is divert 
ed^ from the impure turns towards the pure. So also 
the reverse. This child, Chitta has to be fondled through 
human efforts. killer of enemies, it is only when through 
means of practice both Vasanas quite abandon thee, that thou 
wilt be able to realise the effects of [such] practice. Even in 
the case of doubt, the pure Vasanas alone should be practised. 
" son of Vayu, there is nothing wrong in the increase of 
the pure Vasanas. The extinction of Vasanas, Vijnana and the 
destruction of Manas [as these three] when practised together 
for a long time are regarded, O great and intelligent one, as 
fruitful. So long as these are not equally practised again and 
again, so long the [Supreme] Seat is not attained, even after 
the lapse of hundreds of years. Even should one of these 
[three] be practised for a long time, it will not yield its fruit 
like a Mantra imperfectly done. Through the practice of these 
for a long time, the firm knots of the heart are cut, without 
doubt, like the breaking of the threads in a lotus-stalk rent 
in twain. The illusory Samsaric Vasana that has arisen through 
the practice of [many] hundreds of lives never perishes except 
through the practice of Yoga for a long time. Therefore, 
Somya [disciple], after having put away to a distance the 
desire of enjoyment through discriminative human effort, resort 
to these three alone. The wise know that a mind associated 
with Vasana tends to bondage, while a mind well freed from 


Vasana is said to be an emancipated one. Maha-kapi [great 
Monkey] practise the state of a mind devoid of Vasana. 
Vasana perishes through well-conducted deliberation and truth. 
Through the absorption of Vasanas, Manas attains quiescence 
like a lamp [without oil]. He whose mind, devoid of destruction, 
is [centred] on Me as of the nature of Chinmatra [consciousness 
alone], abandoning the Vasanas, is no other than Myself of the 
nature of Sachchidananda. Whether Samadhi and Karma are 
performed or not, one who has a supreme Chitta with a heart 
devoid of all desires is an emancipated person. He whose mind 
is freed from Vasanas is not subject to the fruits arising from 
the performance or non-performance of actions, or Samadhi or 
Jnana. Except through the entire giving up of Vasanas and 
through Mouna [the observance of silence towards objects] .^bhe 
Supreme Seat is not attained. Though devoid of Vasanas, the 
eye and other organs are involuntarily prompted to their 
(respective) external objects through habit. Just as the eye 
without any desire sees without any effort the objects that fall 
on it, so also the undaunted man of intelligence enters into the 
affairs [of the world] without any desire. Maruti, the Munis 
know that as Vasana which is manifested through the conscious 
ness of objects, which is of the nature of the object itself, and 
which is the cause of the origination and absorption of Chitta. 
This excessively fluctuating Chitta is the cause of birth, dotage 
and death, due to the identification of itself with objects practis 
ed firmly [for a long time] . Like the analogy of the seed 
and the tree, the vibration of Prana arises through Vasana and 
(vice versa) the Vasana through the former these forming the 
seed of Chitta. To the tree of Chitta, there are two seeds : the 
vibration of Prana and Vasana. Should either of them perish, 
both perish soon. Through the actions of the world being done 
without attachment, through the abandoning of the [thought of 
the] reality of the universe and the conviction of the destructi- 
bility of the body, Vasana does not arise. Through the com 
plete giving up of Vasana, Chitta becomes not-Chitta. When 
the mind does not think at all, being completely devoid x>f 
Vasana, then dawns the state of mindlessness which confers the 


great peace. So long as you are without a mind of [true] dis 
crimination and are not a knower of the Supreme Seat, so long 
should you follow whatever has been decided by the teacher and 
the authorities of the sacred books. When your sins are burnt 
up and you are a knower of the Reality without any anxiety, 
then all the good Viisanas even should be given up. 

" The destruction of Chitta is of two kinds, that with form 
and that without form. [The destruction of] that with form is 
of the Jivanmukta; (the destruction of), that without form being of 
the Videhamukta. son of Vayu, hearken to [the means of] the 
destruction of Chitta. That is said to be the destruction 
of Chitta when it, associated with all the attributes of Maitri 
(friendship) and others, becomes quiescent [without any 
resurrection] . There is no doubt of it. Then the Manas of 
a Jivanmukta is free from fresh rebirth ; to him, there is the 
destruction of Manas with form. But to the Videhamukta, there 
is the destruction of Manas without form. It is Manas that is 
the root of the tree of Samsara with its thousands of shoots, 
branches, tender leaves and fruits. I think it to be Sankalpa 
alone. In order that the tree of Samsara may wither soon, dry 
up its root through the quiescence of Sankalpa. There is only 
one means to control one s mind. That is to destroy the mind 
as soon as it rises. That is the (great) dawn. In the case of 
the wise, the mind is destroyed : but in the case of the ignorant, 
it is indeed a fetter. So long as the mind is not destroyed 
through the firm practice of the One Reality, so long as Viisanas 
are prancing about in the heart like Vetala (goblin) in the 
night-time. The Vasanas of enjoyment of one who has destroy 
ed the egoism of Chitta and controlled the organs, the enemies, 
decay like lotuses in mid-winter. Pressing one hand against 
the other, setting teeth against teeth, and forcing one limb 
against the other, he should first conquer his mind. 

" It is not possible on the part of the one-thoughted to 
control the mind by sitting up again and again except through 
the approved means. As a vicious rutting elephant is not sub 
ject to control except through the goad, so in the matter of the 
control of the mind, the effective means are the attainment of 


spiritual knowledge, association with the wise, the entire abdi 
cation of all Vasanas and the control of pranas. While such 
are the [prescribed] means, should persons try to control the 
mind through violence, they are like those that search in 
darkness, having thrown aside the light (in their hands). Those 
who endeavour to control the mind through force are but trying 
to bind a mad elephant with the filaments of a lotus-stalk. 

To the tree of the mind having the ever-growing branches 
of modifications, there are two seeds. OnlTis~tae~ftuc^ation of 
Prfma, and the other is the firmness of Vasana. The [One] 
All-pervading Consciousness is agitated by the fluctuation of 
Prana. The means of Dhyana by which [the one] Jnana is 
attained through the one-pointedness of the mind is now im 
parted to you. After duly resolving back the things or^gi- 
nated [in the universe] with all their changes, meditate upon 
that which remains [w z.], Chinmatra (the consciousness alone), 
which is also Chidananda (conscious-bliss). The wise say that 
the interval experienced by Yogins after the inspiration and 
before the (next) expiration is [the internal] Kumbhaka (ces 
sation of breath) ; while the interval of complete equilibrium 
after expiration and before the next inspiration is the external 
Kumbhaka. Through the force of the practice of Dhyana, the 
current of the modification of Manas devoid of Self that is of 
Brahmic nature is said to be Samprajnata Samadhi, while the 
mind with the utter quiescence of modifications that confers 
upon one supreme bliss is said to be Asampraj fiat a- Samadhi 
that is dear unto Yogins. This [state] that is devoid of light, 
Manas and Buddhi, and that is of the nature of Chit (conscious 
ness merely) is styled by the Munis Atadvyavrtti Samadhi (a 
Samadhi that does not care or require the aid of another). It 
is Plenum above, below and in the middle, and is of the nature 
of S iva (auspiciousness). This noumenal (or occult) Samadhi is 
itself Vidhi-Mukha (sanctioned by books or Brahma). 

" The clinging to objects without previous or subsequent 
deliberation through intense thought [or longing] is stated to 
be Vasana. O chief of Monkeys, whatever is meditated upon 
by a person with ardent impetuosity without any other Vasana 


that he soon becomes. A person that is entirely subject to 
Vasana becomes of the nature of that. When he regards this 
[universe] as Sat [the Reality], then he is subject to delusion. 
Because of the many strong Vasanas, he does not abandon 
the nature of the universe. This person of wrong vision sees 
everything under infatuation like one deluded. Vasanas are 
of two kinds the pure and the impure. The impure ones are 
the cause of rebirth, while the pure are the destroyers of it. 
The impure are said by the wise to be of the nature of intense 
Ajnana, associated with the great Aharikara and generative of 
rebirth. Of what avail is the chewing again and again of the 
many S astric stories to one that has abandoned the seed of re 
birth, having turned it into a burnt one? Marut^i, thou shouldst 
with effort seek the effulgence within. tiger of Monkeys, 
whoever, after having abandoned the visible and the invisible, 
is as the One alone is not a mere knower of Brahman but is 
Brahman itself. One who having studied the four Vedas and 
the various books does not cognize the reality of Brahman is 
like the ladle ignorant of the taste of the dainty. Therefore 
what other advice of indifference can be imparted to a person 
that has not attained the indifference to the impure Vasana of 
delusion [or body] ? This body is very impure while the one 
[A^ma] that dwells in it is very pure. When the differences be 
tween the two are [thus] known, what then may be ordained as 
the purification ? The bondage of Vasana is the [real] bondage, 
while the destruction of Vasana is salvation. After wholly 
abandoning the Vasanas, give up even the desire for salvation. 
After first giving up the Vasana of objects dependent upon the 
Vasana of the mind, attract unto thyself the pure Vasanas associat 
ed with Maitri [friendship] and others. Though engaged in the 
world with these pure Vasanas, give up them too and retire with 
in the quiescent desires and become of the form of the longing 
after Chit alone. Then, O Maru^i ! giving up that also associat 
ed as it is with Manas and Bucjdhi, mayst thou now left alone 
become firm in Me in Samadhi. son of Vayu ! always worship 
My Reality that is destructive of pains, without sound, touch, 
form, decay, taste, destruction or smell, and without name and 


Gotra [clan]. I am that non-dual One (Brahman) that is 
of the nature of the visible (Jfiana), like unto the Akas , 
supreme, always shining, without birth, non-dual, without 
destruction, without attachment and pervading all. I am the 
All, and of the nature of salvation. One should ever meditate 
upon Me thus : f I am of the form of the visible [ Jfiana] , the 
pure, of changeless nature and have really no objects in Me. I 
am the ever-full Brahman, transverse and across, up and down/ 
Also meditate upon Me thus : e I am birthless, deathless, age 
less, immortal, self-shining, all-pervading, destructionless, cause 
less, pure beyond the effect (of the universe) and ever content/ 
When one s body becomes a prey to time, he gives up the state 
of Jivanmukti, as the wind attains the motionless state. 

" The following is said in the Rg [-Veda] also : Like the 
eye which is spread in the Akas (seeing all things without any 
obstacle), so the wise ever see the Supreme Seat of Vishnu. 
The Brahmanas that have ever the Divine vision praise in diverse 
ways and illumine the Supreme Seat of Vishnu." 





[In the text, all the questions are given first and then the answers 
follow. But the following arrangement is adopted to facilitate 

1. What is Bandha (bondage). 

Atma [the Self] falsely superimposing the body and others 
which are not-Self upon Himself, and identifying Himself with 
them this identification forms the bondage of the Self. 

2. What is Moksha [emancipation] ? 

The freedom from that [identification] is Moksha. 

3. What is Avidya (Nescience) ? 

That which causes this identification that indeed is Avidya. 

4. What is Vidya (knowledge) ? 

That which removes this identification is Vidya. 

5. What are (meant by) the states of Jagrat [the wak 
ing] , Swapna [the dreaming] , Sushupti [the dreamless sleeping] 
and Turiya [the fourth] ? 

Jagrat is that [state] during which Atma enjoys the gross 
objects of senses as sound, etc., through the 14 organs 2 as 
Manas, etc., having the sun and the rest as their presiding 

Swapna is that [state] during which Atma experiences, 
through the 14 organs associated with the Vasanas [affinities], 

1 This Upanishad and the next form a glossary of some of the terms of 
Vedanta. Sarva-Siira is the all-essence or quintessence. 

2 They are the 5 organs of sense, the 5 organs of action and the 4 of Antah- 
karana (the internal organ), viz., Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahankara. Each is 
animated by a Devata or intelligential principle. 


of the waking condition, sound and other objects which are 
of the form of the Vasanas created for the tinae being, even 
in the absence of [the gross] sound and the others. Atma 
experiences Sushup^i when it does not experience sound and 
other objects of sense from the cessation of the functions of the 
14 organs, there being no special enjoying consciousness on 
account of the absence of these organs. 

Turiya is that state during which Atma is a witness to the 
existence of the above-mentioned three states, though it is in it 
self without (their) existence and non-existence and daring 
which it is one uninterrupted Chai^anya (consciousness) alone. 
And that Chaitanya is that which is connected with the three 
states, which is without the three states, and which is pure. 

6. What are the Annamaya, Pranamaya, Manomaya, Vijna- 
namaya and Anandamaya Kos as (sheaths) ? 

Annamaya sheath is the aggregate of the materials formed 
by food. When the ten Vayus (Vital airs), Pranas and others, 
flow through the Annamaya sheath, then it is called the Pra- 
namaya sheath. When Atma connected with the above two 
sheaths performs the functions of hearing, etc., through the 14 
organs of Manas and others, then it is called Manomaya sheath. 

When in the (Antafy-karana) internal organs connected with 
the above three sheaths, there arise the modifications of contem 
plation, meditation, etc., about the peculiarities of the sheaths, 
then it is called Vijnanamaya sheath. 

When the self-cause Jnana is in its Self-bliss like the banyan 
tree in its seed, though associated with these four sheaths caused 
by Ajnana, then it is called Anandamaya sheath. Atma, which 
is associated with the Upadhi [vehicle] of these sheaths is 
figuratively called Kos a. 

7. What is meant by Karta (actor), Jiva, Pafichavarga 
[the five groups], Kshetrajna (the lord of the place), Sakshi [the 
witness], Kutastha and Antaryamin (the latent guide) ? 

Kar^a (the actor) is the one who possesses the body and 
the internal organs through their respective desires proceeding 
from the idea of pleasure and pain. The idea of pleasure is that 
modification of the mind known as love. The idea of pain is 


that modification of the mind known as hate. The cause of 
pleasure and pain are sound, touch, form, taste and odour. 

Jiva is that Adhyasi [deluded one] that thinks that this 
body, which is obtained through the effects of good and bad 
Karmas, is one not so obtained. 

Panchavarga (the five groups) are (1) Manas, viz., Manas, 
Buddhi, Chitta and Ahankara (creating uncertainty, certitude, 
flitting thought and egoism), (2) Prana, i.e., Prana, Apana, Vyana 
Samana and Udana, (3) Sattwa, i. e., Sattwa, Hajas, and Tamas. 

(4) the [five] elements : earth, water, fire, Vayu and Akas and 

(5) Dharrna and its opposite Adharma. 

The original Avidya which has the characteristics of the 
above 5 groups, which does not porish without A^ma-Jnana, 
which appears eternal through the presence of Atma and which 
is the vehicle for [the manifestation of] A^ma, is the seed of 
the Linga [subtle] body. It is also called Hrdaya-gran^hi 
[the heart-knot] . 

The Chaitanya [consciousness] which is reflected and 
shines in it is Kshetrajna. 

Sakshi [the witness] is that conscious one that is aware of 
the appearance and disappearance [of the three states] of the 
knower, the knowledge and the known, who is himself without 
[or not affected by] this appearance and disappearance, and 
who is self -radiant. 

Kutastha is he who is found without exception in the Buddhi 
of all creatures from Brahma down to ants, and who is shining 
as Atma and dwells as witness to the Buddhi of all creatures. 

Antaryamin is the Atma that shines as theordainer, being 
Avithiii all bodies like the thread [on which] beads [are strung] 
and serving to know the cause of the several differences 
of Kutastha and others associated with him. 

8. Who is Pratyagatma ? 

He is of the nature of truth, wisdom, eternity and bliss. He 
has no vehicles of body. He is abstract wisdom itself, like a 
mass of pure gold that is devoid of the changes of bracelet, 
crown, etc. He is of the nature of mere consciousness. He 
is that which shines as Chaitanya and Brahman. When He is 


subject to the vehicle of Avidya and is the meaning of the word 
" Twam " ( Thou ; in " Tattwamasi "), then He is Pratyagatma. 

9. Who is Paramatma ? 

It is He who is associated with truth, wisdom, eternity, 
bliss, omniscience, etc., who is subject to the vehicle of Maya 
and who is the meaning of the word " Tat " (or That ; in 
" Tattwamasi"). 

10. What is Brahman ? 

Brahman is that which is free from all vehicles, which 
i^ the Absolute Consciousness devoid of particularities, which is 
Sat (Be-ness), which is without a second, which is bliss and 
which is Maya-less. It is different from characteristics of that 
expressed by the word " Twam " (Thou) subject to Upadhis 
(vehicles), or the characteristics of That expressed by the 
word " Tat " subject to Upadhis. It is itself differenceless and 
is seen as the Seat of everything. It is the pure, the noumenal, 
the true and the indestructible. 

And what is Satya (the true) ? 

It is the Sat (Be-ness) which is the aim pointed out by the 
Vedas. It is that which cannot be said to be Asat (not-Be-ness) . 
It is that which is not affected by the three periods of time. It 
is that which continues to exist during the three periods of 
time. It is that which is. It is one without a second. It has 
not the differences of similarity or dissimilarity ; or it is that 
which is the source of all ideas. It is that which does not perish 
even though space, time, matter, cause, etc., perish. 

And what is Jnana (wisdom) ? 

It is self-light. It is that which illuminates all. It is that 
Absolute Consciousness which is without any obscuration. It is 
that Consciousness which has no beginning or end, which is 
perpetual and which is the witness to all modifications and their 

And what is Ananta (the eternal) ? 

It is that which is without origin and destruction. It is 
that which is not subject to the six changes (viz., birth, growth, 
manhood, decay, old age and death). It is free from all Upadhis. 
It is that Consciousness which, being all full and without 


destruction, permeates the created universe composed of Avyakta 
and others, like the earth in the modifications of clay, the gold 
in the modifications of gold, and thread in the modifications of 

And what is Ananda (bliss) ? 

It is the seat of all sentient beings, like the ocean of the 
water, is eternal, pure, partless and non-dual, and is the sole 
essence of Chidananda (consciousness-bliss). 

11. Of how many kinds are substances ? 

There are three kinds, Sat (Be-ness), Asat (not-Be-ness) and 
Mithya (Illusion). 

Sa^ alone is Brahman. Asat is that which is not. Mithya 
is the illusory ascription to Brahman of the universe that is not. 

What is fit to be known is Brahman, the At ma alone. 

Brahma-Jnana is the rooting out of all bodies and such 
like that are not Self, and the merging in Brahman, the Sat. 
The universe of Akas and others including Jiva is not-A^ma. 

12. What is May a? 

The root of this not-Atma is Maya. She appears in 
Brahman like clouds, etc., in the sky. She has no beginning 
but has an end. She is subject to proof and not-proof. She 
neither is ; nor is not ; nor is she a combination of both (Sat- and 
Asat). Her seat is indescribable. She has the varieties of 
differences as extolled by the wise. It is she that truly is not. 
Her nature is Ajnana. She appears as Mulaprakrti, Guna- 
Samya (a state where the three Grunas are found in equilibrium), 1 
Avidya (Nescience) and other forms, transforming herself into 
the form of the universe. Thus does a knower of Brahman 
cognize her. 

1 This refers to that slumbering or latent state of the universe called 
also Maha-Sushupti when the Gunas are iu equilibrium ; on re-awakenmg into 
activity when the Gunas are disturbed, Mulapsakrti is called by the different 
names of Maya, Avidya, Tamas, etc. 





HARIH-OM. I shall relate in the form of a catechism whatever 
should be known for the removal of all miseries that befall these 
ignorant creatures [men]. 

What is Brahman ? Who is ts wara ? Who is Jiva ? What 
is Prakr^i ? Who is Paramatma ? Who is Brahma ? Who is 
Vishnu ? Who is Rudra ? Who is Indra ? Who is Yama ? Who 
is Surya ? Who is Chandra ? Who are Devas ? Who are Rak- 
shasas ? Who are Pis achas ? Who are Manushyas ? Who are 
Women ? Who are Pas us, etc.? What is Sthavara ? Who are 
Brahmans and others ? What is Jati (caste) ? What is Karma ? 
What is Akarma ? What is Jnana ? What is Ajnana ? What is 
Sukha ? What is Duhkha ? What is Swarga ? What is Naraka ? 
What is Bandha ? What is Moksha ? Who is Upasya ? Who is 
Yidwan ? Who is Mudha ? What is Asura ? What is Tapas ? 
What is Paramapada ? What is Grahj a ? What is Agrahya ? 
Who is Sannyasi ? Thus are the questions. 
1. What is Brahman ? 

It is the Chaitanya that appears, through the aspects of 
Karma and Jnana ; as this vast mundane egg composed of Mahat, 
Ahankara and the five elements, earth, water, fire, Vayu and 
Akas that is secondless that is devoid of allUpadhis [vehicles] , 
that is full of all S aktis [potencies] , that is without beginning 
and end, that is described as pure, beneficial, peaceful, and 
Guiia-less and that is indescribable. 

1 Lit. without support. 



2. Who is, Is wara ? and what are His characteristics ? 
Bramhan itself, having through His S akti called Prakrti (mat 
ter) erected the worlds and being latent in them, becomes the 
ruler of Buddhi and Indriyas (organs of sense and action) as well 
as Brahma (the creator) and others. Hence he is named Is wara. 

3. Who is Jlva ? 

Is wara Himself, subject to the false superimposition upon 
Himself [of the idea] " I am the gross " through the [assump 
tion of the] names and forms of Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Indra, 
and others is Jlva. Though one, he appears as many Jivas, 
through the force of the different Karmas originating the 

4. What is Prakrti (matter) ? 

It is nothing else but the S akti [potency] of Brahman 
which is of the nature of Buddhi that is able to produce the 
many motley worlds by virtue of the mere presence of Brahman. 

5. What is Paramatma ? The supreme Atma or soul. 

It is Brahman alone that is Paramatma as it (the former) is 
far superior to bodies and others. 

6. Who is Brahma [the creator] ? ^ 

7. Who is Vishnu [the preserver] ? 

8. Who is Rudra [the destroyer] ? 

9. Who is Indra ? 

10. Who is Yama [the angel of 

death] ? 

11. Who is Surya [the Sun] ? 

12. Who is Chandra [the Moon] ? 

13. Who are Devas [the Angels] ? 

14. Who are Asuras [the Demons]? 

15. Who are Pis achas [the evil 

spirits] ? 

16. Who are Manushyas [the men] ? 

17. Who are Women? 

18. What are beasts, etc. ? 

19. What are the Sthavaras [fixed 

ones] ? 

20. Who are Brahmans and others ? 

That Brahman is 
Brahma, Vishnu, 
Rudra and Indra, 
Yama, Sun and Moon, 
Devas, Asuras, Pis a 
chas, men, women, 
beasts, etc., the fixed 
ones, Brahmans and 
others. Here there is 
no manyness in the 
least degree : all this 
is verily Brahman. 


21. What is Jati (caste) 

It cannot refer to the skin, the blood, the flesh or the bone. 
There is no caste for Atma ; caste is only conventional. * 

22. What is Karma ? 

Karma is that actiou alone which is performed by the 
organs and ascribed to Atma as " I do " (viz., agency being 
attributed to Atma). 

23. What is Akarma [or non-Karma] ? 

Akarma is the performance, without any desire for the fruits, 
of the daily and occasional rites, sacrifices, vows, austerities, 
gifts and other actions that are associated with the egoism of 
the actor and the enjoyer, and that are productive of bondage, 
rebirth, etc. 

24. What is Jnana ? 

It is the realisation by direct cognition of the fact that 
in this changing universe there is nothing but Chaitanya [the 
one life] that is Consciousness, that is of the form of the 
seer and the seen, pervading all things, that is the same in all, 
and that is not subject to changes like pot, cloth, etc. This 
realisation is brought about by means of the subjugation of the 
body and the senses, the serving of a good Guru (teacher), the 
hearing of the exposition of Vedantic doctrines and constant 
meditation thereon. 

25. What is Ajnana ? 

It is the illusory attribution, like the snake in the rope, of 
many Atmas (souls) through the diverse Upadhis [or vehicles] of 
the angels, beasts, men, the fixed ones, females, males, castes and 
orders of life, bondage and emancipation, etc., to Brahman 
that is secondless, all-permeating and of the nature of all. 

26. What is Sukha (happiness) ? 

It is a state of being of the nature of bliss, having cognized 
through experience the Reality of Sachchidananda [or that 
which is be-ness, consciousness and bliss] . 

27. What is Duhkha (pains)? 

It is the mere Sankalpa [or the thinking] of the objects of 
mundane existence [or of not-Self according to the Bombay 
Edition] . 


28. What i$ Swarga (heaven)? 

It is the association with Sat [either good men or Brahtnan 
which is Sat, the true] . 

29. What is Naraka (hell) ? 

It is the association with that which brings about this mun 
dane existence which is Asat [the false] . 

30. What is Bandha [bondage] ? 

Such Sahkalpas [thoughts] as " I was born," etc., arising 
from the affinities of beginningless Ajnana form bondage. 

The thought obscuration [or mental ignorance] of the mun 
dane existence of " mine " in such as father, mother, brother, 
wife, child, house, gardens, lands, etc., forms bondage. 

The thoughts of I-ness as actor, etc., are bondage. 

The thought of the development in oneself of the eight 
Siddhis (higher psychical powers) as Anima and others l is 

The thought of propitiating the angels, men, etc., is bondage. 

The thought of going through the eight means of Yoga 2 
practice, Yama, etc., is bondage. 

The thought of performing the duties of one s own caste 
and order of life is bondage. 

The thought that command, fear and doubt are the attri 
butes of [or pertain to] Atma is bondage. 

The thought of knowing the rules of performing sacrifices, 
vows, austerity and gift is bondage. Even the mere thought of 
desire for Moksha (emancipation) is bondage. By the very act 
of thought, bondage is caused. 

31. What is Moksha [emancipation] ? 

Moksha is the (state of) the annihilation, through the 
discrimination of the eternal from the non-eternal, of all thoughts 
of bondage, like those of " mine " in objects of pleasure arid pain, 
lands, etc., in this transitory mundane existence. 

32. Who is Upasya [or fit to be worshipped] ? 

That Gruru (or spiritual instructor) who enables (the disciple) 
to attain to Brahman, the Consciousness that is in all bodies. 

1 There are 18 Siddhis, 8 higher and 10 lower. 

2 They are Yama, Niyama, etc. 


33. Who is S ishya (the disciple) ? 

The disciple is that Brahman alone that remains after the 
consciousness of the universe has been lost (in him)* through 
Brahmic wisdom. 

34. Who is Vidwan (the learned) ? 

It is he who has cognized the true form (or reality) of his 
own consciousness that is latent in all. 

35. Who is Mudha [the ignorant] ? 

He who has the egoistic conception of the body, caste, 
orders of life, actor, enjoyer and others. 

36. What is Asura [the demoniacal] ? 

It is the Tapas [austerity] practised by one inflicting 
trouble on the At ma within through Japa [or inaudible mutter 
ing of Mantras], abstinence from food, Agnihotra [the per 
formance of the worship of fire]., etc., attended with cruel 
desire, hatred, pain, hypocrisy and the rest for the purpose 
of acquiring the powers of Vishnu, Brahma, Rudra, Indra and 

37. What is Tapas? 

Tapas is the act of burning through the fire of direct cog 
nition of the knowledge that Brahman is the truth and the uni 
verse, a myth the seed of the deep-rooted desire to attain the 
powers of Brahma, etc. 

38. What is Paramapada [the supreme abode] ? 

It is the seat of the eternal and emancipated Brahman 
which is far superior to Pranas (the vital airs), the organs of 
sense and actions, the internal organs (of thought), the Gurias 
and others, which is of the nature of Sachchidananda and which 
is the witness to all. 

39. What is Grahya [or fit to be taken in] ? 

Only that Reality of Absolute Consciousness which is not 
conditioned by space, time or substance. 

40. What is Agrahya ? 

The thought that this universe is truth this universe which 
is different from one s Self and which being subject to Maya (or 
illusion) forms the object of (cognition of) Buddhi and the organs. 

41. Who is the Sannyasi [ascetic] ? 


A SannyasLis an ascetic who having given up all the duties 
of caste and orders of life, good and bad actions, etc., being freed 
from [the conceptions of] "I " and " mine " and having taken his 
refuge in Brahman alone, roams at large practising Nirvikalpa 
Samadhi and being firmly convinced of " I am Brahman " 
through the realisation of the meaning of such sacred (Yedic) 
sentences as " Thou art That " " All this is verily Brahman " and 
" Here there is no manyness in the least ". He only is an em 
ancipated person. He only is fit to be adored. He only is a 
Yogin. He only is a Paramahamsa. He only is an Avadhuta. 
He only is a Brahman. Whoever studies the Niralamba- 
Upanishad becomes, through the grace of Guru, pure like fire. 
He becomes pure like Vayu (air). He does not return. He is 
not born again : nay he is not born again. 

Such is the Upanishad. 




A KING named Brhadratha, thinking this body to be impermanent 
and having acquired indifference (to objects), retired to the forest, 
leaving his eldest son to rule over (his) kingdom. With hands 
uplifted and eyes fixed on the sun, he performed a severe Tapas 
(or religious austerity) . At . the end of a thousand days, the 
Lord S akayanya Muni, a knower of Atma, who was like fire 
without smoke, and who was as a scorching fire with his Tejas 
(spiritual lustre) approached (him) and addressed the King thus : 
" Kise, rise and choose a boon." The King prostrated before him 
and said : " Lord, I am not an A^mavit (or knower of Atma) . 
Thou art a Tattwavit, we hear. Please enlighten me about Sattva 
(the state of Sat or Brahman)." (To which) the Muni replied 
thus : " thou that art born of the race of Ikshwaku : To begin 
with, your question is difficult (of explanation) : do not question 
me. Ask for any other thing you desire." Thereupon the King 
touched the feet of S akayanya and recited the (following) verse : 
" What is the use of these to me or any other ? Oceans 
dry up. Mountains sink down. The positions of Dhruva (the 
Polar Star) and of trees change. Earth is drowned. The Suras 
(angels) run away, leaving their (respective) places. (While 
such is the case), I am He in reality. Therefore of what avail 
to me is the gratification of desires, since one who clings to the 
gratification of desires is found to return again and again to 
this Samsara (mundane existence) ? Thou art able to extricate 
me (out of this Samsara). I am drowned like a frog in a dry 
well. Thou art my refuge. 


" Lord ! this body was the result of sexual intercourse. 
It is without wisdom ; it is hell (itself) . It came out through 
the urinary orifice. It is linked together by bones. It is coated 
over with flesh. It is bound by skin. It is replete with faeces, 
urine, Vayu (air), bile, phlegm, marrow, fat, serum and many 
other impurities. Lord ! to me in such a foul body (as this), 
thou art my refuge." 

Thereupon Lord Sakayanya was pleased and addressed the 
King thus : " Maharaja, Brhadratha, the flag of the Ikshwaku 
race, thou art an Atmajnani. Thou art one that has done 
his duty. Thou art famous by the name of Marut." At 
which the King asked : " Lord ! in what way, can you describe 
Atma ? " To which he replied thus : " Sound, touch, and others 
which seem to be Artha (wealth) are in fact Anartha (evil). 
The Bhutatma (the lower Self) clinging to these, never remem 
bers the Supreme Seat. Through Tapas, Sattwa (quality) is 
acquired ; through Sattwa, a (pure) mind is acquired; and through 
mind, (Parama-) Atma, (the higher Self) is reached. Through 
attaining Atma, one gets liberation. Just as fire without fuel 
is absorbed into its own womb, so Chitta (thought) through the 
destruction of its modifications is absorbed into its own womb 
(source). To a mind that has attained quiescence and truth, 
and which is not affected by sense-objects, the events that occur 
to it through the bondage of Karma are merely unreal. It is 
Chi^ta alone that is Samsara. It should be cleansed with 
effort. Whatever his Chitta (thinks), of that nature he becomes. 
This is an archaic mystery. With the purifying of Chitta, one 
makes both good and bad Karmas to perish. One whose mind 
is thus cleansed attains the indestructible Bliss (through his 
own Self). Just as Chitta becomes united with an object that 
comes across it, so why should not one (be released) from 
bondage, when one is united with Brahman. One should medi 
tate in the middle of the lotus of the heart, Parames wara (the 
highest Lord) who is the witness to the play of Buddhi, who is the 
object of supreme love, who is beyond the reach of mind and 
speech, who has no beginning or end, who is Sat- alone being of 
the nature of light only, who is beyond meditation, who can 


neither be given up nor grasped (by the mind),, who is without 
equal or superior, who is the permanent, who is of unshaken depth, 
who is without light or darkness, who is all-pervading, change 
less and vehicleless, and who is wisdom of the nature of Moksha 
(salvation). I am He that Paramatma who is the eternal, the 
pure, the liberated, of the nature of wisdom, the true, the subtle, 
the all-pervading, the secondless, the ocean of bliss, and one 
that is superior to Pratyagatma (the lower Self). There is no 
doubt about it. How will calamity (or bondage) approach me 
who am depending upon my own bliss in my heart, who have 
put to shame the ghost of desires, who look upon this universe 
as (but) a jugglery and who am not associated with anything. 
The ignorant with their observance of the castes and orders of 
life obtain their fruits according to their Karmas. Men who 
have given up all duties of castes, etc., rest content in the bliss 
of their own Self. The distinctions of caste and orders of life 
have divisions among them, have beginning and end, and are 
very painful. Therefore having given up all identification 
with sons and as well as body, one should dwell in that endless 
and most supreme Bliss." 


Then Lord Maitreya went to Kailas and having reached it 
asked Him thus : "0 Lord ! please initiate me into the mysteries of 
the highest Tattwa." To which Mahadeva replied : " The body 
is said to be a temple. The Jiva in it is S iva alone. Having 
given up all the cast-off offerings of Ajnana, one should worship 
Him with So ham (I am He). The cognition of everything as 
non-different from oneself is Jnana (wisdom). Abstracting the 
mind from sensual objects is Dhyana (meditation) . Purifying the 
mind of its impurities is Snana (bathing). The subjugation of the 
Indriyas (sensual organs) is S aucha (purification). One should 
drink the nectar of Brahman and beg food for maintaining the 
body. Having one (thought) alone, he should live in a solitary 
place without a second. The wise man should observe thus : 
then he obtains Absolution. 

"This body is subject to birth and death. It is of the 
nature of the secretion of the father and mother. It is impure, 


being the seat of happiness and misery. (Therefore) bathing 
is prescribed for touching it. It is bound by the Dhatus (skin, 
blood, e^c.), is liable to severe diseases, is a house of sins, is 
impermanent and is of changing appearance and size. (There 
fore) bathing is prescribed for touphing it. Foul matter is 
naturally oozing out always from the nine holes. It (body) 
contains bad odour and foul excrement. (Therefore) bathing is 
prescribed for touching it. It is connected (or tainted) with 
the child-birth impurity of the mother and is born with it. It 
is also tainted with death impurity. (Therefore) bathing is 
prescribed for touching it. (The conception of) " I and mine" is 
the odour arising from the besmeared dung and urine. The 
release from it is spoken of as the perfect purification. The 
(external) purification by means of water and earth is on 
account of the worldly. The destruction of the threefold affinities 
(of S astras, world and body) generates the purity for cleansing 
Chitta. That is called the (real) purification which is done by 
means of the earth and water of Jftana (wisdom) and Vairagya 
(indifference to objects). 

"The conception of Adwaita (non-dualism) should be 
taken in as the Bhiksha (alms-food) ; (but) the conception of 
Dwaita (dualism) should not be taken in. To a Sannyasi (ascet 
ic), Bhiksha is ordained as dictated by the S astra and the Guru. 
After becoming a Sannyasi, a learned man should himself 
abandon his native place and live at a distance, like a thief re 
leased from prison. When a person gives up Ahankara (I-am- 
ness) the son, wealth the brother, delusion the house, and desire 
the wife, there is no doubt that he is an emancipated person. 
Delusion, the mother is dead. Wisdom, the son is born. In 
this manner while two kinds of pollution have occurred, how 
shall we (the ascetics) observe the Sandhyas (conjunction periods)? 
The Chit (consciousness) of the sun is ever shining in the 
resplendent Akas of the heart. He neither sets nor rises ; while 
so, how shall we perform the Sandhyas ? Ekanta (solitude) is 
that state of one without second as determined by the words of a 
Guru. Monasteries or forests are not solitudes. Emancipation 
is only for those who do not doubt. To those who doubt, there 


is no salvation even after many births. Therefore one should 
attain faith. (Mere) abandoning of the Karmas or of the Man 
tras uttered at the initiation of a Sannyasi (ascetic ) will not 
constitute Sannyasa. The union of Jiva (-Atma) (the lower Self) 
and Parama (-Atma) (tjie higher Self) at the two Sandhis 
(morning and evening) is termed Sannyasa. Whoever has a 
nausea for all Ishana (desires) and the rest as for vomited food, 
and is devoid of all affection for the body, is qualified for 
Sannyasa. At the moment when indifference towards all objects 
arises in the mind, a learned person may take up Sannyasa. 
Otherwise, he is a fallen person. Whoever becomes a Sannyasi 
on account of wealth, food, clothes and fame, becomes fallen in 
both (as a Sannyasi and as houesholder) ; (then) he is not 
worthy of salvation. 

" The thought of (contemplation upon) Tattwas is the 
transcendental one ; that of the Sfastras, the middling, and that 
of Mantras, the lowest. The delusion of pilgrimages is the lowest 
of the lowest. Like one, who, having seen in water the reflection 
of fruits in the branches of trees, tastes and enjoys them, the 
ignorant without self -cognition are in vain overjoyed with (as 
if they reached) Brahman. That ascetic is an emancipated person 
who does not abandon the internal alms-taking (viz., the 
meditation upon the non-dual), generating Vairagya as well as 
faith the wife, and wisdom the son. Those men (termed) great 
through wealth, age, and knowledge, are only servants to those 
that are great through their wisdom as also to their 
disciples. Those whose minds are deluded by My Maya, 
however learned they may be, do not attain Me, the all-full 
Atma, and roam about like crows, simply for the purpose of filling 
up their belly, well burnt up (by hunger, etc.). For one 
that longs after salvation, the worship of images made of stone, 
metals, gem, or earth, is productive of rebirth and enjoyment. 
Therefore the ascetic should perform his own heart-worship 
alone, and relinquish external worship in order that he may not 
be born again. Then like a vessel full to its brim in an ocean, 
he is full within and full without. Like a vessel void in the 
ether, he is void within and void without. Do not become (or 


differentiate between) the Atma that knows or the Atm.I that 
is known. Do become of the form of that which remains, after 
having given up all thoughts. Relinquishing with their 
Vasanas the seer, the seen and the visual, worship Atma alone, 
the resplendent supreme presence. That is the real supreme 
State wherein all Sankalpas (thoughts) are at rest, which 
resembles the state of a stone, and which is neither waking nor 


"I am " I " (the Self). I am also another (the not-Self). I 
am Brahman. I am the Source (of all things). I am also the 
Guru of all worlds. I am of all the worlds. I am He. I am 
Myself alone. I am Siddha. I am the Pure. I am the Supreme. 
I am. I am always He. I am the Eternal. I am stainless. I 
am Vijnana. I am the Excellent. I am Soma. I am the All. 
I am without honour or dishonour. I am without Gunas 
(qualities). I am Sfiva (the auspicious). I am neither dual 
or non-dual. I am without the dualities (of heat or cold, etc.) 
I am He. I am neither existence nor non-existence. I am 
without language. I am the Shining. I am the Glory of void and 
non-void. I am the good and the bad. I am Happiness. I 
am without grief. I am Chaitanya. I am equal (in all). I 
am the like and the non-like. I am the eternal, the pure, and 
the ever felicitous. I am without all and without not all. 
I am Sattwika. I am always existing. I am without the number 
one. I am without the number two. I am without the difference 
of Sat and Asat. I am without Sankalpa. I am without the 
difference of manyness. I am the form of immeasurable Bliss. I 
am one that exists not. I am the one that is not another. I am 
without body, etc. I am with asylum. I am without asylum. I 
am without support. I am without bondage or emancipation. 
I am the pure Brahman. I am He. I am without Chitta, etc. 
I am the supreme and the Supreme of the supreme. I am ever of 
the form of deliberation and yet am without deliberation. I am 
He. I am of the nature of the Akara and Ukara as also of 
Makara. I am the earliest. The contemplator and contemplation 
I am without. I am One that cannot be contemplated upon. I 


am He. I have full form in all. I have the characteristics of 
Sachchidananda. I am of the form of places of pilgrimages. I am 
the higher Self and S iva. I am neither the thing denned 
nor non-defined. I am the non-absorbed Essence. I am not the 
measurer, the measure OP the measured. I am S iva. I am not 
the universe. I am the Seer of all. I am without the eyes, etc. 
I am the full grown. I am the Wise. I am the Quiescent. I 
am the Destroyer. I am without any sensual organs. I am the 
doer of all actions. I am One that is content with all Yedantas 
(either books or Atmic Wisdom). I am the easily attainable. I 
have the name of one that is pleased as well as one that is not. 
I am the fruits of all silence. I am always of the form of Chin- 
matra (Absolute Consciousness). I am always Sat (Be-ness) and 
Chit (Consciousness). I am one that has not anything in the least. 
I am not one that has not anything in the least. I am without 
the heart-Granthi (knot). I am the Being in the middle of the 
lotus. I am without the six changes. I am without the six 
sheaths and without the six enemies. I am within the within. I 
am without place and time. I am of the form of happiness having 
the quarters as My garment. I am the emancipated One, without 
bondage. I am without the " no ". I am of the form of the part- 
less. I am the p artless. I have Chitta, though released from 
the universe. I am without the universe. I am of the form of all 
light. I am the Light (Jyotis) in Chinmatra (Absolute Conscious 
ness). I am free from the three periods (of time past, present, 
and future) . I am without desires. I am without body. I am 
One that has no body. I am Gunaless. I am alone. I am with 
out emancipation. I am the emancipated One. I am ever without 
emancipation. I am without truth or untruth. I am always 
One that is not different from Sat (Be-ness). I have no place to 
travel. I have no going, etc. I am always of the same form. I 
am the Quiescent. I am Purushottama (the Lord of Souls). 
There is no doubt that he who has realised himself thus, is 
Myself. Whoever hears (this) once becomes himself Brahman, 
yea, he becomes himself Brahman. Thus is the Upanishad." 




HARIH-OM. Then a As walayana went to Lord Parameshti (Brah 
ma) and addressed Him thus : "Please initiate me into Brahma- 
vidya (Divine Wisdom), which is the most excellent, which is 
ever enjoyed by the wise, which is mystic, and by which the 
learned, after having soon freed themselves from all sins, reach 
Purusha, the Supreme of the supreme." 

To him the Grandfather (thus) " 5 replied : " Know (It) through 
S raddha (faith), Bhakti (devotion), Dhyana (meditation), and 
Yoga. Persons attain salvation not through Karma, progeny 
or wealth but through Sannyasa (renunciation) alone. Ascetics 
of pure mind through (the realisation of) the meaning 
well-ascertained by Vedanta-Vijfiana and through Sannyasa- 
Yoga enter into That which is above Swarga (heaven) and is in 
the cave (of the heart). They all attain Paramatma 3 in the 
Brahma-world and are (finally) emancipated. 

" Being seated in a pleasant posture in an unfrequented 
place with a pure mind, and with his neck, head, and body erect, 
having given up the duties of the (four) orders of life, having 
subjugated all the organs, having saluted his Guru with devotion, 
having looked upon the heart (-lotus) as being free from Rajo- 
guna and as pure, and having contemplated in its (heart s) 
centre Parames wara who is always with His consort Uma, who is 
pure and free from sorrow, who is unthinkable and invisible, 
who is of endless forms, who is of the nature of happiness, 

1 Lit., isolation- or emancipation-Upanishad. 

a After attaining Sadhana-Chatushtaya or the four means of salvation. 

3 Hiranyagarbha or the higher Self. 


who is very quiescent, who is of the form of emancipation, 
who is the source of Maya, who has no beginning, middle 
or end, who is One, who is All-Pervading, who is Ghidananda 
(Consciousness-Bliss), who is formless, who is wonderful, 
who is the Lord (of all), who has three eyes, who has 
a blue neck, (Nilakantha), and who is serenity (itself) the 
Muni attains Paramatma, the womb of all elements, the All- 
Witness, and above Tamas. He only is Brahma. He only is 
S iva. He only is Indra. He only is the indestructible. He 
only is the Supreme. He only is the Self-Shining. He only is 
Vishnu. He only is Prana. He only is Time. He only is 
Agni (fire). Ee only is the moon. He only is all things that 
exist or will hereafter exist. He only is eternal. Having 
known Him, one crosses death. There is no other path to 
salvation. He only attains Parabrahman who sees in himself 
all elements and himself in all elements. There is no other 
means. Having constituted his body an Arani (the lower 
attritional piece of wood) and Pranava (Om), the upper Arani, a 
wise man burns Ajfiana by the churning of meditation. 

" It is only He (Paramatma) who, deluded by Maya, 
assumes a body with the internal organs and does everything. 
It is only He who in the waking state is gratified with women, 
food, drink, and other diverse enjoyments. In the dreaming 
state, the Jiva enjoys pleasures and pains in the several worlds 
which are created by His Maya. In the dreamless sleeping state 
when all are absorbed, He, replete with Tamas, attains the 
state of happiness. Then through the force of the Karmas of 
previous births, that Jiva again wakes up and goes to sleep. 
All the diversified objects (of the universe) emanate from the 
Jiva, who sports in the three bodies (gross, subtle and causal). 
The three bodies are finally absorbed in Him who is the source 
of all, who is Bliss, and who is Absolute Wisdom. From 
Him, arise Prana, Manas, all the organs of sense and 
action, Akas , Vayu, Agni, water and the earth supporting 
all. Parabrahman, which is of all forms, which is the 
Supreme Abode of this universe, which is the most subtle 
of the subtle and which is eternal, is only yourself. You are 


only That. One who knows himself to be that Parabrahman 
that shines as the universe in the waking, dreaming, dreamless 
and oth?r states, will be relieved from all bondage. I am that 
Sadas iva, (or the eternal happiness) who is other than the 
enjoyer, the enjoyed, and the enjoyment in the three seats (or 
bodies), and who is witness and Chinmatra. All emanate from 
Me alone. All exist in Me alone. All merge into Me alone. I 
am that non-dual Brahman. I am the atom of atoms ; so am I the 
biggest (of all). I am this diversified universe. I am the oldest 
of all. I am Purusha. I am Is a (the Lord). I am of the form 
of Jyotis (light) and of the form of happiness. I have neither 
hands nor feet. I have power unthinkable. I see without eyes. 
I hear without ears. I am omniscient. I have one kind of 
form only. None is able to know Me fully. I am always of 
the form of Chit. I am the One that should be known through 
all the Vedas. I am the Guru who revealed the Yedanta. I am 
only He who knows the true meaning of Vedanta. I have no 
sins or virtues. I have no destruction. I have no birth, body, 
organs of sense or action, or Buddhi. To Me there is no earth, 
water or fire. There is no Vayu ; there is no Akas . He who 
thinks Paramatma as being in the cave (of the heart), as having 
no form, as being secondless, as being the witness of all and as 
being neither Sat nor Asat, attains the pure form of Paramatma. 
" Whoever recites this Upanishad belonging to Yajurveda, 
he becomes as pure as Agni (fire). He becomes purified 
from the sins of theft of gold. He becomes purified from 
the sins of drinking alcohol. He becomes purified from the 
sins of murder of a Brahman. He becomes purified from the 
sins of commission (of those that ought not to be done) and 
the sins of omission (of those that ought to be done). There 
fore he becomes a follower of Brahman. Were one who has 
stepped beyond the duties of the four orders of life to recite 
(this Upanishad) always or even once, he acquires the wisdom 
that destroys the ocean of Samsara. Therefore having known 
Him, he attains the Kaivalya State (or state of isolation or 
emancipation) yea, he attains the Kaivalya State." 



OM. Manas (mind) is said to be of two kinds, the pure and the 
impure. That which is associated with the thought of desire is 
the impure, while that which is without desire is the pure. To 
men, their mind alone is the cause of bondage or emancipation. 
That mind which is attracted by objects of sense tends to bon 
dage, while that which is not so attracted tends to emanci 
pation. Now inasmuch as to a mind without a desire for sensual 
objects there is stated to be salvation, therefore an aspirant after 
emancipation should render his mind ever free from all longing 
after material objects. When a mind freed from the desires for 
objects and controlled in the heart attains the reality of Atma, 
then is it in the Supreme Seat. Till that which arises in the heart 
perishes, till then it (Manas) should be controlled. This only 
is (true) wisdom. This only is true Dhyana (meditation). Other 
ways are but long or tedious. It (Brahman) is not at all one 
that can be contemplated upon. It is not one that cannot be 
contemplated upon. It is not capable of contemplation, (and 
yet) it should be contemplated upon. Then one attains Brah 
man that is devoid of partiality. Yoga should be associated 
with Swara (sound, accent). (Brahman) should be medi 
tated upon without Swara. By meditating without Swara upon 
Brahman, that which is cannot become non-existent. Such a 
Brahman is partless, devoid of fancy and quiescent (or free from 
the action of mind) . Whoever cognizes " I " to be that Brahman 

1 Lit., the immortal germ. 


attains certainly Brahman. A wise man having known that 
Brahman, that is without fancy, without end, without cause, or 
example, loeyond inference and without beginning, is emancipated. 
There is (for him then) no destruction, no creation, no person in 
bondage, no devotee, no aspirant for salvation, no emancipated 
person. This is the truth. Atma that should be contemplated 
upon is One in (the three states), the waking, the dreaming, 
and the dreamless sleep. There is no rebirth to him who 
goes beyond the three states. The one Bhutatma of all 
beings is in all beings. Like the moon (reflected) in water, 
he appears as one and as many. While a pot is being 
carried (from one place to another), the Akas (ether) that 
is within it is not carried (along with it). As the pot alone 
is carried, Jiva (within the body) may be likened to the Akas . 
Like the pot, the body has various kinds of forms. The body 
which perishes again and again is not conscious of its own 
destruction. But he (the Jiva) knows (it) always. He who is 
enveloped by the Maya of sound, is never able to come to (or see) 
the sun (of Parabrahman) from the darkness (of ignorance). 
Should such darkness be cleared, then he alone sees the non- 
dual state. Parabrahman is Sfabdakshara. 1 What remains 
after the cessation of S abda-Vedas, that is Akshara (inde 
structible), should be meditated upon by a learned man who 
wishes to secure quiescence to his Atma. 

Two Vidyas (sciences) are fit to be known, viz., S abda- 
brahman and Parabrahman. One who has completely mastered 
S abdabrahman attains Parabrahman. Having studied well the 
books, the learned man should persevere studiously in Jnana 
(the acquisition of knowledge) and Vijnana (Self-realisation 
according to such knowledge). Then he should discard the 
whole of the books, as a person in quest of grain gives up the 
straw. Though there are cows of different colours, yet their 
milk is of the same colour. Like milk is seen Jnana, and like 
cows are seen the different kinds of forms (in the universe). As 
ghee is latent in milk, so is Vijnana (Self-realisation) latent in 
every being. Through churning always the Manas with the 
1 It is the indestructible known through the sound or the Vedas. 


churning-stick of Manas and the string of Jnana, Parabrahman 
that is partless, calm and quiescent should be brought out like 
fire from the wood. I am that Brahman. That Yasutleva who 
is support of all beings, who lives in all and who protects all 
creatures is Myself. That Vasudeva is Myself. 
Such is the Upanishad. 





OM. Prostrations to Narayana wearing conch, discus, and mace, 3 
by whom the Yogi is released from the bondage of the cycle of 
rebirth through the utterance of Him who is of the form of 
Pranava, the Om, composed of the three letters A, U, and M, 
who is the uniform bliss and who is the Brahmapurusha (all- 
pervading Purusha). Om. Therefore the reciter of the Mantra 
" Om-namo-Narayanaya " reaches the Vaikuntha world. It is 
the heart-Kamala (lotus), viz., the city of Brahman. It is efful 
gent like lightning, shining like a lamp. It is Brahmanya 
(the presider over the city of Brahman) that is the son of 
Devaki. It is Brahmanya that is Madhusudana (the killer of 
Madhu). It is Brahmanya that is Pundarikaksha (lotus-eyed). 
It is Brahmanya, Vishnu that is Achyuta (the indestructible). 
He who meditates upon that sole Narayana who is latent in all 
beings, who is the causal Purusha, who is causeless, who is 
Parabrahman, the Om, who is without pains and delusion and 
who is all-pervading that person is never subject to pains. 
From the dual, he becomes the fearless non-dual. Whoever 
sees this (world) as manifold (with the differences of I, you, he, 
etc.), passes from death to death. In the centre of the heart- 
lotus is Brahman, which is the All, which has Prajfia as Its eye 
and which is established in Prajnana 3 alone. To creatures, 

1 This Upanishad treats of Atmic instruction. 

2 The three symbols stand for Akasa, Manas, and Buddhi. 

3 In the Mandukya Upanishad, Prajna is said to be the Jiva in the third 
state and Prajnana is its attribute. Prajuana is Prakarsha Jnana or special 
wisdom, viz., of looking over the past and the future. 


Prajnaiia is the eye and Prajna is the seat. It is Prajnana 
alone that is Brahman. A person who meditates (thus), leaves 
this world through Prajnana, the Atma and ascendmg attains 
all his desires in the Supreme Swarga deathless. Oh ! I pray 
Thee, place me in that nectar-everflowing unfailing world where 
Jyotis (the light) always shines and where one is revered. 
(There is no doubt) he attains nectar also. Om-namah. 

I am without Maya. I am without compare. I am solely 
the thing that is of the nature of wisdom. I am without 
Ahankara (I-am-ness) . I am without the difference of the universe, 
Jiva and Is wara. I am the Supreme that is not different from 
Pratyagatma (individual Atma). I am with ordinances and 
prohibitions destroyed without remainder. I am with As ramas 
(observances of life) well given up. I am of the nature of the vast 
and all-full wisdom. I am one that is witness and without 
desire. I reside in My glory alone. I am without motion. I am 
without old age without destruction without the differences 
of My party or another. I have wisdom as chief essence. I am 
the mere ocean of bliss called salvation. I am the subtle. I am 
without change. I am Atma merely, without the illusion of 
qualities. I am the Seat devoid of the three Guiias. I am the 
cause of the many worlds in (My) stomach. I am the Kutastha- 
Chaitanya (supreme Cosmic-mind). I am of the form of the 
Jyotis (light) free from motion. I am not one that can be 
known by inference. I alone am full. I am of the form of the 
stainless salvation. I am without limbs or birth. I am the 
essence which is Sat itself. I am of the nature of the true 
wisdom without limit. I am the state of excellent happiness. 
I am One that cannot be differentiated. I am the all-pervading 
and without stain. I am the limitless and endless Sattwa alone. 
I am fit to be known through Vedanta. I am the one fit to be 
worshipped. I am the heart of all the worlds. I am replete 
with Supreme Bliss. I am of the nature of happiness, which is 
Supreme Bliss. I am pure, secondless, and eternal. I am devoid 
of beginning. I am free from the three bodies (gross, subtle, 
and causal). I am of the nature of wisdom. I am the emanci 
pated One. I have a wondrous form. I am free from impurity. 


I am the One latent (in all). I am the equal Atma of eternal 
Vijnana. I am the refined Supreme Truth. I am of the nature 
of Wisdom Bliss alone. 

Though I cognize as the secondless Atma by means of dis 
criminative wisdom and reason, yet is found the relation between 
bondage and salvation. Though to Me the universe is gone, 
yet it shines as true always. Like the truth in the (illusory 
conception of a) snake, etc., in the rope, so the truth of 
Brahman alone is, and is the substratum on which this universe 
is playing. Therefore the universe is not. Just as sugar is 
found permeating all the sugar-juice (from which the sugar is 
extracted), so I am full in the three worlds in the form of the 
non-dual Brahman. Like the bubbles, waves, etc., in the ocean, 
so all beings, from Brahma down to worm, are fashioned in Me ; 
just as the ocean does not long after the motion of the waves, so 
to Me, there is no longing after sensual happiness, being Myself 
of .the form of (spiritual) Bliss. Just as in a wealthy person the 
desire for poverty does not arise, so in Me who am immersed in 
Brahmic Bliss, the desire for sensual happiness cannot arise. An 
intelligent person who sees both nectar and poison rejects 
poison ; so having cognized Atma, I reject those that are not- 
Atma. The sun that illuminates the pot (both within and 
without) is not destroyed with the destruction of the pot ; so the 
Sakshi (witness) that illuminates the body is not destroyed with 
the destruction of the body. To Me there is no bondage ; there 
is no salvation, there are no books, there is no Guru ; for these 
shine through Maya and I have crossed them and am secondless. 
Let Pranas (vital airs) according to their laws be fluctuating. 
Let Manas (mind) be blown about by desire. How can pains 
affect Me who am by nature full of Bliss ? I have truly known 
Atma. My Ajfiana has fled away. The egoism of actorship 
has left Me. There is nothing I should yet do. Brahman s 
duties, family, Gotra (clan), name, beauty, and class all 
these belong to the gross body and not to Me who am 
without any mark (of body). Inertness, love, and joy these 
attributes appertain to the causal body and not to Me, 
who am eternal and of changeless nature. Just as an owl sees 


darkness only in the sun, so a fool sees only darkness in the self- 
shining Supreme Bliss, Should the clouds screen the eyesight, 
a fool thinks there is no sun ; so an embodied person full of 
Ajfiana thinks there is no Brahman. Just as nectar which is 
other than poison does, not commingle with it, so I, who am 
different from inert matter, do not mix with its stains. As the 
light of a lamp, however small, dispels immense darkness, so 
wisdom, however slight, makes Ajfiana, however immense, to 
perish. Just as (the delusion) of the serpent does not exist in 
the rope in all the three periods of time (past, present, and 
future), so the universe from Ahankara (down) to body does not 
exist in Me who am the non-dual One. Being of the nature of 
Consciousness alone, there is not inertness in Me. Being of the 
nature of Truth, there is not non-truth to Me. Being of the 
nature of Bliss, there is not sorrow in Me. It is through Ajfiana 
that the universe shines as truth. 

Whoever recites this Atmabodha-Upanishad for a Muhurta 
(48 minutes) is not born again yea, is not born again. 




OM. O Mahadeva (Lord of Devas), I am indestructible through 
a small portion of Thy grace. I am replete with Vijnana. I 
am Sava (Bliss). What is higher than It? Truth does not 
shine as such on account of the display of the antahkarana 
(internal organs). Through the destruction of the antahkarana, 
Hari abides as Samvit (Consciousness) alone. As I also am of 
the form of Samvit, I am without birth. What is higher than 
It ? All inert things being other (than Atma) perish like dream. 
That Achyuta (the indestructible or Vishnu), who is the seer of 
the conscious and the inert, is of the form of Jfiana. He only is 
Mahadeva. He only is Maha-Hari (Mahavishnu). He only is 
the Jyotis of all Jyo^is (or Light of all lights). He only is Para- 
mes vara. He only is Parabrahman. That Brahman I am. 
There is no doubt (about it) . Jiva is Sftva. S iva is Jiva. That 
Jiva is Sfiva alone. Bound by husk, it is paddy ; freed from 
husk, it is rice. In like manner Jiva is bound (by karma). If 
karma perishes, he (Jiva) is Sadas iva. So long as he is bound by 
the bonds of karma, he is Jiva. If freed from its bonds, then he 
is Sadas iva. Prostrations on account of S iva who is of the form 
of Vishnu, and on account of Vishnu who is of the form of S iva. 
The heart of Vishnu is S iva. The heart of S iva is Vishnu. As 
I see no difference 2 (between these two), therefore to me are 
prosperity and life. There is no difference between S iva and 

1 Skanda is the sou of Siva and is represented on earth by Sanatknmara. 

2 This will give a rude shock to the followers of Siva and "Vishnu in India, 
who wage useless war as to the supremacy of Vishnu and Siva. 



Kes ava (Vishnu). The body is said to be the divine temple. 
The S iva (in the body) is the God Sadas iva 1 (in the temple). 

Having given up the cast-off offerings of ajnana/one should 
worship Him with the thought " I am He " . To see (oneself) 
as not different (from Him) is (jfiana) wisdom. To make the 
mind free from sensual objects is dhyana (meditation). The 
giving up of the stains of the mind is snana (bathing). The 
subjugation of the senses is s oucha (cleansing). The nectar of 
Brahman should be drunk. For the upkeep of the body, one 
should go about for alms and eat. He should dwell alone in a 
solitary place without a second. He should be with the sole 
thought of the non-dual One. The wise person who conducts 
himself thus, attains salvation. Prostrations on account of 
Sfrimat Param-Jyotis (Supreme Light) abode ! May prosperity 
and long life attend (me). Narasimha ! a Lord of Devas ! 
through Thy grace, persons cognize the true nature of Brahman 
that is unthinkable, undifferentiated, endless, and immutable, 
through the forms of the Grods, Brahma, Narayana, and S ankara. 

Like the eye (which sees without any obstacle the things) 
spread in the akas , so the wise always see the supreme abode of 
Vishnu. Brahmans with divine eyes who are always spiritually 
awake, praise in diverse ways and illuminate the supreme abode 
of Vishnu. Thus is the teaching of the Vedas for salvation. 

Thus is the CJpanishad. 

1 Sadasiva, lit., eternal bliss. This is one of the names applied to Siva as also 

a Narasimha, lit., Man-lion. This refers to one of the incarnations of Vishnu 
when he killed the evil power Hiranyakasipu. 




OM. Paingala, having served under Yajnavalkya for twelve years, 
asked him to initiate him into the supreme mysteries of Kaivalya. 
To which Yajnavalkya replied thus : " gentle one, at first, 
this (universe) was Sat (Be-ness) only. It (Sat) is spoken of as 
Brahman which is ever free (from the trammels of matter), which 
is changeless, which is Truth, Wisdom, and Bliss, and which is 
full, permanent, and one only without a second. In It, was like a 
mirage in the desert, silver in mother-of-pearl, a person in the 
pillar, or colour, etc., in the crystals, mulaprakrti, having 
in equal proportions the gunas, red, 2 white, and black, and being 
beyond the power of speech. That which is reflected in it is 
Sakshi-Chaitanya (lit., the witness-consciousness). It (mulapra 
krti) undergoing again change becomes with the preponderance 
of Sat^va (in it), Avarana 3 S akti named avyakta. That which is 
reflected in it (Avyakta) is Is vara-Chaitanya. He (Is vara) has 
Maya under his control, is omniscient, the original cause of 
creation, preservation, and dissolution, and the seed of this 
universe. He causes the universe which was latent in Him, to 
manifest itself through the bonds of karma of all creatures 
like a painted canvas unfurled. Again through the extinction 

1 This Upanishad is so called after the questioner. 
2 ;Rajas, Sattva andTamas colours. 

s Avarana Sakti literally means the veiling or contracting power. This is (it 
that produces egoism. It may be called the centripetal force. 


of their karmas, he makes it disappear. In Him alone is latent 
all the universe, wrapped up like a painted cloth. Then from 
the supreme (Avarana) S akti, dependent on (or appertaining 
to Is vara, arose, through the preponderance of Rajas, Vikshepa 1 
S akti called Mahat. That which is reflected in it is Hiranya- 
garbha-Chaitanya. Presiding (as He does) over Mahat, He 
(Hiranyagarbha) has a body, both manifested and unmanifest- 
ed. 2 From Vikshepa S akti of Hiranyagarbha arose, through 
the preponderance of Tamas, the gross Sfakt;i called ahankara. 
That which is reflected in it is Virat-Chaitanya. He (Virat) 
presiding over it (ahankara) and possessing a manifested body 
becomes Vishnu, the chief Purusha and protector of all 
gross bodies. From that Atma arose akas ; from akas arose 
vayu, from vayu agni, from agni apas, and from apas 
prthivi. The five tanmatras 3 (rudimentary properties) alone 
are the gunas (of the above five). That generating cause of 
the universe (Is vara) wishing to create and having assumed 
tamo-guna, wanted to convert the elements which were 
subtle tanmatras into gross ones. In order to create the 
universe, he divided into two parts each of those divisible ele 
ments j and having divided each moiety into four parts, made a 
fivefold mixture, each element having moiety of its own 
original element and one-fourth of a moiety of each of the other 
elements, and thus evolved out of the fivefold classified gross 
elements, the many myriads of Brahmandas (Brahma s egg or 
macrocosm), the fourteen worlds pertaining to each sphere, and 
the spherical gross bodies (microcosm) fit for the (respective) 
worlds. Having divided the Rajas-essence of the five elements into 
four parts, He out of three such parts created (the five) pranas 
having fivefold function. Again out of the (remaining) fourth 
part, He created karmendriyas (the organs of action). Having 
divided their Sattva-essence into four parts, He out of three such 
parts created the antahkarana (internal organ) having fivefold 

1 Vikshepa Sakti (lit.,) is the expanding power. It may be called the 
centrifugal force. 

3 The account given here though differing from that in other booka may be 

3 They are sound, touch, form, taste, and odour. 


function. Out of the (remaining) fourth part of Sfattva-essence, 
he created the jnanendriyas (organs of sense). Out of the col 
lective totality of Sattva-essence, He created the devatas (deities) 
ruling over the organs of sense and actions. Those (devatas) He 
created, He located in the spheres (pertaining to them). They 
through His orders, began to pervade the macrocosm. Through 
His orders, Virat associated with ahankara created all the 
gross things. Through His orders, Hiranyagarbha protected 
the subtle things. Without Him, they that were located in 
their spheres were unable to move or to do anything. Then He 
wished to infuse chetana (life) into them. Having pierced 
the Brahmanda (Brahma s egg or macrocosm) and Brahmaran- 
dhras (head-fontanelle) in all the microcosmic heads, He entered 
within. Though they were (at first) inert, they were then able 
to perform karmas like beings of intelligence. The omniscient 
Is vara entered the microcosmic bodies with a particle of Maya 
and being deluded by that Maya, acquired the state of Jiva. 
Identifying the three bodies with Himself, He acquired the state 
of the actor and enjoyer. Associated with the attributes of the 
states of jagrat, svapna, sushupti, trance, and death and being 
immersed in sorrow, he is (whirled about and) deluded like 
water-lift or potter s wheel, as if subject to birth and death." 


Paingala again addressed Yajnavalkya thus : " How did 
Is vara, who is the creator, preserver, and destroyer and the 
Lord of all the worlds, acquire the state of Jiva ? " To which 
Yajnavalkya replied : " I shall tell in detail the nature of Jiva 
and Is vara, together with a description of the origin of the 
gross, subtle, and karana (causal) bodies. Hear attentively 
with one-pointed mind. 

" Is vara having taken a small portion of the quintuplicated 
maha-bhutas, (the great elements), made in regular order the 
gross bodies, both collective and segregate. The skull, the skin, 
the intestines, bone, flesh, and nails are of the essence of pr$hivi. 
Blood, urine, saliva, sweat and others are of the essence of 


apas. Hunger, thirst, heat, delusion, and copulation are of the 
essence of agni. Walking, lifting, breathing and others are of 
the essence of vayu. Passion, anger, etc., are of the "essence of 
akas . The collection of these having touch and the rest is 
this gross body that is brought about by karma, that is the seat 
of egoism in youth and other states and that is the abode of 
many sins. Then He created pranas out of the collective three 
parts of Rajas-essence of the fivefold divided elements. The 
modifications of prana are prana, apana, vyana, udana, and 
samana; naga, kurma, krkara, devadatta and dhanafi- 
jaya are the auxiliary pranas. (Of the first five), the heart, 
anus, navel, throat and the whole body are respectively 
the seats. Then He created the karmendriyas out of the 
fourth part of the Rajas-guna. Of akas and the rest 
the mouth, legs, hands, and the organs of secretion and 
excretion are the modifications. Talking, walking, lifting, 
excreting, and enjoying are their functions. Likewise out of the 
collective three parts of Sattva-essence, He created the antah 
karana (internal organ). Antahkarana, 1 manas, buddhi, chitta, 
and ahankara are the modifications. Sankalpa (thought), 
certitude, memory, egoism, and anusandhana (inquiry) are 
their functions. Throat, face, navel, 2 heart, and the middle of 
the brow are their seats. Out of the (remaining) fourth part of 
Sattva-essence, He created the jnanendriyas (organs of sense). 
Ear, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose are the modifications. Sound, 
touch, form, taste, and odour are their functions. Dik (the 
quarters), Vayu, Arka (the sun), Varuna, As vini Devas, Indra, 
Upendra, Mrtyu (the Grod of death), Prajapati, the Moon, Vishnu 
the four-faced Brahma and S ambhu (S iva) are the presiding 
deities of the organs. There are the five kos as (sheaths), viz., 
annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, vijnanamaya, and ananda- 
maya. Annamaya sheath is that which is created and developed 
out of the essence of food, and is absorbed into the earth which 
is of the form of food. It alone is the gross body. The pranas 
with the karmendriyas (organs of action) is the pranamaya 

1 The fifth aspect of antahkarana is made to be itself, having the function 
of anusandhana or inquiry, though others call it otherwise. 
a Navel is the seat of chitta. 


sheath. Manas with the jnanendriyas (organs of sense) is the 
manomaya sheath. Buddhi with the jnanendriyas is the vijna- 
namaya s*heath. These three sheaths constitute the linga- 
s arira (or the subtle body). (That which tends to) the ajnana 
(ignorance) of the Reality (of Atma) is the anandamaya sheath. 
This is the karana body. Moreover the five organs of sense, the 
five organs of action, the five pranas and others, the five akas 
and other elements, the four internal organs, avidya, passion, 
karma, and tamas all these constitute this town (of body). 

" Virat, under the orders of Is vara having entered this 
microcosmic body, and having buddhi as his vehicle, reaches the 
state of Vis va. Then he goes by the several names of Vijna- 
natma, Chidabhasa, Vis va, Vyavaharika, the one presiding 
over the waking gross body and the one generated by karma. 
Sutratma, under the orders of Is vara, having entered the micro- 
cosmic subtle body, and having manas as his vehicle, reaches 
the Taijasa state. Then he goes by the names of taijasa, prati- 
bhasika and svapnakalpita (the one bred out of dream). Then 
under the orders of Is vara, he who is coupled with avyakta, 
the vehicle of Maya having entered the microcosmic karana 
body, reaches the state of prajna. He goes then by the names 
of prajna, avichchinna, and paramarthika and sushupthi-abhi- 
mani (the presider over sushupti). Such sacred sentences, as 
Tat^vamasi (That art thou) and others, speak of the identity with 
the Brahman of the Paramarthika-Jiva enveloped by ajnana, 
which is but a small particle of avyakta ; but not vyavaharika 
and pratibhasika (Jivas). It is only that chai^anya which is 
reflected in antahkarana that attains the three states. When it 
assumes the three states of jagrat, swapna, and sushup^i, it is 
like a water-lift as if grieved, born and dead. There are five 
avasthas jagrat, swapna, sushupti, murchchha (trance), and 
death. Jagrat avastha is that in which there is the per 
ception of objects, of sound, etc., through the grace of the 
devata presiding over each of them. In it, the Jiva, being 
in the middle of the eyebrows and pervading the body from 
head to foot, becomes the agent of actions, such as doing, 
hearing and others. He becomes also the enjoyer of the 


fruits thereof ; and such a person doing karma for the fruits 
thereof goes to other worlds and enjoys the same there. 
Like an emperor tired of worldly acts (in the waking state), he 
strives to find the path to retire into his abode within. The 
svapna avastha is that in which, when the senses are at 
rest, there is the manifestation of the knower and the known, 
along with the affinities of (things enjoyed in) the waking 
state. In this state Vis va alone, its actions in the waking state 
having ceased, reaches the state of Taijasa (of tejas or efful 
gence), who moves in the middle of the nadis (nerves), 
illuminates by his lustre the heterogeneity of this universe 
which is of the form of affinities, and himself enjoys accord 
ing to his wish. The sushupti avastha is that in which 
the chitta is sole organ (at play). Just as a bird, tired 
of roaming, flies to its nest with its stomach filled, so the 
Jiva being tired of the actions of the world in the waking 
and dreaming states, enters ajnana and enjoys bliss. Then 
trance is attained which resembles death, and in which one with 
his collection of organs quails, as it were, through fear and 
ajnana, like one beaten unexpectedly by a hammer, club or any 
other weapon. Then death avastha is that which is other than 
the avasthas of jagra^, svapna, sushupti, and trance, which 
produces fear in all Jivas from Brahma down to small insects and 
which dissolves the gross body. The Jiva, that is surrounded 
by avidya and the subtle elements, takes with it the organs of 
sense and action, their objects, and pranas along with the kamic 
karmas and goes to another world, assuming another body. 
Through the ripening of the fruits of previous karmas, the Jiva 
has no rest like an insect in a whirlpool. It is only after many 
births that the desire of emancipation arises in man through 
the ripening of good karma. Then having resorted to a good 
Guru and served under him for a long time, one out of 
many attains moksha, free from bondage. Bondage is 
through non-inquiry and moksha through inquiry. Therefore 
there should always be inquiry (into Atma). The Reality should 
be ascertained through adhyaropa (illusory attribution) and 
apavad (withdrawal or recession of that idea). Therefore there 


should be always inquiring into the universe, Jiva and Pa- 
ramatma. Were the true nature of Jiva and the universe 
known, thon there remains Brahman which is non-different from 


Then Paingala asked Yajfiavalkya to offer an exposition on 
the mahavakyas (sacred sentences of the Vedas). To which Yaj 
fiavalkya replied : " One should scrutinise (the sacred sentences), 
Tattvamasi (That art thou), Tvamtadasi (Thou art That), Twam- 
brahmasi (Thou art Brahman) and Ahambrahmasmi (I am Brah 
man). The word Tat denotes the cause of the universe that is 
variegated beyond perception, has the characteristics of omni 
science, has Maya as His vehicle and has the attributes of Sach- 
chidananda. It is He that is the basis of the notion I which has 
the differentiated knowledge produced by antahkarana ; and it 
is He that is denoted by the word Twam (Thou). That is 
the undifferentiated Brahman which remains as the aim (or mean 
ing) of the words Tat and Tvam after freeing itself from Maya and 
Avidya which are respectively the vehicles of Paramatma and 
Jivatma. The inquiry into the real significance of the sentences 
Tattvamasi and Ahambrahmasmi forms (what is called) s ravana 
(hearing the first stage of inquiry). To inquire in solitude in 
to the significance of s ravana is manana. The concentration of 
the mind with one-pointedness upon that which should be sought 
after by s ravana and manana is nididhyasana. Samadhi is that 
state in which chitta having given up (the conception of the 
difference of) the meditator and the meditation, becomes of the 
form of the meditated like a lamp in a place without wind. Then 
arise the modifications pertaining to Atma. Such (modifications) 
cannot be known ; but they can only be inferred through memory 
(of the samaclhi state). The myriads of karmas committed in this 
beginningless cycle of rebirths are annihilated only through 
them. Through proficiency in practice, the current of nectar l 

1 It is said that in sum fid hi astral nectar flows from the head down which 
the Yogins are said to drink and which gives them infinite bliss. 



always rains down in diverse ways. Therefore those who know 
Yoga call this samadhi, dharma-megha (cloud). Through 
these (modifications of Atma), the collection of affinities is 
absorbed without any remainder whatever. When the accumu 
lated good and bad karmas are wholly destroyed, these sentences 
(Tattvamasi and Ahambrahmasmi), like the myrobalan in the 
palm of the hand, bring him face to face with the ultimate 
Reality, though It was before invisible. Then he becomes 
a Jivanmukta. 

"Is vara wished to produce non-quintuplication (or involution) 
in the fivefold differentiated elements. Having drawn into 
their cause Brahma s egg and its effects of worlds, and mixed 
together the subtle organs of sense and action and the four 
internal organs and dissolved all things composed of the 
elements into their cause, the five elements, He then caused 
prthivi to merge into water, water into agni, agni into 
vayu, and vayu into akas , akas into ahankara, akankara 
into mahat, mahat into avyakta, and avyakta into Purusha 
in regular order. Virat, Hiranyagarbha and Is vara being 
freed from the vehicle of Maya, are absorbed into Paramatma. 
This gross body composed of the five differentiated elements 
and obtained through accumulated karma, is merged into its 
subtle state of non-quintuplicated elements, through the ex 
tinction of (bad) karma and increase of good karma, then attains 
its karana (causal) state and (finally) is absorbed into its 
cause, (viz.,) Kutastha-Pratyagatma. Vis va and Taijasa and 
Prajna, their upadhi (of avidya) having become extinct, are 
absorbed in Pratyagatma. This sphere (of universe) being 
burnt up by the fire of jnana is absorbed along with its cause 
into Paramatma. Therefore a Brahmana should be careful 
and always meditate upon the identity of Tat and Tvam. Then 
Atma shines, like the sun freed from the (obscuration of the) 
clouds. One should meditate upon Atma in the midst (of the 
body) like a lamp within a jar. 

" Atma, the Kutas^ha, should be meditated upon as being of 
the size of a thumb, as being of the nature of the jyotis (light) 
without smoke, as being within, illuminating all and as being 


indestructible. That Muni (sage) who meditates (upon Atma 
always) until sleep or death comes upon him passes into the state 
of (Jivanmukti) emancipation like the immovable state of the wind. 
Then there remains that One (Brahman) without sound, touch, 
free from destruction, without taste or odour, which is eternal, 
which is without beginning or end, which is beyond the Tattva 
of Mahat, and which is permanent and without stain or 


Then Paingala addressed Yajnavalkya thus : " To the 
wise, what is their karma ? And what is their state ? " To which 
Yajnavalkya replied : " A lover of moksha, having humility 1 and 
other possessions (or virtues), enables twenty-one generations to 
cross (to Atma). One through his being a Brahmavit 2 alone 
enables 101 generations to cross. Know Atma to be the rider 
and the body as the chariot. Know also buddhi as the chario 
teer and manas as the reins. The wise say the organs are the 
horses, the objects are the roads (through which the horses 
travel) and the hearts are the moving balloons. Maharshis 
say that Atma, when associated with the sense organs and 
manas, is the enjoyer. Therefore it is the actual Narayana 
alone that is established in the heart. Till his prarabdha 
karma 3 is worn out, he exists (in his body) as in the (cast-off) 
slough of a serpent (without any desire for the body). An 
emancipated person having such a body roves about like a 
moon gladdening all with no settled place of abode. He gives 
up his body whether in a sacred place, or in a chandala s (out- 
caste s) house (without any distinction whatever), and attains 
salvation. Such a body (when seen by a person) should be 
offered as a sacrifice to dik (the quarters) or should be buried 
(underground). It is only to Purusha (the wise) that sannyasa 
(renunciation) is ordained and not to others. In case of the 

1 Humility and other virtues twenty in number are described in BJiagavatl-Glta, 
Chapter XIII. 

2 There are four classes of Brahma Jfianiis or initiates of whom this is one. 

3 That portion of past karma which is being enjoyed in this life. 


death of an ascetic who is of the form (or has attained the nature) 
of Brahman, there is no pollution (to be observed) ; neither the 
ceremonies of fire (as burning the body, homa, eta) ; nor the 
pinda (balls of rice), nor ceremonies of water, nor the periodical 
ceremonies (monthly and yearly). Just as a food once cooked 
is not again cooked, so a body once burnt (by the fire of 
wisdom) should not be burnt (or exposed to fire) again. To one 
whose body was burnt by the fire of wisdom there is neither 
s raddha 1 (required to be performed), nor (funeral) ceremony. 
So long as there is the upadhi (of non-wisdom) in one, so long 
should he serve the Guru. He should conduct himself towards 
his Guru s wife and children as he does to his Guru. If being 
of a pure mind, of the nature of immaculate Chit and resigned, 
and having the discrimination arising from the attainment of 
wisdom " I am He," he should concentrate his heart on Paramatma 
and obtain firm peace in his body, then he becomes of the 
nature of Jyotis, void of manas and buddhi. Of what avail is 
milk to one content with nectar ? Of what avail are the Vedas 
to him who has known his Atma thus ? For a Yogin content with 
the nectar o wisdom, there is nothing more to be done. If he has 
to do anything, then he is not a knower of Tattva. Pratyagatma 
though far (or difficult of attainment), is not far; though in the 
body, he is devoid of it (since) he is all-pervading. After having 
purified the heart and contemplated on the One without disease 
(viz.j Brahman), the cognizing of I as the supreme and the all 
is the highest bliss. Like water mixed with water, milk with 
milk, and ghee with ghee, so Jivatma and Paramatma are without 
difference. When the body is rendered bright through wisdom 
and the buddhi becomes of the partless One, then the wise man 
burns the bondage of karma through the fire of Brahrna- 
jfiana. Then he becomes purified, of the nature of the non-dual 
named Parmes vara and the light like the stainless akas . Like 
water mixed with water, so Jlva (-Atma) becomes upadhiless (or 
freed from the bonds of matter). Atma is, like akas , of 
an invisible form. (Therefore) the inner Atma is invisible like 
vayu. Though he is within and without, he is the immovable 

1 The yearly ceremonies in honour of the dead. 


Atma. Through the torch of wisdom, the internal Atma sees 
(or knows). 

" A wise man, in whatever place or manner he dies, is 
absorbed in that place like the all-pervading akas . It should 
be known that Atma is absorbed as truly as the akas in the 
pot (when broken). Then he attains the all-pervading wisdom- 
light that is without support. Though men should perform 
tapas standing on one leg for a period of 1,000 years, it will not, 
in the least, be equal to one-sixteenth part of dhyanayoga. One 
desirous of knowing what jnana (wisdom) and jneya (the object 
to be known) are, will not be able to attain his desired end, even 
though he may study the S astras for 1,000 years. That which is 
alone should be known as the indestructible. That which exists 
(in this world) is only impermanent. (Therefore) after having 
given up (the study of) the many S astras, one should worship that 
which is satya (truth). The many karmas, purity (of mind and 
heart), japa (the muttering of mantras), sacrifice and pilgrim 
ages all these should be observed till Tattva is known. For 
Mahatmas (noble souls) to be always in (the conception of) f I 
am Brahman conduces to their salvation. There are two causes 
(that lead) to bondage and emancipation. They are mine and 
not mine . Through mine creatures are bound, whereas through 
not mine they are released from bondage. When the mind at 
tains the state of Unmani (above manas, viz., when it is destroyed), 
then there is never the conception of duality. When the Unmani 
state occurs, then is the supreme Seat (attained). (After which) 
wherever the mind goes, there is the supreme Seat (to it, viz., the 
mind enjoys salvation wherever it is). That which is equal in 
all is Brahman alone. One may attain the power to strike the 
akas with his fist ; he may appease his hunger by eating husks 
(of grain), but never shall he attain emancipation who has not 
the self -cognition, f I am Brahman . 

" Whoever recites this Upanishad becomes as immaculate as 
Agni. He becomes as pure as Brahma. He becomes as pure as 
Vayu. He becomes like one who has bathed in all the holy waters. 
He becomes like one who has studied all the Vedas. He becomes 
like one that has undergone all vedic observances. He 


obtains the fruit of the recitation of Itihasas 1 , Puranas and 
Rudramantras a lakh of times. He becomes like one that has 
pronounced Pranava (Om) ten thousand times, fle purifies 
his ancestors ten degrees removed and his descendants ten 
degrees removed. He becomes purified of all those that sit with 
him for dinner. He becomes a great personage. He becomes 
purified from the sins of the murder of a Brahman, the drink 
ing of alcohol, theft of gold, and sexual cohabitation with Gruru s 
wife, and from the sins of associating with those that commit 
such sins. 

" Like the eye pervading the akas (seeing without effort 
everything above), a wise man sees (always) the supreme 
Seat of Vishnu. The Brahmanas who have always their spiritual 
eyes wide open praise and illuminate in diverse ways the 
supreme Seat of Vishnu. Om : This Upanishad is truth." 

1 Itihasas are the Ramayaqa and the Mahabhdrata. 




THE One Aja (unborn) is ever located in the cave (of the 
heart) within the body. (Prthivi) the earth is His body ; 
though He pervades the earth, it does not know Him. The 
waters are His body ; though He pervades the waters, they do not 
know Him. Agni is His body ; though He pervades agni, it 
does not know Him. Vayu is His body; though He pervades 
vayu, it does not know Him. Akas is His body ; though He 
pervades akas , it does not know Him. Manas is His body; 
though He pervades manas, it does not know Him. Buddhi is 
His body ; though He pervades buddhi, it does not know Him. 
Ahankara is His body ; though He pervades ahankara, it does 
not know Him. Chitta is His body ; though He pervades chitta, 
it does not know Him. Avyakta is His body ; though He per 
vades avyakta, it does not know Him. Akshara is His body ; 
though He pervades akshara, it does not know Him. Mr^yu 
is His body ; though He pervades mrtyu, it does not know Him. 
He who is the inner soul of all creatures and the purifier of sins, 
is the one divine Lord Narayana. 

The wise should through the practice of deep meditation of 
Brahman leave off the (recurrent) conception of " I " and 
" mine " in the body and the senses which are other than Atma. 
Having known himself as Pratyagatma, the witness of buddhi 
and its actions, one should ever think " So ham " (" I am That ") 
and leave off the idea of Atma in all others. Shunning the 
pursuits of the world, the body and the S astras, set about 
removing the false attribution of self. In the case of a Yogin 
staying always in his own Atma, his mind perishes having 
known his Atma as the Atma of all, through inference, Vedas 
1 This Upanishad is also called Turlyatlta Avadhuta Upanishad. 


and self-experience. Never giving the slightest scope to sleep, 
worldly talk, sounds, etc., think of Atma, (in yourself) to be 
the (supreme) Atma. Shun at a distance like a chandala (the 
thought of) the body, which is generated out of the impurities 
of parents and is composed of excreta and flesh. Then you will 
become Brahman and be (in a) blessed (state). Sage, having 
dissolved (Jiva-) Atma into Paramatma with the thought 
of its being partless, like the ether of a jar in the universal 
ether, be ever in a state of taciturnity. Having becotno 
that which is the seat of all Atmas and the self-resplen 
dent, give up the macrocosm and microcosm like an impure 
vessel. Having merged into Chidatma, which is ever blissful, 
the conception of " I " which is rooted in the body, and having 
removed the (conception of) Liriga (here the sign of separate- 
ness), become ever the Kevala (alone). Having known " I am 
that Brahman " in which alone the universe appears like a town 
in a mirror, become one that has performed (all) his duty, sin 
less one. The ever-blissful and the self-effulgent One being 
freed from the grip of ahankara attains its own state, like the 
spotless moon becoming full (after eclipse). 

With the extinction of actions, there arises the extinction 
of chin^a. From it arises the decay of vasanas ; and from the 
latter, arises moksha ; and this is called Jivanmukti. Looking 
upon everything in all places and times as Brahman brings 
about the destruction of vasanas through the force of vasanas 
of sattvic nature. Carelessness in Brahmanishtha by (or medita 
tion of Brahman) should not in the least be allowed (to creep 
in). Knowers of Brahman style (this) carelessness, in Brahmic 
science, as death (itself). Just as the moss (momentarily) 
displaced (in a tank) again resumes its original position, in a 
minute, so Maya envelops even the wise, should they be careless 
(even for a moment). He who attains the Kaivalya state 
during life becomes a Kevala even after death of his body. 
Ever devoted to samadhi, become a nirvikalpa (or the change 
less one), sinless one. The grant hi (or knot) of the heart, 
full of ajnana, is broken completely only when one sees his 
Atma as secondless through nirvikalpa samadhi. 


Now, having strengthened the conception of Atma and well 
given up that of " I " in the body, one should be indifferent as 
he would be towards jars, cloth, etc. From Brahma down to a 
pillar, all the upadhis are only unreal. Hence one should see 
(or cognize) his Atma as all-full and existing by itself (alone). 
Brahma is Swayam (Atma) ; Vishnu is Atma ; Rudra is Atma ; 
Indra is Atma ; all this universe is Atma and there is nothing 
but Atma. By expelling (from the mind) without any re 
mainder all objects which are superimposed on one s Atma, one 
becomes himself Parabrahman the full, the secondless and the 
actionless. How can there be the heterogeneity of the universe 
of sankalpa and vikalpa in that One Principle which is immu 
table, formless and homogeneous ? When there is no difference 
between the seer, the seen, and sight, there being the decayless 
and Chidatma, full like the ocean at the end of a Kalpa and 
effulgent, all darkness, the cause of false perception, merges in 
it. How can there be heterogeneity in that one supreme 
Principle which is alike ? How can there be heterogeneity in 
the highest Tattva which is One ? Who has observed any 
heterogeneity in sushupti (the dreamless sleep), where there is 
happiness only ? This vikalpa has its root in chitta only. When 
chitta is not, there is nothing. Therefore unite the chitta with 
Paramatman in its Pratyagatmic state. If one knows Atma 
as unbroken bliss in itself, then he drinks always the juice 
(or essence) of bliss in his Atma, whether internally or 

The fruit of vairagya is bodha (spiritual wisdom) ; the 
fruit of bodha is uparati (renunciation) ; s iinti (sweet patience) 
is attained out of the enjoyment of the bliss of one s Atma, and 
this s anti is the fruit of uparati. If the latter in each of these 
is absent, the former is useless. Nivrtti (or the return path) 
leads to the highest contentment and (spiritual) bliss is said to 
be beyond all analogy. That which has Maya as its upadhi is 
the womb of the world ; that true one which has the attribute of 
omniscience, etc., and has the variegated mystery is denoted 
by the word "Tat" (that). That is called Apara (the other or 
inferior) which shines through meditation upon the idea and the 


world asmat * and the consciousness of which is developed by 
antahkarana. By separating the upadhis Maya and avidya 
from Para and Jiva (cosmic and human Atmas respectively), one 
realises Parabrahman which is partless and Sachchidananda. 
Making the mind dwell upon such sentences (or ideas) as the 
above constitutes s ravana (hearing). It becomes manana 
(contemplation) when such ideas are quieted (in one) through 
logical reasoning. When (their) meaning is confirmed through 
these (two processes),, the concentration of the mind on it alone 
constitutes nididhyasana. That is called samadhi in which the 
chitta, rising above the conception of the contemplator and 
contemplation, merges gradually into the contemplated, like a 
light undisturbed by the wind. Even the mental states are not 
known (at the time when one is within the scope of Atma). 
But they are only inferred from the recollection which takes 
place after samadhi. Through this samadhi are destroyed 
crores of karmas which have accumulated during cycles of 
births without beginning and pure dharma is developed. Know- 
ers of Yoga call this samadhi, dharma-megha (cloud), inasmuch 
as it showers nectarine drops of karma in great quantities, 
when all the hosts of vasanas are destroyed entirely through 
this, and when the accumulated karmas, virtuous and sinful, are 
rooted out. Then that in which speech was hidden till now, 
appears no longer so, and shines as Sat ; and direct cognition 
reveals itself, like the myrobalan in the palm of the hand. 
Vairagya begins from where the vasanas cease to arise towards 
objects of enjoyment. The cessation of the rising of the idea of 
" I " is the highest limit of buddhi ; uparati begins from where 
the mental states once destroyed do not again arise. That 
ascetic is said to possess Sthitaprajna who enjoys bliss always 
and whose mind is absorbed in Brahman that is formless and 
actionless. That state of mind is termed prajna that realises 
the oneness of Brahman and Atma after deep inquiry, and that 
has the; vrtti of nirvikalpa and chinmatra. He who possesses 
this always is a Jivanmukta. He is a Jivanmukta who has 
neither the conception of " I " in the body and the senses, nor 

1 I and its inflexions. 


the conception of another (different from himself) in everything 
else. He is a Jivanmukta who sees through his prajfia no 
difference* between his own Atma and Brahman as well as be 
tween Brahman and the universe. He is a Jivanmukta who pre 
serves equanimity of mind, either when, revered by the good or 
reviled by the vicious. One who has cognized the true nature 
of Brahman is not subject to rebirth as before. But were he so 
subjected, then he is not a true knower, the knowing of Brahman 
being external only. A man is subject to prarabdha 1 so long as 
he is affected by pleasure, etc. The attainment of a result is 
always preceded by action; and nowhere is it without karma. 
Through the cognition " I am Brahman" are destroyed the 
karmas accumulated during hundreds of crores of previous 
births, like the actions in the dreaming state (that are destroyed) 
during the waking state. 

An ascetic having known himself as associateless and in 
different like ether, is not at all affected by any of his karmas 
at any time. Just as the ether is not affected by the alcoholic 
smell through its contact with a pot, so Atma is not affected by 
the guuas produced by its upadhi. The prarabdha karma that 
has begun to act before the dawn of jnana is not checked by it ; 
and one should reap its fruit, as in the case of an arrow 
discharged at a target. An arrow that is discharged towards 
an object with the idea that it is a tiger, does not stop when it 
(the tiger) is found to be a cow ; but it (even) pierces the mark 
through its speed, without stopping. When one realises his 
Atma as free from old age and death, then how will prarabdha 
affect him ? Prarabdha accomplishes (its work) only when one 
considers his body as Atma. This conception of Atma as body 
is not at all a desirable one ; so it should be given up along with 
prarabdha, since it is simply a delusion to attribute prarabdha 
to this body. How can there be reality to that which is super 
imposed upon another ? How can there be birth to that which 
is not real ? How can there be death to that which is not born ? 
How can there be prarabdha to that which is unreal ? The Veda 
speaks of prarabdha in an external sense only, to satisfy those 
1 The result of past karma now enjoyed. 


foolish persons that doubt, saying : " If jnana can destroy all the 
results of ajfiana (such as body, etc.), then whence is the exis 
tence of this body to such a one ? " but not to inculcate to the 
wise the existence of the body. 

Atma is all -full, beginningless } endless, immeasurable, 
unchangeable, replete with Sat, Chit, and Ananda, decayless, 
the one essence, the eternal, the differentiated, the plenum, the 
endless, having its face everywhere, the one that can neither be 
given up nor taken up, the one that can neither be supported 
nor be made to support, the gunaless, the actionless, the subtle, 
the changeless, the stainless, the indescribable, the true nature 
of one s Atma, above the reach of speech and mind, the one 
full of Sat, the self-existent, the immaculate, the enlightened, and 
the incomparable; such is Brahman, one only without a second. 
There are not in the least many. He who knows his Atma 
himself through his own cognition, as the one who is not 
restricted by any, is a Siddha (one that has accomplished his 
object), who has identified his Atma with the one changeless 
Atma. Whither is this world gone, then ? How did it appear ? 
Where is it absorbed ? It was seen by me just now, but now 
it is gone. What a great miracle ! What is fit to be taken in ? 
and what to be rejected ? What is other (than Atma) ? And 
what is different (from It) ? In this mighty ocean of Brahman 
full of the nectar of undivided bliss, I do not see, hear, or know 
anything. I remain in my Atma only and in my own nature of 
Sat, Anandarupa. I am an asanga (or the associateless). I 
am an asanga. I am without any attributes. I am Hari (the 
Lord taking away sin). I am the quiescent, the endless, the all-full 
and the ancient. I am neither the agent nor the enjoy er. 
I am the changeless and the decayless. I am of the nature of 
pure enlightenment. I am the one and the perpetual bliss. 

This science was imparted to Apantaratama who gave it 
to Brahma. Brahma gave it to Grhora-Angiras. Ghora-Angiras 
gave it to Raikva, who gave it to Rama. And Rama gave it to 
all beings. This is the teaching of Nirvana ; and this is the 
teaching of the Vedas ; yea, this is the teaching of the Vedas. 
Thus ends the Upanishad. 




THEN he (Raikva 1 ) asked : " What was at first ? " To which 
(He the Lord) replied : 

" There was neither Sat 2 nor asat nor Sat-asat. From it, 
tamas (darkness) was evolved. From tamas came bhutadi; 3 from 
bhutadi came akas , from akas , vayu ; from vayu, agni (fire) ; 
from agni, apas (water) ; and from apas, prthivi (earth). 
Then it became an egg. After remaining so for one (divine) 
year, it split into two and became earth below, 4 the akas above 
and in the midst, the infinite Purusha of a divine form of myriads 
of heads, eyes, feet and hands. Prior to the bhutas (elements), 
he had evolved Mrtyu (time or death) of three letters 5 , three 
heads, and three feet, and having a khanda-paras u 6 (broken 

1 In the Chhandogya Upanishad, Raikva is said to be the imparter of Sam- 

2 The absolute (Parabrahman) is neither Sat (Be-ness) nor asat (not-Be-ness) 
nor a commingling of both. It is neither spirit nor matter nor a commingling 
of both. 

3 Bhutadi is tamasa ahankara according to Vishnu Parana. 

4 " Above and below" refers not to the position but only to the state, of 
matter, gross or subtle. " In the midst" implies that akas and earth are soaked 
in and with spirit. 

5 This refers to the first triune manifestation of Purusha or spirit 
through time when only there is activity. Mrtyu or Kala is the first mani 
festation whereas Yama (or the God of death) is the secondary one dealing with 
the death of creatures lower down. 

6 Khanda means divided or with parts. Parasu literally injuring an 
other. Hence Mrtyu with his khanda-parasu divided eternal time into its parts 
and conditions the absolute through primordial matter. In the Puranas and 
other books, Mrtyu and Yama are represented as having an axe broken in a 


axe) . To him, Brahma (the Purusha) spoke. He entered Brah 
ma himself and evolved mentally the seven sons * and these 
Havirats (or sons) as well as the seven prajapatis (progenitors). 
Brahmanas 3 were born from His mouth, Kshattriyas from His 
hands, Vais yas from His thighs, and from the feet were born the 
Sfudras. The moon was born from His manas (mind), the sun from 
His eyes, vayu from (His) ears and pranas from (His) heart. 
Thus all things were born." 


" From apana came Nishadas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Gan- 
dharvas. From (His) bones, arose the mountains. From His 
hairs arose the herbs and the trees. From His forehead, Rudra 
was born through His anger. The breath of this great Being 
became the Rgveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, S iksha 
(the science of the proper pronunciation and articulation of 
sounds), Kalpa (the science of methodology), Vyakarana 
(grammar), Nirukta (glossarial explanation of obsolete and 
other terms in Vedas), Chhandas (prosody or vedic metre), 
Jyotisha (astronomy), Nyaya (logic), Mimamsa (including rituals 
and vedanta), Dharmas astras, commentaries, glosses and all 
beings. This Atrna (or the Self of Purusha) is Hiranyajyotis 
(or golden or effulgent Light) into which all the universe is 
absorbed. He divided Atma (his Self) into two moieties ; out 
pf one moiety, the woman was created ; and out of the other, 
man. Having become a Deva, He created the Devas. Having 
become a Rshi, He created the Rshis ; also He created Yakshas, 
Rakshasas, Grandharvas, wild and domestic beasts and others 
such as cows, bulls, mares and horses, she-asses and asses and 
Vis vambhara (the Supporter) and Vis vambhara (the earth) . Be 
coming Vais vanara (fire) at the end (of creation), He burnt up all 
objects. Then (in dissolution), prthivi was absorbed in apas, apas 
in agni, agni in vayu, vayu in akas , akas in indriyas (organs), 

1 This refers to the septenary manifestation from the triune one ; also to 
the sub-septenary ones. 

3 In other words beings of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas and an admixture of 
these were born. 


indriyas into tanmatras (rudimentary properties), tanmatras 
into bhutadi, bhutadi into mahat, mahat into avyakta, avyakta 
into akshark, (tbe indestructible), akshara into tamas (dark 
ness). And tamas becomes one with the supreme Lord. And 
then there is neither Sat nor asat, nor Sat-asat. This is the 
teaching of Nirvana and this is the teaching of the Vedas. Yea, 
This is the teaching of the Vedas." 


" At first, there was Asat, unborn, non-existent, unsupported, 
soundless, touchless, formless, tasteless, odourless, and decayless. 
The undaunted man never grieves, as he knows Atma to be great, 
all-pervading and unborn. It (Atma) is pranaless, mouthless, 
earless, tongueless, manas-less, tejas-less, eyeless, nameless, 
gotraless (or clanless), headless, ban dless, feetless, non-unctuous, 
bloodless, non-measurable, neither long nor short, neither gross 
nor atomic, neither great nor small, endless, indescribable, non- 
returnable, non-luminous, not hidden, having neither inside nor 
outside, neither eating anything nor being eaten by others. 
Some one (out of many) attains to this (Atma) by the six means 
of satya (truth), dana (charity), tapas (religious austerities), 
non-injury to any creature, celibacy and complete indifference 
to worldy objects; 1 and there are no other means. Whoever 
feels happy with the thought f I know That , that learned 
person s prana will never get out of his body at the moment of 
death, but will become absorbed in Brahman ; and being 
absorbed in Brahman, he attains the state of Brahman Itself as 
he who knows this." 


" In the middle of the heart is a red fleshy mass in which is 
the dahara-lotus. Like the lotus, it opens into many (petals). 
There are ten openings in the heart. The (different kinds of) 
pranas are located there. Whenever he (Atma) is united with 

1 The word anasakena (non-injury) is repeated in the text which is wrong. 


prana, he sees cities with rivers and other variegated things ; 
when united with vyana, he sees Devas and Rshis ; when united 
with apana, he sees Yakshas, Rakshasas and Gandharvas ; when 
united with udana, he perceives the celestial world, Devas, 
Skancla (Kartikeya or the six-faced Mars), and Jayanta (Indra s 
son) ; when united with samana, he sees the celestial world and 
the treasures (of Kubera) ; when united with rambha (a nadi 
hereafter given out), he sees whatever is seen or not seen, heard 
or not heard, eaten or not eaten, asat or Sat and all else. 

" There are ten nadis ; in each of these are seventy-one. And 
these become 72,000 branch nadis. When Atma sleeps therein, it 
produces sound ; but when Atma sleeps in the second kos a 
(or sheath) then it sees this world and the higher as also knows 
all the sounds. This is spoken of as samprasada (deep sleep 
rest). Then prana protects the body. The nadis are full of 
blood, of the colours green, blue, yellow, red, and white. Now 
this dahara-lotus has many petals like a lily. Like a hair 
divided into 1,000 parts, the nadis called hita are. The divine 
Atma sleeps in the akas of the heart, in the supreme kos a 
(or anandamaya sheath) ; sleeping there, it has no desires, no 
dreams, no deva-worlds, no yajnas or sacrificer, no mother or 
father, no relative, no kinsman, no thief, or no Brahman-slayer. 
Its body is tejas (resplendent effulgence) and of the nature of 
nectar (or the immortal). It is as if in sport, a water-lotus. 
When he returns again to the waking state by the same way 
(he quitted or went in before to the heart), he is Samrat \ Thus 
says he." 

" That which joins one place (or centre) with another is the 
nadis which bind them. The eye is adhyatma (pertaining to 
the body) ; the visible objects are adhibhuta (pertaining to the 

1 Lit., one producing sound. 

2 In this chapter are given out the several correspondences of the devas 
(or the presiding spiritual deities) and of the objects to the five organs of sense, 
the five organs of action, and the antahkarana (or lower mind) composed of 
manas, buddhi, ahankara, and chitta. 


elements) and the sun is adhidaivata (spiritual). The nadis 
form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in the eye, 
in the visible, in the sun, in the nadis, in prfma, in vijnana, 1 in 
ananda, in the akas of the heart, and within all else That is 
Atma. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old 
age, death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

" The ear is adhyatma, the audible adhibhuta, and dik (the 
quarters) is adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves 
in the ear, in the audible, in the quarters, in the nadis, in prana, 
in vijnana, in ananda, in the akas of the heart, and within all 
else That is Atma. It is that which should be worshipped. 
It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

" The nose is adhyatma, the odoriferous adhibhuta, and the 
earth is adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves in 
the nose, the odoriferous, the earth, the nadis, prana, vijnana, 
ananda, the akas of the heart, and within all else That is Atma. 
It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, 
death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

" The tongue is adhyatma : the tastable adhibhuta, and 
Varuna is adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves 
in the tongue, the tastable, Varuna, the nadis, prana, 
vijnana, ananda, the akas of the heart, and within all else 
That is Atma. It is that which should be worshipped. It is 
without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

" The skin is adhyatma, the tangiferous adhibhuta, and the 
vayu is adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves in 
the skin, the tangiferous, the vayu, the nadis, prana, vijnana, 
fmanda, the akas of the heart, and within all else That is Atma. 
It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, 
death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

" Vak (speech) is adhyatma, that which is acted upon by vak 
is adhibhuta, and Agni is Adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. 
He who moves in vak, that which is acted upon by vak, Agni, 
the nadis, prana, vijnana, the akas 7 of the heart, and within all 
e } se That is Atma. It is that which should be worshipped. It 
is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

1 Probably prana, vijnana, and ananda refer to the sheaths formed by them, 


" The hand is adhyatma, that which can be handled is adhi 
bhuta, and Indra is adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who 
moves in the hand, that which can be handled by it, Indra, the 
nadis, prana vijnana, ananda, the akas of the heart, and 
within all else That is Atma. It is that which should be wor 
shipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

" The feet is adhyatma, that which is walked upon is adhi 
bhuta, and Vishnu (or Upendra) is adhidaivata. The nadis bind 
them. He who moves in the feet, that which is walked upon, 
Vishnu, the nadis, prana, vijnana, ananda, the akas of the heart, 
and within all else That is Atma. It is that which should be 
worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or 

" The anus is adhyatma, the excreta is adhibhuta, and Mrtyu 
is adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves the anus, 
the excreta, Mrtyu, the nadis, prana, vijnana, ananda, the akas of 
the heart, and within all else That is Atma. It is that which 
should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, 
or end. 

"The genitals is adhyatma, the secretion is adhibhuta, and 
Prajapati is adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves 
in the genitals, secretion, Prajapati, the nadis, prana, vijnana, 
ananda, the akas of the heart, and within all else That is Atma. 
It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, 
death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

1 "Manas is adhyatma, the thinkable is adhibuta,andthe moon 
is Adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves in the 
manas, the thinkable, the moon, the nadis, prana, vijnana, ananda, 
the akas of the heart, and within all else That is Atma. It is 
that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, 
fear, sorrow, or end. 

" Buddhi is adhyatma, the certainly knowable is adhibhuta, 
and Brahma is adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves 
in buddhi, the certainly knowable, Brahma, the nadis, prana, 
vijnana, ananda, the akas of the heart, and within all else That 

1 Although in the original manas, buddhi, etc., are in the middle, yet they are 
inserted here after the karmendriyas. 


is Atma/ It is that which should be worshipped. It is without 
old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

" Ahahkara is adhyatma, that which is acted upon by 
ahankara is adhibhuta, and Rudra is,adhidaivata. The nadis bind 
them. He who moves in ahankara, that which is acted upon by 
ahankara, Rudra, the nadis, prana, vijnana, ananda, the akas of 
the heart, and within all else That is Atma. It is that which 
should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, 
or end. 

"Chitta is adhyatma, that which is acted upon by chitta (pro 
ducing fluctuation of thought) is adhibhuta, and Kshetrajria is 
adhidaivata. The nadis bind them. He who moves in chitta, 
that which is acted upon by chitta, Kshetrajna, the nadis, prana, 
vijnana, ananda, the akas of the heart, and within all else That 
is Atma. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without 
old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end. 

" He is the knower of all, the Lord of all, the ruler of 
all, the one latent in all, the one worshipped for the happi 
ness of all, but Himself not worshipping (or seeking) any 
happiness, the one worshipped by all, the Vedas and other 
books and to which all this is food, but who does not be 
come the food of another ; moreover, the one who, as the eye, is 
the ordainer of all, the one who as annamaya is Bhutatma ; the 
one who as pranamaya is Indriyatma, the one as manomaya is 
Sankalpatma, the one who as vijnanamaya is Kalatma, the one 
who as anandamaya is Layatma, is one and not dual. How 
can it be said to be mortal ? How can it be said that there is 
not immortality in It ? It is neither internal prajna nor external 
prajna nor both, nor Prajnanaghana ; it is neither prajna nor 
not-prajna ; it is neither known nor is it to know anything. Thus 
is the exposition of Nirvana ; and thus is the exposition of the 
Vedas ; yea, thus is the exposition of the Vedas." 


" At first there was not anything in the least. These 
creatures were born through no root, no support but the Divine 
Deva, the one Narayana. 1 The eye and the visible are Narayana ; 

1 Narayana is the Universal Self. This chapter gives out the pantheistic 
theory that the whole universe is nothing but God Narayana. 


the ear and the audible are Narayana ; the tongue and the 
f tastable^ are Narayana ; the nose and the smellable J are 
Narayana ; the skin and the tangible are Narayana ; inanas and 
that which is acted upon by it are Narayana ; buddhi and that 
which is acted upon by it are Narayana ; ahankara and that which 
is acted upon by it are Narayana ; chitta and that which is 
acted upon by it are Narayana ; vak and that which is spoken 
are Narayana j the hand and that which is lifted are Narayana ; 
the leg and that which is walked upon are Narayana; the anus 
and the excreted are Narayana ; the genitals and the enjoyment 
of pleasure are Narayana. The originator and the ordainer 
as also the agent and the causer of changes, are the Divine 
Deva Narayana only. Adityas, Rudras, Maruts, Vasus, As vins, 
the Rk, Yajus, and Sanaa, Mantras, Agni, clarified butter and 
oblation all these are Narayana. The origin and the combina 
tion are the Divine Deva Narayana only. Mother, father, 
brother, residence, asylum, friends and dependents are 
Narayana only. The divine nadis known as viraja, sudars ana, 
jita, saumya, mogha, kumara, amrta, satya, sumadhyama, 
nasira, s is ira, sura, surya, and bhasvati (fourteen nadis in all), that 
which thunders, sings and rains, viz., Varuna, Aryama (sun), 
Chandramas (moon), Kala (part), Kavi (S ukra), the creator 
Brahma and Prajapati, Indra, Kala (or time) of days, half-days, 
Kalpa, the upper, and the directions all these are Narayana. 
That which was and will be is this Purusha only. Like the eye 
(which sees without any obstacle) the thing spread in the akas , 
the wise ever see this supreme seat of Vishnu. Brahmanas 
who are ever spiritually awake, praise in diverse ways 
and illuminate the supreme abode of Vishnu. Thus is the 
exposition to the attaining of Nirvana ; thus is the teaching of 
the Vedas ; yea, thus is the teaching of the Vedas." 


" Within the body, is the one eternal Aja (unborn), located 
in the cave (of the heart). Earth is His body. Though He 
moves in the earth, earth does not know Him. Waters are His 


body. Though He moves in the waters, waters do not know Him. 
Tejas is His body. Though He moves in tejas, tejas does not 
know Him. Vayu is His body. Though He moves in vayu, vayu 
does not know Him. Akas is His body. Though He moves in 
akas , akas does not know Him. Marias ^is His body. Though He 
moves in manas, manas does not know Him. Buddhi is His 
body. Though He moves in buddhi, buddhi does not know 
Him. Ahankara is His body. Though He moves in ahankara, 
ahankara does not know Him. Chitta is His body. Though 
He moves in chitta, chitta does not know Him. Avyakta is His 
body. Though He moves in avyakta, avyakta does not know 
Him. Akshara is His body. Though He moves in akshara, 
akshara does not know Him. Mrtyu (death) is His body. 
Though He moves in Mrtyu, Mrtyu does not know Him. 
Such an one is the Atma within all creatures, the remover of 
all sins and the Divine Deva, the one Narayana. 

"This knowledge was imparted (by Narayana) to Apantara^a- 
ma who in turn imparted it to Brahma. Brahma imparted it 
to Ghora-Angiras. He imparted it to Raikva, who in turn impart 
ed it to Rama. Rama imparted it to all creatures. This is the 
teaching of Nirvana ; this is the teaching of the Vedas ; yea, this 
is the teaching of the Vedas." 


" The Atma of all which is immaculate, is located within 
the cave in the body. Atma which lives in the midst of the 
body filled with fat, flesh and phlegm in a seat very closely 
shut up with shining many-coloured walls resembling a Gandhar- 
va city and with the (subtle) essence going out of it (to other 
parts of the body), which seat may be likened to a plantain 
flower and is ever agitated like a water-bubble this Atma is of 
an unthinkable form, the Divine Deva, associateless and pure, 
has tejas as its body, is of all forms, the Lord of all, the unthink 
able and the bodiless, placed within the cave, immortal, 
shining, and bliss itself. He is a wise person who cognizes 
thus, and not one who does not do so." 



Once Raikva questioned Him (Lord) thus : " O Lord, in 
whom does everything disappear (or merge) ? " He replied 
thus : " That which (or he who) disappears in the eye becomes 
the eye only; that which disappears in the visible becomes the 
visible only ; that which disappears in the sun becomes sun only ; 
that which disappears in Virat becomes Virat only; that which 
disappears in prana becomes prana only ; that which disappears 
in vijnana becomes vijnana only; that which disappears in 
ananda becomes ananda only; that which disappears in 
turya becomes turya only (all these) attain that which is death 
less, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless." 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in the ear 
becomes ear itself ; that which disappears in the audible becomes 
the audible only ; that which disappears in dik (space) becomes 
dik only ; that which disappears in sudaras ana (discus) becomes 
sudars ana only : that which disappears in apana becomes apana 
only ; that which disappears in vijnana becomes vijnana only ; 
that which disappears in ananda become ananda only; that 
which disappears in turya becomes turya only (all these) attain 
that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and 

Then Ee continued : " That which disappears in the nose 
becomes nose only; that which disappears in the odoriferous 
becomes odoriferous only ; that which disappears in prthivi 
becomes prthivi only ; that which disappears in jitam (victory) 
becomes victory only ; that which disappears in vyana 
becomes vyana only ; that which disappears in vijnana becomes 
vijnana only ; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only ; 
that which disappears in turya becomes turya only (all these) 
attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in the mouth 
becomes the mouth only ; that which disappears in the tasted 
becomes the tasted only; that which disappears in Varuna 
becomes Varuna only; that which disappears in soumya 


(moon or Mercury) becomes soumya only; that which dis 
appears in u china becomes udana only ; that which disappears 
in vijnana becomes vijnana only ; that which disappears in 
bliss becomes bliss only ; that which disappears in turya be 
comes turya only (all these) attain that which is deathless, 
fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless." 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in the skin 
becomes the skin only ; that which disappears in touch becomes 
touch only ; that which disappears in vayu becomes vayu only ; 
that which disappears in cloud becomes cloud only; that 
which disappears in samana becomes samana only; that which 
disappears in vijnana becomes vijnana only; that which dis 
appears in bliss becomes bliss only ; that which disappears in 
turya becomes turya only (all these) attain that which is 
deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless." 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in vak be 
comes vak only; that which disappears in speech becomes 
speech only ; that which disappears in Agni becomes Agni 
only ; that which disappears in kumara becomes kumara 
only; that which disappears in hostility becomes hostility 
itself; that which disappears in vijnana become vijnana only ; 
that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only ; that which 
disappears in turya becomes turya only (all these) attain that 
which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless." 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in the hand 
becomes the hand only ; that which disappears in that which is 
lifted by the hand becomes that which is lifted by the hand ; 
that which disappears in Indra becomes Indra only ; that which 
disappears in the nectar becomes the nectar only ; that which dis 
appears in mukhya becomes rnukhya only ; that which dis 
appears in vijnana becomes vijnana only ; that which dis 
appears in blisss becomes bliss only ; that which disappears 
in turya becomes turya only (all these) attain, that which is 
deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless." 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in the leg be 
comes the leg only ; that which disappears in that which is walked 
upon becomes that which is walked upon ; that which disappears 


in Vishnu becomes Vishnu only ; that which disappears in satya 
becomes satya only ; that which disappears in the suppression 
of the breath and voice becomes the suppression of the breath 
and voice ; that which disappears in vijnana becomes vijnana 
only ; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only ; that 
which disappears in turya becomes turya only (all these) attain 
that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in the anus 
becomes the anus only ; that which disappears in that which is 
excreted becomes that which is excreted ; that which disappears 
in Mrtyu becomes Mrtyu only; that which disappears in spiri 
tuous liquor becomes spirituous liquor only; that which dis 
appears in hurricane becomes hurricane only ; that which dis 
appears in vijnana becomes vijnana only ; that which disappears 
in bliss becomes bliss only ; that which disappears in turya 
becomes turya only (all these) attain that which is deathless, 
fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless." 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in the genitals 
becomes the genitals only ; that which disappears in that which 
is enjoyed becomes that which is enjoyed ; that which disappears 
in that which is Prajapati becomes Prajapati only ; that which 
disappears in nasinam becomes nasinam only; that which 
disappears in kurmira becomes kurmira only ; that which 
disappears in vijnana becomes vijnana only; that which 
disappears in bliss becomes bliss only ; that which disappears in 
turya becomes turya only (all these) attain that which is 
deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless." 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in manas be 
comes manas itself; that which disappears in the thinkable becomes 
the thinkable itself ; that which disappears in the moon becomes 
the moon itself ; that which disappears in s is u becomes s is u 
itself ; that which disappears in s yena becomes s yena itself ; that 
which disappears in vijnana becomes vijfiana itself ; that which 
disappears in ananda becomes ananda itself; that which 
disappears in turya becomes turya itself (all these) attain that 
which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless," 


Then He continued : " That which disappears in buddhi 
becomes buddhi itself ; that which disappears in the certainly 
knowable becomes the certainly knowable itself ; that which dis 
appears in Brahma becomes Brahma himself ; that which dis 
appears in Krshna becomes Krshna himself; that which dis 
appears in Surya becomes Surya itself ; that which disappears 
in vijnana becomes vijnana itself; that which disappears in 
ananda becomes ananda itself ; that which disappears in turya 
becomes turya itself (all these) attain that which is deathless, 
fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless." 

Then He continued: " That which disappears in ahankara be 
comes ahankara itself ; that which disappears in that which 
is acted upon by ahankara becomes that itself; that which 
disappears in Rudra becomes Rudra himself; that which dis 
appears in asura becomes asura itself ; that which disappears in 
s veta becomes s veta itself; that which disappears in vijnana 
becomes vijnana itself ; that which disappears in ananda becomes 
ananda itself ; that which disappears in turya becomes turya 
itself (all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrow- 
less, endless, and seedless. " 

Then He continued : " That which disappears in chitta be 
comes chitta itself ; that which disappears in that which is acted 
upon by chitta becomes that itself ; that which disappears in Kshe- 
trajfia becomes Kshetrajna itself ; that which disappears in bha- 
svati becomes bhasvati itself ; that whch disappears in naga 
becomes naga itself ; that which disappears in vijnana becomes 
vijnana itself; that which disappears in ananda becomes ananda 
itself ; that which disappears in turya becoms turya itself (all 
these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, end 
less, and seedless." 

" He who knows this as seedless in this manner becomes 
himself seedless. He is neither born, nor dies, nor is deluded, 
nor split, nor burnt, nor cut yea, he does not feel angry, and 
hence he is said to be Atma, capable of burning all. Such an 
Atma is neither attained by a hundred sayings, nor by (the 
reading of) many scriptures, nor by mere intelligence, nor by 
hearing from others, nor by understanding, nor by Vedas, nor 


by scriptures, nor by severe tapas, nor sankhya, nor yoga, nor 
observances of the orders of the life, nor by any other means 
(than the following). Devoted Brahmanas who repeat the 
Vedas according to rules and who worship Him with praise attain 
Him. He who is quiescent, self-controlled, indifferent to worldly 
objects and resigned, having centred his mind on Atma sees 
Atma and becomes one with the Atma of all, as also he who 
knows this/ 


Then Raikva asked Him : " Lord, where do all things 
rest ? He replied: "In the worlds of Rasatala (or nether worlds) " 

" In what are these (Rasatala worlds) woven warp and 
woof ? " He replied : " In the worlds of Bhuh." 

" In what are these (worlds of Bhuh) woven warp and woof ?" 
He replied : " In the worlds of Bhuvah." 

" In what are these (Bhuvah worlds) woven warp and 
woof J " " In the worlds of Suvah." 

" In what are these (Suvah worlds) woven warp and woof ? " 
" In the worlds of Mahah. " 

" In what are these (Mahah worlds) woven warp and 
woof ? " " In the Janaloka." 

" In what are these (Jana worlds) woven warp and woof ?" 
" In the Tapoloka." 

" In what are these (Tapolokas) woven warp and woof ? " 
" In the Satya loka." 

" In what are these (Satya worlds) woven warp and woof ? " 
" In the Prajapati loka." 

" In what are these (Prajapati worlds) woven warp and 
woof ? " "In the Brahmaloka." 

" In what are these (Brahma worlds) woven warp and 
woof ? " " In the Sarvaloka." 

" In what are these (Sarva lokas) woven warp and woof ? " 
" In Atma which is Brahman, like beads (in a rosary) warp-wise 
and woof-wise/ 

Then he said : " All these rest in Atma, and he who knows 
this, becomes Atma itself. Thus is the exposition of Nirvana, 


Thus is the exposition of the Vedas ; yea, thus is the exposition 

of the Vedas." 


Again Raikva asked Him : " Lord ! what is the seat of 
Atma which is replete with vijnana ? and how does it leave the 
body and pervade the universe ? " To this He replied : " There is 
a mass of red flesh in the middle of the heart. In it, there is 
a lotus called dahara. It buds forth in many petals like a 
water-lily. In the middle of it is an ocean (samudra). 1 In 
its midst is a koka 2 (bird). In it there are four nadis. They 
are rama, arama, Ichchha and punarbhava. Of these, rama leads 
a man of virtue to a happy world. Arama leads one of sins 
into the world of sins. (Passing) through Ichchha (nadi), one 
gets whatever he remembers. Through punarbhava, he splits 
open the sheaths; after splitting open the sheaths, he splits 
open the skull of the head ; then he splits open prthivi ; then 
apas ; then tejas ; then vayu ; then akas . Then he splits open 
manas ; then bhutadi ; then mahat ; then avyakta ; then akshara ; 
then he splits open mrtyu and mrtyu becomes one with the 
supreme God. Beyond this, there is neither Sat nor asat, nor 
Sat-asat. Thus is the exposition of Nirvana ; and thus is the 
exposition of the Vedas ; yea, thus is the exposition of the Vedas/ 


" Anna (food) came from Narayana. It was first cooked in 
Brahma] oka in the Maha-samvartaka fire. Again it was 
cooked in the sun ; again it was cooked in kravyadi (lit., the 
fire that burns raw flesh, etc.) ; again it was cooked in jwalakila 
(the flaming klla) ; then it became pure and not stale (or 
fresh). One should eat whatever has fallen to his lot and 
without begging ; one should never beg any (food) ." 

1 The ocean probably refers to akasic space. 
3 Koka probably refers to Hamsa. 

8 In this chapter are related the different fires, the first or primordial anna 
or food-substance hae to pass through in order to become the gross food. 



" The wise man should conduct himself like a lad, with the 
nature of a child, without company, blameless, silent and 
wise and without exercising any authority. This description of 
Kaivalya is stated by f rajapati. Having found with certitude 
the supreme seat, one should dwell under a tree with torn cloths, 
unaccompanied, single and engaged in samadhi. He should be 
longing after the attaining of Atma and having attained this 
object, he is desireless, his desires have decayed. He fears 
none, though he finds the cause of death in such as elephants, 
lions, gadflies, musquitoes, ichneuma, serpents, Yakshas, Rak- 
shasas, and Gandharvas. He will stand like a tree. Though 
cut down, he will neither get angry nor tremble. He will stand 
(or remain) like a lotus. Though pierced, he will neither get 
angry nor tremble. He will stand like akas ; though struck, he 
will neither get angry nor tremble. He will stand by Satya 
(truth), since Atma is Satya. 

" Prthivi is the heart (or centre) of all odours ; apas is the 
heart of all tastes; tejas is the heart of all forms ; vayu is 
the heart of all touch ; akas is the heart of all sounds ; 
avyakta is the heart of gitas (or sounds) ; mrtyu is the heart of 
all Sattvas; and mrtyu becomes one with the Supreme. And 
beyond Him, there is neither Sat nor asat, nor Sat-asat. Thus 
is the exposition of Nirvana; thus is the exposition of the 
Vedas ; yea, thus is the exposition of the Vedas." 


" Prthivi is the food, and apas is the eater; apas is the food, 
and jyotis (or fire) is the eater ; jyotis is the food, and vayu is the 
eater ; vayu is the food, and akas is the eater ; and akas is the food 
and the indriyas (organs) are the eaters ; indriyas are the food and 
manas is the eater ; manas is the food, and buddhi is the eater ; 
buddhi is the food, and avyakta is the eater ; avyakta is the 
food, and akshara is the eater; akshara is the food, and 

1 The causes and effects are herein given out, the cause of an effect becom 
ing itself the effect of a higher cause. 


mrtyu is the eater ; and mryu becomes one with the Supreme. 
Beyond Him, there is neither Sat nor asat, nor Sat-asat. Thus 
is the exposition of Nirvana, and thus is the exposition of 
the Vedas ; yea, thus is the exposition of the Vedas." 


Again Raikva asked : " Lord, when this Vijfiana-ghana 
goes out (of the body or the universe), what does it burn and 
how ? " To which He replied : " When it goes away, it burns 
prana, apana, vyana, udana, samana, vairambha, mukhya, antar- 
yama, prabhanjana, kumara, s yena, krshna, s veta, and naga. 
Then it burns prthivi, apas, tejas, vayu, and akas ; then it 
burns the waking, the dreaming, the dreamless sleeping and the 
fourth states as well as the maharlokas and worlds higher ; 
then it burns the lokaloka (the highest world forming a limit 
to the other worlds). Then it burns dharma and adharma. 
Then it burns that which is beyond, is sunless, limitless, and 
worldless. Then it burns mahat ; it burns avyakta ; it burns 
akshara ; it burns mrtyu ; and mryu becomes one with the 
great Lord. Beyond Him, there is neither Sat nor asat, nor 
Sat-asat. Thus is the exposition of Nirvana, and thus is the 
exposition of the Vedas ; yea, thus is the exposition of the 


"This Subala-Bija-Brahma-Upanishad should neither be 
given out nor taught to one who has not controlled his passions, 
who has no sons, who has not gone to a Guru, and having be 
come his disciple has not resided with him for a year, and whose 
family and conduct are not known. These doctrines should be 
taught to him who has supreme devotion to the Lord and as 
much to his Guru. Then these truths shine in his great soul. 
Thus is the exposition of Nirvana ; thus is the exposition of 
the Vedas ; yea, thus is the exposition of the Vedas." 




PARAM-)HYANA (the supreme meditation) should be upon tejo- 
bindu, which is the Atma of the universe, which is seated 
in the heart, which is of the size of an atom, which pertains 
to Sava, which is quiescent and which is gross and subtle, as also 
above these qualities. That alone should be the dhyana of 
the Munis as well as of men, which is full of pains, which is 
difficult to meditate on, which^is difficult to perceive, which is the 
emancipated one, which is decayless and which is difficult to 
attain. One whose food is moderate, whose anger has been con 
trolled, who has given up all love for society, who has subdued 
his passions, who has overcome all pairs (heat and cold 
etc.), who has given up his egoism, who does not bless anyone 
nor take anything from others, and also who goes where they na 
turally ought not to go, and naturally would not go where they 
like to go such persons also obtain three 2 in the face. Hamsa 
is said to have three seats. Therefore know it is the greatest of 
mysteries, without sleep and without support. It is very subtle, 
of the form of Soma, and is the supreme seat of Vishnu. That 
seat has three faces, three gunas and three dhatus, and is form 
less, motionless, changeless, sizeless, and supportless. That 
seat is without upadhi, and is above the reach of speech and 

1 Tejas is spiritual light and bindu is seed; hence the seed or iouroe 
of spiritual light. 

a This probably refers to the triangle appearing in the disciplei. 


mind. It is Svabhava (Self or nature) reachable only by bhava 
(being). The indestructible seat is associateless, without bliss, 
beyond mind, difficult to perceive, emancipated and changeless. 
It should be meditated upon as the liberated, the eternal, the 
permanent and the indestructible. It is, Brahman, is adhyatma 
(or the deity presiding as Atma) and is the highest seat of 
Vishnu. It is inconceivable, of the nature of Chidatma and 
above the akas , is void and non-void, and beyond the void, and 
is abiding in the heart. There is (in It) neither meditation nor 
meditator, nor the meditated, nor the non-meditated. It is not 
the universe. It is the highest space ; it is neither supreme nor 
above the supreme. It is inconceivable, unknowable, non-truth, 
and not the highest. It is realised by the Munis, but the Devas 
do not know the supreme One. Avarice, delusion, fear, pride, 
passion, anger, sin, heat, cold, hunger, thirst, thought and 
fancy (all these do not exist in It). (In It) there is no pride of 
(belonging to) the Brahmana caste, nor is there the collection of 
the knot of salvation. (In It) there is no fear, no happiness, no 
pains, neither fame nor disgrace. That which is without these 
states is the supreme Brahman. 

Yama 1 (forbearance), niyama (religious observance), tyaga 
(renunciation), mouna (silence) according to time and place, 
asana (posture), mulabandha, seeing all bodies as equal, the 
position of the eye, prana-samyamana (control of breath), 
pratyahara (subjugation of the senses), dharana, atma-dhyana 
and samadhi these are spoken of as the parts (of yoga) in 
order. That is called yama in which one controls all his organs 
(of sense and actions) through the vijnana that all is Brahman ; 
this should be practised often and often. Niyama, in which 
there is the supreme bliss enjoyed through the flowing (or 
inclination) of the mind towards things of the same (spiritual) 
kind, (viz., Brahman) and the abandoning of things differing 
from one another is practised by the sages as a rule. In tyaga 
(renunciation), one abandons the manifestations (or objects) of 
the universe through the cognition of Atma that is Sat and Chit. 
This is practised by the great and is the giver of immediate salva- 
1 All these parts of yoga are explained here from the standpoint of vedanta. 


tion. Mouna (the silence), in which, without reaching That, 
speech returns along with mind, is fit to be attained by the 
Yogins and should be ever worshipped by the ignorant (even). 
How is it possible to speak of " That ", from which speech re 
turns ? How should it be described as the universe as there is no 
word to describe it ? It is " That " which is (really) called 
silence, and which is naturally understood (as such). There 
is silence in children, but with words (latent) ; whereas the know- 
ers of Brahman have it (silence) but without words. That 
should be known as " the lonely seat " in which there is no man 
in the beginning, middle, or end, and through which all this 
(universe) is fully pervaded. The illusion of Brahma and all 
other beings takes place within one twinkling (of His eye). 
That should be known as asana (posture), in which one has with 
ease and without fatigue (uninterrupted) meditation of Brahman ; 
that is described by the word kala (time), that is endless bliss 
and that is secondless. Everything else is the destroyer of 
happiness. That is called siddhasana (siddha-posture) in which 
the siddhas (psychical personages) have succeeded in realising 
the endless One as the support of the universe containing all 
the elements, etc. That is called the mulabandha, which is 
the Mula (root) of all worlds, and through which the root Chitta 
is (bandha) bound. It should be always practised by the 

One after having known the equality of the angas (or 
parts of yoga) point to one and the same Brahman, should be 
absorbed in that equal (or uniform) Brahman ; if not, there is 
not that equality (attained). Then like a dry tree, there is 
straightness (or uniformity throughout). Making one s vision 
full of spiritual wisdom, one should look upon the world as full 
of Brahman. That vision is very noble. It is (generally) aimed 
at the tip of the nose; but it should be directed towards that 
seat (of Brahman) wherein the cessation of seer, the seen, and 
sight will take place, and not towards the tip of the nose. That is 
called pranayama (the control of breath), in which there is the 
control of the modifications (of mind) through the cognition of 
Brahman in all the states of chitta, and others. The checking of 


(the conception of the reality of) the universe, is said to 
be expiration. The conception of "I am Brahman" is in 
spiration. The holding on (long) to this conception without 
agitation is cessation of breath. Such is the practice of the 
enlightened. The ignorant close their nose. That should 
be known as pratyahara, through which one sees Atma (even) 
in the objects of sense, and pleases chitta through manas. 
It should be practised often and often. Through seeing 
Brahman wherever the mind goes, the dharana of the mind 
is obtained. Dharana is thought of highly by the wise. By 
dharana is meant that state where one indulges in the 
good thought, " I am Brahman alone, " and is without any 
support. This dhyana is the giver of supreme bliss. Being 
first in a state of changelessness, and then thoroughly for 
getting (even) that state owing to the cognition of the (true) 
nature of Brahman this is called samadhi. This kind of bliss 
should be practised (or enjoyed) by a wise person till his cogni 
tion itself united in a moment with the state of pratyag (Atma). 
Then this King of Yogins becomes a Siddha, and is without any 
aid (outside himself). Then he will attain a state, inexpressible 
and unthinkable. 

When samadhi is practised, the following obstacles arise 
with great force absence of right inquiry, laziness, inclination 
to enjoyment, absorption (in material object), tamas, distraction, 
impatience, sweat, and absent-mindedness. All these obstacles 
should be overcome by inquirers into Brahman. Through bhava- 
vrttis (worldly thoughts), one gets into them. Through s unya 
-vrttis (void or empty thoughts), one gets into them. But 
through the vrttis of Brahman, one gets fullness. Therefore one 
should develop fullness through this means (of Brahman) . He 
who abandons this vrtti of Brahman, which is very purifying 
and supreme that man lives in vain like a beast. But he who 
understands this vrtti (of Brahman), and having understood it 
makes advances in it, becomes a good and blessed person, deserv 
ing to be worshipped by the three worlds. Those who are 
greatly developed through the ripening (of their past karmas) 
attain the state of Brahman -, others are simply reciters of words. 


Those who are clever in arguments about Brahman, but are with 
out the action pertaining to Brahman, and who are greatly at 
tached to the world those certainly are born again and again (in 
this world) through their ajnana ; (the former) never remain, even 
for half a moment without the vrtti of Brahman, like Brahma 
and others, Sanaka, 1 etc., S uka and others. When a cause 
is subject to changes, it (as an effect) must also have its cause. 
When the cause ceases to exist in truth, the effect perishes 
through right discrimination. Then that substance (or prin 
ciple) which is beyond the scope of words, remains pure. After 
that, vrtti jnana arises in their purified mind ; through medita 
tion with transcendental energy, there arises a firm certitude. 
After reducing the visible into the invisible state, one should see 
everything as Brahman. The wise should ever stay in bliss 
with their understanding full of the essence of Chit. Thus ends 
the first chapter of Tejobindu. 


Then the Kumara 2 asked S iva : " Please explain to me 
the nature of Chinmatra, that is the partless non-dual essence." 
The great S iva replied : " The partless non-dual essence is the 
visible. It is the world, it is the existence, it is the Self, it is 
mantra, it is action, it is spiritual wisdom, it is water. It is the 
earth, it is akas , it is the books, it is the three Vedas, it is the 
Brahman, it is the religious vow, it is Jiva, it is Aja (the unborn), 
it is Brahma, it is Vishnu, it is Rudra ; it is I, it is Atma, it is 
the Guru. It is the aim, it is sacrifice, it is the body, it is manas, 
it is chitta, it is happiness, it is vidya ; it is the undifferentiated, 
it is the eternal, it is the supreme, it is everything. six-faced 
one, different from It there is nothing. None, none but It ; It 
is I. It is gross, it is subtle, it is knowable, it is thou ; it is the 
mysterious ; it is the knower ; it is existence, it is mother, it is 
father, it is brother, it is husband, it is Sutra (Atma), it is Virat. 

1 Sanaka is one of the four Kumaras in the Puranas who refused to create ; Suka 
is the son of Veda-Vyas. 

2 The Kumara is the son of Siva called Kartikeya the six-faced, symbolising 
the six-faced Mars in one sense. 


It is the body, it is the head, it is the internal, it is the external, 
it is full, it f is nectar, it is gotra (clan), it is grha (the house), it 
is the preservable, it is the moon, it is the stars, it is the sun, it 
is the holy seat. It is forgiveness, it is patience, it is the gunas, 
it is the witness. It is a friend, it is a t relative, it is an ally, it 
is the king, town, kingdom and subjects. It is Om, japa, medi 
tation, the seat, the one worthy to be taken (in), the heart, the 
Jyotis, Swarga (heaven) and Self." 

" All the partless and non-dual essence should be regarded 
as Chinmatra. Chinmatra alone is the Absolute Consciousness ; 
and this partless non-dual essence alone is the (real) essence. 
All having consciousness alone except those having changes, 
are Chinmatra. All this is Chinmatra. He is Chinmaya ; the 
state of Atma is known as Chinmatra and the partless non-dual 
essence. The whole world is Chinmatra. Your state and my 
state are Chinmatra. Akas , earth, water, vayu, agni, Brahma, 
Vishnu, Sfiva and all else that exist or do not, are Chinmatra. 
That which is the partless non-dual essence is Chinmatra. All 
the past, present, and future are Chinmatra. Substance and 
time are Chinmatra. Knowledge and the knowable are Chin 
matra. The knower is Chinmatra. Everything is Chinmatra. 
Every speech is Chinmatra. Whatever else is Chinmatra. Asat 
and Sat are Chinmatra. The beginning and end are Chinmatra ; 
that which is in the beginning and end is Chinmatra ever. The 
Guru and the disciple are Chinmatra. If the seer and the seen 
are Chinmatra, then they are always Chinmaya. All things 
wondrous are Chinmatra. The (gross) body is Chinmatra, as 
also the subtle and causal bodies. There is nothing beyond 
Chinmatra. I and thou are Chinmatra. Form and non-form 
are Chinmatra. Virtue and vice are Chinmatra. The body is 
a symbol of Chinmatra. Sankalpa, knowing, mantra, and 
others, the gods invoked in mantras, the gods presiding over the 
eight quarters, the phenomenal and the supreme Brahman are 
nothing but Chinmatra. There is nothing without Chinmatra. 
Maya is nothing without Chinmatra. Puja (worship) is nothing 
without Chinmatra. Meditation, truth, sheaths and others, the 
(eight) vasus, silence, non-silence, and indifference to objects 


are nothing without Chinmatra. Everything is from Chinmatra. 
Whatever is seen and however seen it is Chinmatra so far. 
Whatever exists and however distant, is Chinmatra. Whatever 
elements exist, whatever is perceived, and whatever is vedanta 
all these are Chinmatra^ Without Chinmatra, there is no motion, 
no Moksha and no goal aimed at. Everything is Chinmatra. 
Brahman that is the partless non-dual essence is known to be no 
thing but Chinmatra. Thou, Lord, art the partless non-dual es 
sence (stated) in the books, in me, in Thee, and in the ruler. He 
who thus perceives I as of one homogeneity (pervading every 
where) will at once be emancipated through this spiritual 
wisdom. He is his own Guru with this profound spiritual 
wisdom. Thus ends the second chapter of Tejobindu." 


The Kumara addressed his father (again): " Please explain to 
me the realisation of Atma." To which the great S iva said : " I 
am of the nature of the Parabrahman. I am the supreme 
bliss. I am solely of the nature of divine wisdom. I am the 
sole supreme, the sole quiescence, the sole Chinmaya, the sole un 
conditioned, the sole permanent and the sole Sattva. I am the I ; 
that has given up I . I am one that is without anything. I am 
full of Chidakas . I am the sole fourth one. I am the sole one 
above the fourth (state of turya) . I am of the nature of (pure) 
consciousness. I am ever of the nature of the bliss-consciousness. 
I am of the nature of the non-dual. I am ever of a pure nature, 
solely of the nature of divine wisdom, of the nature of happiness, 
without fancies, desires or diseases, of the nature of bliss, 
without changes or differentiations, and of the nature of the 
eternal one essence and Chinmatra. My real nature is inde 
scribable, of endless bliss, the bliss above Sat and Chit and the in 
terior of the interior. I am beyond reach of manas and speech. 
I am of the nature of Atmic bliss, true bliss and one who plays 
with (my) At ma. I am Atma and Sadas iva. My nature is At 
mic spiritual effulgence. I am the essence of the jyotis of 
Atma. I am without beginning, middle, or end. I am like the 


sky. I am solely Sat, Ananda, and Chit which is unconditioned 
and pure. }. am the Sachchidananda that is eternal, enlighten 
ed and pure. I am ever of the nature of the eternal S esha 
(serpent-time). I am ever beyond all. My nature is beyond 
form. My form is supreme akas . My,nature is of the bliss of 
earth. I am ever without speech. My nature is the all-seat 
(foundation of all) . I am ever replete with consciousness, with 
out the attachment of body, without thought, without the modi 
fications of chitta, the sole essence of Chidatma, beyond the 
visibility of all and of the form of vision. My nature is ever 
full. I am ever fully contented, the all, and Brahman, and the 
very consciousness ; I am I . My nature is of the earth. I 
am the great Atma and the supreme of the supreme ; I appear 
sometimes as different from myself ; sometimes as possessing a 
body, sometimes as a pupil and sometimes as the basis of the 
worlds. I am beyond the three periods of time, am worshipped 
by the Vedas, am determined by the sciences and am fixed in 
the chitta. There is nothing left out by me, neither the earth 
nor any other objects here. Know that there is nothing which 
is out of myself. I am Brahma, a Siddha, the eternally pure, 
non-dual one, Brahman, without old age or death. I shine by 
myself ; I am my own Atma, my own goal, enjoy myself, play in 
myself, have my own spiritual effulgence, am my own greatness, 
and am used to play in my own Atma, look on my own Atma and 
am in myself happily seated. I have my own Atma as the 
residue, stay in my own consciousness, and play happily in the 
kingdom of my own Atma. Sitting on the real throne of my 
own Atma, I think of nothing else but my own Atma. I am 
Chidrupa alone, Brahman alone, Sachchidananda, the second- 
less, the one replete with bliss and the sole Brahman 
and ever without anything, have the bliss of my own Atma, 
the unconditioned bliss, and am always Atma- Akas . I alone am 
in the heart like Chidaditya (the consciousness-sun). I am 
content in my own Atma, have no form, or no decay, am without 
the number one, have the nature of an unconditionod and 
emancipated one, and I am subtler than akas ; I am with 
out the existence of beginning or end, of the nature of the 


all-illurninating, the bliss greater than the great, of the sole 
nature of Sat, of the nature of pure Moksha, of the nature of 
truth and bliss, full of spiritual wisdom and bliss, of the nature 
of wisdom alone, and of the nature of Sachchidananda. All this 
is Brahman alone. Th^re is none other than Brahman and that 
is P. 

" I am Brahman that is Sat, and bliss, and the ancient. The 
word thou and the word that are not different from me. 
I am of the nature of consciousness. I am alone the great 
S iva. I am beyond the nature of existence. I am of the na 
ture of happiness. As there is nothing that can witness me, I 
am without the state of witness. Being purely of the nature of 
Brahman, I am the eternal Atma. I alone am the Adis esha (the 
primeval S esha). 1 I alone am the S esha. I am without name 
and form, of the nature of bliss, of the nature of being unper- 
ceivable by the senses, and of the nature of all beings ; I have 
neither bondage nor salvation. I arn of the form of eternal 
bliss. I am the primeval consciousness alone, the partless and 
non-dual essence, beyond reach of speech and mind, of the 
nature of bliss everywhere, of the nature of fullness everywhere, 
of the nature of earthly bliss, of the nature of contentment 
everywhere, the supreme nectary essence, and the one and 
secondless Sat, (viz.,) Brahman. There is no doubt of it. I am of 
the nature of all- void. I am the one that is given out by the Vedas. 
I am of the nature of the emancipated and emancipation, of 
Nirvanic bliss, of truth and wisdom, of Sat alone and bliss, of 
the one beyond the fourth, of one without fancy, and ever of the 
nature of Aj a (the unborn). I am without passion or faults. I 
am the pure, the enlightened, the eternal, the all-pervading and 
of the nature of the significance of Om, of the spotless, and of 
Chit. I am neither existing nor non-existing. I am not of the 
nature of anything. I am of the nature of the actionless. I am 
without parts. I have no semblance, no manas, no sense, no 
buddhi, no change, none of the three bodies, neither the waking, 
dreaming, or dreamless sleeping states. I am neither of the nature 
of the three pains nor of the three desires. I have neither 
1 Sesha, meaning remainder is the serpent representing time. 


s ravana nor manana in Chidatma in order to attain salvation. 
There is nqthing like me or unlike me. There is nothing with 
in me. I have none of the three bodies. 

" The nature of manas is unreal, the nature of buddhi is un 
real, the nature of aham (the I ) is unreal ; but I am the uncon 
ditioned, the permanent and the unborn. The three bodies are 
unreal, the three periods of time are unreal, the three gunas are 
unreal, but I am of the nature of the Real and the pure. That 
which is heard is unreal, all the Vedas are unreal, the S astras 
are unreal, but I am the Real and of the nature of Chit. The 
Murtis (Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra having limitation) are unreal, 
all the creation is unreal, all the tattvas are unreal, but know 
that I am the great S adas iva. The master and the disciple are 
unreal, the mantra of the Gruru is unreal, that which is seen is 
unreal, but know me to be the Real. Whatever is thought of 
is unreal, whatever is lawful is unreal, whatever is beneficial is 
unreal, but know me to be the Real. Know the Purusha (ego) 
to be unreal, know the enjoyments to be unreal, know things 
seen and heard are unreal as also the one woven warp-wise and 
woof-wise, viz., this universe ; cause and non-cause are unreal, 
things lost or obtained are unreal. Pains and happiness are 
unreal, all and non-all are unreal, gain and loss are unreal, 
victory and defeat are unreal. All the sound, all the touch, 
all the forms, all the taste, all the smell, and all ajnana are 
unreal. Everything is always unreal the mundane existence 
is unreal all the gunas are unreal. I am of the nature of Sat. 

ff One should cognize his own Atma alone. One should 
always practise the mantra of his Atma. The mantra (Aham- 
brahmasmi) e I am Brahman removes all the sins of sight, 
destroys all other mantras, destroys all the sins of body and 
birth, the noose of Yama, the pains of duality, the thought of 
difference, the pains of thought, the disease of buddhi, the 
bondage of chitta, all diseases, all griefs and passions instan 
taneously, the power of anger, the modifications of chitta, 
sankalpa, crores of sins, all actions and the ajnana of Atma. 
The mantra I am Brahman gives indescribable bliss, gives 
the state of ajada (the non-inertness or the undecaying) and 


kills the demon of non-Atma. The thunderbolt 1 1 am Brahman 
clears all the hill of not-Atma. The wheel I am Brahman de 
stroys the asaras of not-Atma. The mantra I am Brahman will 
relieve all (persons) . The mantra I am Brahman gives spirit 
ual wisdom and bliss. < There are seven crores of great mantras 
and there are vratas (vows) of (or yielding) hundred crores of 
births. Having given up all other mantras, one should ever 
practise this mantra. He obtains at once salvation, and there is 
not even a particle of doubt about it. Thus ends the third chapter 
of the Tejobindu-Upanishad." 


The Kumara asked the great Lord : " Please explain to me 
the nature of Jivanmukti (embodied salvation) and videhamukti 
(disembodied salvation)/ To which the great Siva replied: 
" I am Chidatma. I am Para-Atrna. I am the Nirguna, greater 
than the great. One who will simply stay in Atma is called a 
Jivanmukta. He who realises : I am beyond the three bodies, 
I am the pure consciousness and I am Brahman/ is said to be a 
Jivanmukta. He is said to be a Jivanmukta, who realises : I 
am of the nature of the blissful and of the supreme bliss, and I 
have neither body nor any other thing except the certitude " I 
am Brahman" only . He is said to be a Jivanmukta who has 
not at all got the ( I in myself, but who stays in Chinmatra 
(absolute consciousness) alone, whose interior is consciousness 
alone, who is only of the nature of Chinmatra, whose Atma is 
of the nature of the all-fall, who has Atma left over in all, who 
is devoted to bliss, who is undifferentiated, who is all-full of 
the nature of consciousness, whose Atma is of the nature of 
pure consciousness, who has given up all affinities (for objects), 
who has unconditioned bliss, whose Atma is tranquil, who has 
got no other thought (than Itself), and who is devoid of the 
thought of the existence of anything. He is said to be a Jivan 
mukta who realises : I have no chitta, no bucldhi, no ahankara, 
no sense, no body at any time, no pranas, no Maya, no passion 
and no anger, I am the great, I have nothing of these objects or 


of the world, and I have no sin, no characteristics, no eye, no ma- 
nas, no ear/ no nose, no tongue, no hand, no waking, no dreaming, 
or causal state in the least or the fourth state/ He is said to be 
a Jivanmukta, who realises : All this is not mine, I have no time, 
no space, no object, no thought, no snann (bathing), no sandhyas 
(junction-period ceremonies), no deity, no place, no sacred places, 
no worship, no spiritual wisdom, no seat, no relative, no birth, 
no speech, no wealth, no virtue, no vice, no duty, no auspiciousness, 
no Jiva, not even the three worlds, no salvation, no duality, no 
Vedas, no mandatory rules, no proximity, no distance, no know 
ledge, no secrecy, no Guru, no disciple, no diminution, no excess, 
no Brahma, no Vishnu, no Rudra, no moon, no earth, no water, 
no vayu, no akas , no agni, no clan, no lakshya (object aimed 
at), no mundane existence, no meditator, no object of meditation, 
no manas, no cold, no heat, no thirst, no hunger, no friend, no 
foe, no illusion, no victory, no past, present, or future, no 
quarters, nothing to be said or heard in the least, nothing to be 
gone (or attained) to, nothing to be contemplated, enjoyed or 
remembered, no enjoyment, no desire, no yoga, no absorption, 
no garrulity, no quietude, no bondage, no love, no joy, no 
instant joy, no hugeness, no smallness, neither length nor 
shortness, neither increase nor decrease, neither adhyaropa 
(illusory attribution) nor apavada (withdrawal of that conception) 
no oneness, no manyness, no blindness, no dullness, no skill, no 
flesh, no blood, no lymph, no skin, no marrow, no bone, no skin, 
none of the seven dhatus, no whiteness, no redness, no blueness, 
no heat, no gain, neither importance nor non-importance, no 
delusion, no perseverance, no mystery, no race, nothing to be 
abandoned or received, nothing to be laughed at, no policy, no 
religious vow, no fault, no bewailments, no happiness, neither 
knower nor knowledge nor the knowable, no Self, nothing 
belonging to you or to me, neither you nor I, and neither old 
age nor youth nor manhood ; but I am certainly Brahman. " I 
am certainly Brahman. I am Chit, I am Chit ". He is said to 
be a Jivanmukta who cognizes : I am Brahman alone, I am Chit 
alone, I am the supreme. No doubt need be entertained about 
this ; I am Hamsa itself, I remain of my own will, I can see 


myself through myself, I reign happy in the kingdom of Atma 
and enjoy in myself the bliss of my own Atma/ Ha is a Jivan- 
mukta who is himself, the foremost and the one undaunted per 
son who is himself the lord and rests in his own Self. 

" He is a Videhainukta who has become Brahman, whose 
Atma has attained quiescence, who is of the nature of Brahmic 
bliss, who is happy, who is of a pure nature, and who is a great 
mouni (observer of silence). He is a Videhamukta who remains 
in Chinmatra alone without (even) thinking thus : c I am all 
Atma, the Atma that is equal (or the same) in all, the pure, with 
out one, the non-dual, the all, the self only, the birth- 
less and the deathless I am myself the undecaying Atma that 
is the object aimed at, the sporting, the silent, the blissful, the 
beloved and the bondless salvation I am Brahman alone I am 
Chit alone/ He is a Videhamukta who having abandoned the 
thought : I alone am the Brahman is filled with bliss. He is a 
Videhamukta who having given up the certainty of the existence or 
non-existence of all objects is pure Chidananda (the consciousness- 
bliss), who having abandoned (the thought): f l am Brahman 
(or) ( I am not Brahman does not mingle his Atma with anything, 
anywhere or at any time, who is ever silent with the silence of 
Satya, who does nothing, who has gone beyond gunas, whose 
Atma has become the All, the great, and the purifier of the 
elements, who does not cognize the change of time, matter, 
place, himself or other differences, who does not see (the differ 
ence of) I/ thou/ this or that/ who being of the nature of 
time is yet without it, whose Atma is void, subtle and universal, 
but yet without (them), whose Atma is divine and yet without 
Devas, whose Atma is measurable and yet without measure, whose 
Atma is without inertness and within every one, whose Atma is 
devoid of any sankalpa, who thinks always : I am Chinmatra, I 
am simply Paramatman, I am only of the nature of spiritual 
wisdom, I am only of the nature of Sat, I am afraid of nothing 
in this world/ and who is without the conception of Devas, Vedas 
and sciences, All this is consciousness, etc./ and regards all as 
void. He is a Videhamukta who has realised himself to be 
Chaitanya alone, who is remaining at ease in the pleasure-garden 


of his own Atma, whose At ma is of an illimitable nature, who 
is without ,the conception of the small and the great, and who 
is the fourth of the fourth state and the supreme bliss. He 
is a Videhamukta whose Atma is nameless and formless, who is 
the great spiritual wisdom of the nature of bliss, and of the 
nature of the state beyond turya, who is neither auspicious nor 
inauspicious, who has yoga as his Atma, whose Atma is asso 
ciated with yoga, who is free from bondage or freedom, without 
guna or non-guna, without space, time, etc., without the witness 
able and the witness, without the small or the great, and with 
out the cognition of the universe or even the cognition of the 
nature of Brahman, but who finds his spiritual effulgence in his 
own nature, who finds bliss in himself, whose bliss is beyond the 
scope of words and mind, and whose thought is beyond the 
beyond. He is said to be a Videhamukta who has gone beyond 
(or mastered quite) the modifications of chitta, who illumines 
such modifications, and whose Atma is without any modifications 
at all. In that case, he is neither embodied nor disembodied. 
If such a thought is entertained (even), for a moment, then he 
is surrounded (in thought) by all. He is a Videhamukta whose 
external Atma invisible to others is the supreme bliss aiming at 
the highest vedanta, who drinks of the juice of the nectar of 
Brahman, who has the nectar of Brahman as medicine, who is 
devoted to the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who is immersed 
in that juice, who has the beneficent worship of the Brahmic bliss, 
who is not satiated with the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who 
realises Brahmic bliss, who cognizes the Sfiva bliss in Brahmic 
bliss, who has the effulgence of the essence of Brahmic bliss, who 
has become one with it, who lives in the household of Brahmic 
bliss, has mounted the car of Brahmic bliss, who has an impon 
derable Chit being one with it, who is supporting (all), being 
full of it, who associates with me having it, who stays in Atma 
having that bliss and who thinks : f All this is of the nature of 
Atma, there is nothing else beside A^ma, all is Atma, I am 
Atma, the great Atma, the supreme Atma, and Atma of the 
form of bliss. He who thinks : { My nature is full, I am the great 
Atma, I am the all-contented and the permanent A^ma. I am 


the At ma pervading the heart of all, which is not stained by 
anything, but which has no Atma; I am the Atma whose 
nature is changeless, I am the quiescent Atma ; and I am the 
many Atma/ He who does not think this is Jivatma and that 
is Paramatma, whose Atma is of the nature of the emancipated 
and the non-emancipated, but without emancipation or bondage, 
whose Atma is of the nature of the dual and the non-dual one, 
but without duality and non- duality ; whose Atma is of the 
nature of the All and the non-All, but without them ; whose 
Atma is of the nature of the happiness arising from objects 
obtained and enjoyed, but without it; and who is devoid of any 
sankalpa such a man is a Yiclehamukta. He whose Atma is 
partless, stainless, enlightened, Purusha, without bliss, etc., 
of the nature of nectar, of the nature of the three periods of 
time, but without them ; whose Atma is entire and non-mea 
surable, being subject to proof though without proof ; whose 
Atma is the eternal and the witness, but without eternality 
and witness ; whose Atma is of the nature of the secondless, who 
is the self -shining one without a second, whose Atma cannot be 
measured by vidya and avidya but without them ; whose Atma 
is without conditionedness or unconditionedness, who is without 
this or the higher worlds, whose Atma is without the six things 
beginning with s arna, who is without the qualifications of the 
aspirant after salvation, whose Atma is without gross, subtle, 
causal, and the fourth bodies, and without the anna, prana, 
manas, and vijnana sheaths; whose Atma is of the nature of 
ananda (bliss) sheath, but without five sheaths ; whose Atma is 
of the nature of nirvikalpa, is devoid of sankalpa, without the 
characteristics of the visible or the audible, and of the nature 
of void, owing to unceasing samadhi, who is without beginning, 
middle, or end; whose Atma is devoid of the word Prajnana, who 
is without the idea I am Brahman/ whose Atma is devoid (of the 
thought) of thou art , who is without the thought this is 
Atma , whose Atma is devoid of that which is described by Om, 
who is above the reach of any speech or the three states, and is 
the indestructible and the Chidatma, whose Atma is not the one 
which can be known by Atma and whose Atma has neither 


light nor darkness. Such a personage is a Videhamukta. Look 
only upon 4t m &; know It as your own. Enjoy your Atma your 
self, and stay in peace. six-faced one, be content in your 
own Atma, be wandering in your own Atma, and be enjoying 
your own Atma. Then you will attain Videhamukti." 


The Sage named Nidagha addressed the venerable Rbhu : 
" Lord please explain to me the discrimination of Atma from 
non-Atma." The Sage replied thus : 

" The furthest limit of all vak (speech) is Brahman ; the 
furthest limit to all thoughts is the Guru. 1 That which is of the 
nature of all causes and effects but yet without them, that 
which is without sankalpa, of the nature of all bliss and the 
auspicious, that which is the great one of the nature of bliss, 
that which illuminates all luminaries and that which is full 
of the bliss of nada (spiritual sound), without any enjoyment 
and contemplation and beyond nadas and kalas (parts) that is 
Atma, that is the I , the indestructible. Being devoid of all 
the difference of Atma and non-Atma, of heterogeneity and 
homogeneity, and of quiescence and non-quiescence that is the 
one Jyotis at the end of nada. Being remote from the con 
ception of Maha-vakyartha (i. e. t the meaning of Maha-vakyas) 
as well of I am Brahman/ being devoid of or without the con 
ception of the word and the meaning, and being devoid of the 
conception of the destructible and indestructible that is the one 
Jyo^is at the end of nada. Being without the conception I am 
the partless non-dual essence or I am the blissful/ and being 
of the nature of the one beyond all that is one Jyotis at the end 
of nada. He who is devoid of the significance of A^ma (viz., 
motion) and devoid of Sachchidananda he is alone Atma, 
the eternal. He who is undefinable and unreachable by 
the words of the Vedas, who has neither externals nor 
internals, and whose symbol is either the universe or Brah 
man he is undoubtedly Atma. He who has no body, nor 

1 Herein is given the hint as to the difference of functions between an Ishta- 
devata and a Guru. 


is a Jiva made up of the elements and their compounds, 
who has neither form nor name, neither the enjoyable nor the 
enjoy er, neither Sat nor asat, neither preservation nor re 
generation, neither guna nor non-guna that is undoubtedly my 
Atma. He who has neither the described nor description, neither 
s ravana nor manana, neither Guru nor disciple, neither the 
world of the Devas nor the Devas nor Asuras, neither duty nor 
non-duty, neither the immaculate nor non-immaculate, neither 
time nor non-time, neither certainty nor doubt, neither mantra 
nor non-mantra, neither science nor non-science, neither the seer 
nor the sight which is subtle, nor the nectar of time that is Atma. 
Rest assured that not -Atma is a misnomer. There is no manas 
as not- Atma. There is no world as not- Atma. Owing to the 
absence of all sankalpas and to the giving up of all actions, 
Brahman alone remains, and there is no not- Atma. Being devoid 
of the three bodies, the three periods of time, the three gunas 
of Jiva, the three pains and the three worlds, and following the 
saying All is Brahman/ know that there is nothing to be known 
through the absence of chitta ; there is no old age through the 
absence of body ; no motion through the absence of legs ; no 
action through the absence of hands ; no death through the 
absence of creatures; no happiness through the absence of 
buddhi ; no virtue, no purity, no fear, no repetition of mantras, 
no Guru nor disciple. There is no second in the absence of 
one. Where there is not the second, there is not the first. 
Where there is truth alone, there is no non-truth possible ; where 
there is non-truth alone, there is no truth possible. If you regard a 
thing auspicious as inauspicious, then auspiciousness is desired 
(as separate) from inauspiciousness. If you regard fear as non- 
fear, then fear will arise out of non-fear. If bondage should 
become emancipation, then in the absence of bondage will be no 
emancipation. If birth should imply death, then in the ab 
sence of birth, there is no death. If thou should imply 
* I/ then in the absence of f thou there is no 1 1 . If ( this 
should be that/ this does not exist in the absence of 
that . If being should imply non-being, then non-being will 
imply being. If an effect implies a cause, then in the absence 


of effect, there is no cause. If duality implies non-duality, then 
in the absence of duality, there is no non-duality. If there 
should be the seen, then there is the eye (or sight) ; in the 
absence of the seen, there is no eye. In the absence of the 
interior, there is no exterior. If there should be fullness, then 
non-fullness is possible. Therefore (all) this exists nowhere. 
Neither you nor I, nor this nor these exist. There exists no 
(object of ) comparison in the true one. There is no simile in 
the unborn. There is (in it) no mind to think. I am the sup 
reme Brahman. This world is Brahman only. Thou and I are 
Brahman only. I am Chinmatra simply, and there is no not- 
Atma. Rest assured of it. This universe is not (really at all). 
This universe is not (really) at all. It was nowhere produced 
and stays nowhere. Some say that chitta is the universe. Not 
at all. It exists not. Neither the universe nor chitta nor 
ahankara nor Jiva exists (really) . Neither the creation of Maya 
nor Maya itself exists (really). Fear does not (really) exist. 
Actor, action, hearing, thinking, the two samadhis, the measurer, 
the measure, ajnana and aviveka none of these exists (truly) 
anywhere. Therefore the four moving l considerations and the 
three kinds of relationship exist not. There is no Ganga, no 
Gay a, no Setu (bridge), no elements or anything else, no earth, 
water, fire, vayu, and akfis anywhere, no Devas, no guardians of 
the four quarters, no Vedas, no Guru, no distance, no proximity, 
no time, no middle, no non-duality, no truth, no untruth, no 
bondage, no emancipation, no Sat, no asat, no happiness, etc., 
no class, no motion, no caste, and no worldly business. All is 
Brahman only and nothing else- all is Brahman only and no 
thing else. There exists then nothing (or statement) as that 
c consciousness alone is ; there is (then) no saying such as 
s Chit is I . The statement I am Brahman does not exist 
(then) ; nor does exist (then) the statement : I am the eternally 
pure . Whatever is uttered by the mouth, whatever is thought 
by manas, whatever is determined by buddhi, whatever is 
cognized by chitta all these do not exist. There is no Yogin or 

1 The four moving considerations (of vedanta) are subject (Brahman), 
object, relationship, and the qualified person. 


yoga then. All are and are not. Neither day nor night, neither 
bathing nor contemplating, neither delusion nor non-delusion 
all these do not exist then. Know that is no not-Atma. 

"The Vedas, Sciences, Puranas, effect and cause, Is vara 
and the world and tke elements and mankind all these are 
unreal. There is no doubt of it. Bondage, salvation, happiness, 
relatives, meditation, chitta, the Devas, the demons, the secon 
dary and the primary, the high and the low all these are unreal. 
There is no doubt of it. Whatever is uttered by the mouth, 
whatever is willed by sankalpa, whatever is thought by manas 
all these are unreal. Whatever is determined by the buddhi, 
whatever is cognized by chitta, whatever is discussed by the 
religious books, whatever is seen by the eye and heard by the 
ears, and whatever exists as Sat, as also the ear, the eye, and 
the limbs all these are unreal. Whatever is described as such 
and such, whatever is thought as so-and-so, all the existing 
thoughts such as thou art I , that is this/ and c He is I/ and 
whatever happens in moksha, as also all sankalpas, delusion, 
illusory attribution, mysteries and all the diversities of enjoy 
ment and sin all these do not exist. So is also not-Atma. 
Mine and thine, my and thy, for me and for thee, by me 
and by thee all these are unreal. (The statement) that Vishnu 
is the preserver, Brahma is the creator, Rudra is the de 
stroyer know that these undoubtedly are false. Bathing, 
utterings of mantras, japas (religious austerities) homa 
(sacrifice), study of the Vedas, worship of the Devas, mantra, 
tantra, association with the good, the unfolding of the 
faults of gunas, the working of the internal organ, the result of 
avidya, and the many crores of mundane eggs all these are 
unreal. Whatever is spoken of as true according to the verdict 
of all teachers, whatever is seen in this world and whatever 
exists all these are unreal. Whatever is uttered by words, 
whatever is ascertained, spoken, enjoyed, given or done by any 
one, whatever action is done, good or bad, whatever is done as 
truth know all these to be unreal. Thou alone art the tran 
scendental Atma and the supreme Guru of the form of akas , which 
is devoid of fitness (for it) and of the nature of all creatures. 


Thou art Brahman ; thou art time ; and thou art Brahman, that 
is ever and imponderable. Thou art everywhere, of all forms, 
and full of consciousness. Thou art the truth. Thou art 
one that has mastered the siddhis, and thou art the ancient, the 
emancipated, emancipation, the nectar , of bliss, the God, the 
quiescent, the diseaseless, Brahman the full, and greater than 
the great. Thou art impartial, Sat and the ancient knowledge, 
recognised by the words Truth, etc . Thou art devoid of all 
parts. Thou art the ever-existing thou appearest as Brahma, 
Rudra, Indra, etc. thou art above the illusion of the universe 
thou shinest in all elements thou art without sankalpa in all 
thou art known by means of the underlying meaning of all 
scriptures; thou art ever content and ever happily seat 
ed (in thyself) ; thou art without motion, etc. In all 
things, thou art without any characteristics ; in all things 
thou art contemplated by Vishnu and other Devas at all times ; 
thou hast the nature of Chit, thou art Chinmatra unchecked, 
thou stayest in Atma itself, thou art void of everything and 
without gunas, thou art bliss, the great, the one secondless, the 
state of Sat and asat, the knower, the known, the seer, the 
nature of Sachchidananda, the lord of Devas, the all-pervading, 
the deathless, the moving, the motionless, the all and the non-all 
with quiescence and non-quiescence, Sat alone, Sat commonly 
(found in all), of the form of Nitya-Siddha (the unconditioned 
developed one), and yet devoid of all siddhis. There is not an 
atom which thou dost not penetrate ; but yet thou art without 
it. Thou art devoid of existence and non-existence as also the 
aim and object aimed at. Thou art changeless, decayless, beyond 
all nadas, without kala or kfishta (divisions of time) and without 
Brahma, Vishnu, and S iva. Thou lookest into the nature of 
each and art above the nature of each. Thou art immersed in 
the bliss of Self. Thou art the monarch of the kingdom of 
Self, and yet without the conception of Self. Thou art of the 
nature of fullness and incompleteness. There is nothing that 
thou seest which is not in thyself. Thou dost not stir out of thy 
nature. Thou actest according to the nature of each. Thou art 
nothing but the nature of each. Have no doubt thou art P. 


"This universe and everything in it, whether the seer or 
the seen, resembles the horns of a hare (or are illusory). Earth, 
water, agni, vayu, akas , manas, buddhi, ahankara, tejas, the 
worlds and the sphere of the universe, destruction, birth, 
truth, virtue, vice, gain, desires, passion, anger, greed, the 
object of meditation, wisdom, guru, disciple, limitation, 
the beginning and end, auspiciousness, the past, present, and 
future, the aim and the object of aim, mental restraint, inquiry, 
contentment, enjoyer, enjoyment, etc., the eight parts of yoga, 
yama, etc., the going and coming (of life), the beginning, mid 
dle and end, that which can be taken and rejected, Hari, Sftva, 
the organs, manas, the three states, the twenty-four tattvas, the 
four means, one of the same class or different classes, Bhuh and 
other worlds, all the castes and orders of life with the rules laid 
down for each, mantras and tantras, science and nescience, all 
the Vedas, the inert and the non-inert, bondage and salvation, 
spiritual wisdom and non-wisdom, the enlightened and the non- 
enlightened, duality and non-duality, the conclusion of all 
Vedantas and Sastras, the theory of the existence of all souls 
and that of one soul only, whatever is thought by chitta, 
whatever is willed by sankalpa, whatever is determined by 
buddhi, whatever one hears and sees, whatever the guru 
instructs, whatever is sensed by all the organs, whatever is dis 
cussed in mimamsa. whatever is ascertained by nyaya (philo 
sophy) and by the great ones who have reached the other side 
of the Vedas, the saying Sava destroys the world, Vishnu 
protects it, and Brahma creates it , whatever is found in the 
puranas, whatever is ascertained by the Vedas, and is the 
signification of all the Vedas all these resemble the horns of a 
hare. The conception I am the body is spoken of as the 
internal organ; the conception I am the body is spoken of as 
the great mundane existence ; the conception ( I am the body 
constitutes the whole universe. The conception I am the 
body is spoken of as the knot of the heart, as non-wisdom, as 
the state of asat, as nescience, as the dual, as the true 
Jiva and as with parts, is certainly the great sin, and is the 
disease generated by the fault of thirst after desires. That 


which is sankalpa, the three pains, passion, anger, bondage, all 
the miseries, all the faults and the various forms of time know 
these to be the result of manas. Manas alone is the whole 
world, the ever- deluding, the mundane existence, the three 
worlds, the great pains, the old age and others, death and the 
great sin, the sankalpa, the Jiva, the chitta, the ahankara, 
the bondage, the internal organ and earth, water, agni, 
vayu, and akas . Sound, touch, form, taste, and odour, 
the five sheaths, the waking, the dreaming, and dreamless 
sleeping states, the guardians of the eight quarters, Vasus, 
Rudras, Adityas, the seen, the inert, the pairs and non- wisdom- 
all these are the products of manas. Rest assured that there is 
no reality in all that is sankalpa. The whole world, the guru, 
disciple, etc., do not exist, yea, do not exist. Thus ends the 
fifth chapter of this Upanishad." 


Rbhu continued again : " Know everything as Sachchinmaya 
1 (full of Sat and consciousness). It pervades everything. 
Sachchidananda is non-dual, decayless, alone and other than all. 
It is I . It alone is akas and thou . It is I. There is (in it) 
no manas, no buddhi, no ahankara, no chitta, or the collection of 
t h ese __ n either thou nor I, nor anything else nor everything. 
Brahman alone is. Sentence, words, Veclas, letters, beginning, 
middle, or end, truth, law, pleasure, pain, existence, maya, prakrti, 
body, face, nose, tongue, palate, teeth, lip, forehead, expiration 
and inspiration, sweat, bone, blood, urine, distance, proximity, 
limb, belly, crown, the movement of hands and feet, S^astras, com 
mand, the knower, the known, and the knowledge, the waking, 
dreaming and dreamless sleeping and the fourth state all these do 
not belong to me. Everything is Sachchinmaya interwoven. No at 
tributes pertaining to body, elements and spirit, no root, no vision, 
no Taijasa, no Prajna, no Virat, no Sutratma, no Is vara, and no 
going or coming, neither gain nor loss, neither the acceptable nor 
the rejectable,nor the censurable, neither the pure nor the impure, 
neither the stout nor the lean, no sorrow, time, space, speech, 


all, fear, duality, tree, grass or mountain, no meditation, no 
siddhi of yoga, no Brahmana, Kshattriya or Vais ya, no 
bird or beast, or limb, no greed, delusion, pride, malice, pas 
sion, anger or others, no woman, S udra, castes or others, nothing 
that is eatable or enjoyable, no increase or decrease, no belief in 
the Vedas, no speech, 110 worldliness or unworldliness, no tran 
saction, no folly/ no measure or measured, no enjoyment or 
enjoyed, no friends, son, etc., father, mother, or sister, no birth or 
death, no growth, body or ( I , no emptiness or fullness, no 
internal organs or mundane existence, no night, no day, no Brah 
ma, Vishnu, or S iva, no week, fortnight, month, or year, no un 
steadiness, no Brahmaloka, Vaikuntha, Kailasa and others, no 
Swarga, Indra, Agniloka, Agni, Yamaloka, Yama, vayuloka, 
guardians of the world, three worlds Bhuh,Bhuvah, Svah, Patala 
or surface of earth, no science, nescience, maya, prakrti, inertness, 
permanency, transience, destruction, movement, running, object 
of meditation, bathing, mantra or object, no adorable object, 
anointment or sipping with water, no flower, fruit, sandal, light 
waved before god, praise, prostrations or circumambulation, no 
entreaty, conception of separateness even, oblation of food, 
offered food, sacrifice, actions, abuse, praise, Gayatri and 
sandhi (period of junction, such as twilight, etc.), no mental 
state, calamity, evil desire, bad soul, chandala (low caste person) 
pulkasa, unbearableness, unspeakableness, kirata (hunter), 
kaitava (demon), partiality, partisanship, ornament, chief, or 
pride, no many ness, no oneness, durability, triad, tetrad, great 
ness, smallness, fullness, or delusion, no kai^ava, Benares, 
tapas, clan, family, sutra, greatness, poverty, girl, old woman 
or widow, no pollution, birth, introvision or illusion, no sacred 
sentences, identity, or the siddhis, anima, etc. 

" Everything being consciousness alone, there is no fault 
in anything. Everything being of the nature of Sat alone, is 
Sachchidananda only. Brahman alone is everything and there 
is nothing else. So ( That is I \ That is ( I . That alone 
is I . That alone is I . 4 That alone is *! . The 
eternal Brahman alone is I . I am Brahman alone without 
being subject to mundane existence. I am Brahman alone 


without any manas, any buddhi, organs or body. I am Brahman 
alone not perceivable. I am Brahman alone and not Jiva. I am 
Brahman alone and not liable to change. I am Brahman alone 
and not inert. I am Brahman alone and have no death. I am 
Brahman alone and have no pranas. I ^am Brahman alone and 
greater than the great. This is Brahman. Great is Brahman. 
Truth is Brahman. It is all-pervading. Time is Brahman. 
Kala is Brahman. Happiness is Brahman. It is self-shining. One 
is Brahman. Two is Brahman. Delusion is Brahman. S arna 
and others are Brahman. Badness is Brahman. Goodness is 
Brahman. It is of the form of restraint, quiescence, the all- 
pervading and the all-powerful. The Loka (world) is Brahman. 
Guru is Brahman. Disciple is Brahman. It is Sadas iva. (That 
which) is before is Brahman. (That which will be) hereafter is 
Brahman. Purity is Brahman. Auspicious-ness and inauspi- 
ciousness are Brahman. Jiva always is Brahman. I am Sachchi- 
dananda. All are of the nature of Brahman. The universe is 
said to be of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is itself. There 
is no doubt of it. There is nothing out of itself. The letter Om 
of the form of consciousness is Brahman alone. Everything 
is itself. I alone am the whole universe and the highest 
seat, have crossed the gunas and am greater than the great, 
the supreme Brahman, Guru of Gurus, the support of all and 
the bliss of bliss. There is no universe besides Atma. The uni 
verse is of the nature of Atma. There is nowhere (or no place) 
without Atma. There is not even grass different from Atma. 
There is not husk different from Brahman. The whole universe 
is of the nature of Atma. All this is of the nature of Brahman. 
Asat is not of the nature of Brahman. There is not a grass dif 
ferent from Brahman. There is not a seat different from Brah 
man ; there is not a Guru different from Brahman ; there is not 
a body different from Brahman. There is nothing different 
from Brahman like 1-ness or you-ness. Whatever is seen in 
this world, whatever is spoken of by the people, whatever is 
enjoyed everywhere all these are asat (unreal) only. The dif 
ferences arising from the actor, action, qualities, likes, taste 
and gender all these arise from asat and are (but) pleasurable. 


The differences arising from time, objects, actions, success or 
defeat and whatever else all these are simply asat. The internal 
organ is asat. The organs are asat. All the pranas, the 
collections of all these, the five sheaths, the five deities, the six 
changes, the six enemies, the six seasons, and the six tastes, 
are asat. I am Sachchidananda. The universe is rootless. I 
am Atma alone, Chit and Ananda. The scenes of mundane 
existence are not different. I am the Truth of the nature of 
Ananda and of the nature of the imponderable Chi^. All this 
is of the nature of jfiana. 

" I am the secondless, having jfiana and bliss. I am of the 
nature of an illuminator of all things. I am of the nature of 
all non-being. I alone shine always. Therefore how can I 
with such a nature become asat ? That which is called 
thou is the great Brahman of the nature of the bliss of 
consciousness and of the nature of chit having chidakas and 
chit alone as the great bliss. Atrna alone is I . Asat is not 
C I\ I am Kutastha, the great guru and Sachchidananda 
alone. I am this born universe. No time, no universe, no maya, 
no prakrti (in me). I alone am the Hari. Personally, I alone 
am the Sadas iva. I am of the nature of pure consciousness. I 
am the enjoyer of pure sattva. I am the only essence full of 
chit. Everything is Brahman and Brahman alone. Everything 
is Brahman and is chit alone. I am of the nature of the all- 
latent and the all-witness. I am the supreme Atma, the supreme 
Jyotis, the supreme wealth, the supreme goal, the essence of all 
vedantas, the subject discussed in all the S astras the nature 
of yogic bliss, the ocean of the chief bliss, the brightness of 
all wisdom, of the nature of chief wisdom, the brightness 
of the fourth state and the non-fourth but devoid of them, the 
indestructible chit, truth, Vasudeva, the birthless, and the 
deathless Brahma, Chidakas , the unconditioned, the stainless, 
the immaculate, the emancipated, the utterly emancipated, the 
soulless, the formless and of the nature of the non-created 

" The universe which is assumed as truth and non-truth does 
not really exist. Brahman is of the nature of eternal bliss and 


is even by itself. It is endless, decayless, quiescent and of one 
nature only. If anything is other than myself, then it is as unreal 
as the mirage in an oasis. If one should be afraid of the son of a 
barren woman, or if a powerful elephant be killed by means of 
the horns of a hare, then the world (really is). If one (person) 
can quench his thirst by drinking the waters of the mirage, or if 
one should be killed by the horns of a man, then the universe really 
is. The universe exists always in the true Gandharva city (merely 
unreal) . When the blueness of the sky really exists in it, then 
the universe really is. When the silver in mother-of-pearl can 
be used in making an ornament, when a man is bitten by (the 
conception of) a snake in a rope, when the flaming fire is 
quenched by means of a golden arrow, when milky food is 
obtained in the (barren) forest of Yindhya (mountains), when 
cooking can take place by means of the fuel of (wet) plantain 
trees, when a female (baby) just born begins to cook, when 
curds resume the state of milk, or when the milk (milked) goes 
back through the teats of a cow, then will the universe really 
be. When the dust of the earth shall be produced in the ocean, 
when the maddened elephant is tied by means of the hair of a 
tortoise, when (mountain) Meru is shaken by the thread in the 
stalk of a lotus, when the ocean is bound by its rows of tides, 
when the fire flames downwards, when flame shall become 
(really) cold, when the lotus shall grow out of flaming fire, 
when Indranlla (sapphire) arises in the great mountains, when 
Meru comes and sits in the lotus-eye, when a mountain can 
become the offspring of a black bee, when Meru shall shake, 
when a lion is killed by a gnat, when the three worlds can be 
found in the space of the hollow of an atom, when the fire 
which burns a straw shall last for a long time, when the objects 
seen in a dream shall come in the waking state, when the 
current of a river shall stand still (of itself) , when the delivery 
of a barren woman shall be fruitful, when the crow shall walk 
like a swan, when the mule shall fight with a lion, when a great 
ass shall walk like an elephant, when the full moon shall 
become a sun, when Rahu (one of the nodes) shall abandon the 
sun and the moon, when a good crop shall arise out of the 


waste (burnt) seeds, when the poor shall enjoy the happiness 
of the rich, when the lions shall be conquered by the bravery 
of dogs, when the heart of Jnams is known by fools, when 
the ocean is drunk by the dogs without any remainder, when 
the pure akas shall fall upon men, when heaven shall fall on 
the earth, when the flower in the sky shall emit fragrance, when 
a forest appearing in pure akas shall move, and when reflec 
tion shall arise in a glass simply (without mercury or anything 
else in its back), then the world really is. There is no 
universe in the womb of Aja (the unborn Brahman) there 
is no universe in the womb of Atma. Duality and non-duality, 
which are but the results of differentiation, are really 
not. All this is the result of maya. Therefore, there 
should be Brahma-Bhavana. If misery should arise from the 
conception of f I am the body/ then it is certain ( I am 
Brahman/ The knot of the heart is the wheel of Brahman, 
which cuts asunder the knot of existence. When doubt arises 
in one, he should have faith in Brahman. That non-dual Brah 
man, which is eternal and of the form of unconditioned bliss, is 
the guard of Atma against the chief of the form of not-Atma. 
Through instances like the above is established the nature 
of Brahman. Brahman alone is the all-abode. Abandon the 
name even of the universe. Knowing for certain I am Brahman/ 
give up the I . Everything disappears as the flower from the 
hands of a sleeping person. There is neither body nor karma. 
Everything is Brahman alone. There are neither objects, nor 
actions, nor the four states. Everything which has the three 
characteristics of vijnana is Brahman alone. Abandoning all 
action, contemplate I am Brahman, J I am Brahman . 
There is no doubt of this. I am Brahman of the nature of chit. 
I am of the nature of Sachchiclananda. 

" This great science of S ankara should never be explained 
to any ordinary person, to an atheist or to a faithless, ill-behaved 
or evil-minded person. It should be, after due examination, 
given to the high-souled ones whose minds are purified with 
devotion to their gurus. It should be taught for a year and 
a half. Leaving off thoroughly and entirely the practice 


recommended by the (other) Upanishads, one should study the 
Tejobindu-Upanishacl always with delight. By once studying 
it, he becomes one with Brahman. Thus ends the sixth 
chapter. Thus ends the Upanishad." 




[This Upanishad is intended to give a complete and clear idea 
of the nature of Atma, that has four avasthas (states of conscious 
ness) and four seats, for the better consummation of the nirguna 

OM. S aunaka Mahas ala questioned the holy Sage Pippalada 
of the Angiras gotra thus : " In this beautiful Brahmapura of 
body, the fit residence of divine beings, how are (the deities of) 
vak, etc., located ? How do they function ? To whom belongs 
this power ? He to whom this power belongs, what is He ? " 

Pippalada then having deeply considered, imparted to him 
the Brahmavidya (divine wisdom), that most excellent of 
all things. " It is prana (i.e.,) Atma. It is Atma that exer 
cises this power. It is the life of all Devas. It is their 
death and (their) life. Brahman that shines pure, nishkala, 
resplendent, and all-pervading, in this divine Brahmapura 
(of body), rules (all). The Jiva (identifying himself with) the 
indriyas, rules them like a spider. The spider throws out 
from a single thread out of his body a whole web, and 
draws it into himself by that same thread ; so prana, when 
ever it goes, draws after it the objects of its creation (vak, etc.). 
During sushupti, (the prana) goes to its seat (Brahman) through 
the nadis of which is the devata, like an eagle, that making air 
as the means of communication, reaches his abode. They say, 
as devadatta, though beaten (during sushupti) by a stick, etc., 
does not move, so also the actor does not suffer or enjoy for the 

1 In this Upanishad, the Southern Indian edition begins later on but the other 
portions also are given as being fuller. 


merits or demerits of religious actions. Just as a child obtains hap 
piness without desiring for it (in play), so also devadatta obtains 
happiness in sushupti. He certainly knows, (being) Param-Jyotis, 
and the person desiring jyotis, enjoys bliss in the contemplation 
of jyotis. Then he conies back to the dream-plane by the same 
way, like a caterpillar. It remaining on a blade of grass, first 
puts forward its foot on another blade in front, conveys its 
body to it, and having got a firm hold of it, then only leaves the 
former and not before. So this is the jagrata state. As 
this (devadatta) bears at the same time eight skulls, so this 
jagrata, the source of Devas and Vedas, clings to a man like the 
breasts in a woman. During the jagrata avastha, merit and 
demerit are postulated of this Deva (power) ; he is capable of 
great expansion and is the inner mover. He is khaga (bird), 
karkata (crab), pushkara (akas ), prana, pain, parapara, Atma 
and Brahman. This deity causes to know. He who knows thus 
obtains Brahman, the supreme, the support of all things, and 
the Kshetrajna. He obtains Brahman, the supreme, support 
of all things, and the Kshetrajna. 

1 " The Pursuha has four seats navel, heart, neck, and head. 
There Brahman with the four feet specially shines. Those feet 
are jagrata, svapna, sushupti, and turya. In jagrata he is Brahma, 
in svapna Vishnu, in sushupti Rudra, and in turya the supreme 
Akshara. He is Aditya, Vishnu, Is vara, Purusha, prana, jiva, agni, 
the resplendent. The Para-Brahman shines in the midst of 
these. He is without manas, ear, hands, feet, and light. There 
the worlds are no worlds, Devas no Devas, Vedas no Vedas, sacri 
fices no sacrifices, mother no mother, father no father, daughter- 
in-law no daughter-in-law, chandala no chandala, paulkasa no 
paulkasa, s ramana no s ramana, hermits no hermits ; so one only 
Brahman shines as different. In the Hrdayakas (akas in the 
heart) is the Chidakas . That is Brahman. It is extremely subtle. 
The Hrdayakas can be known. This moves in it. In Brahman, 
everything is strung. Those who thus know the Lord know 
everything. In him the Devas, the worlds, the Pitrs and the 
Rshis do not rule. He who has awakened knows everything. 

1 The South Indian Edition begins here. 


All the Devas are in the heart ; in the heart are all 
the pranas : in the heart are prana, jyotis and that three- 
plied holy thread. In the heart in Ghaitanya, it (prana) 
is. x Put on the yajnopavita (holy thread), the supreme, the 
holy, which came into existence along with the Prajapati, 
which gives long life and which is very excellent ; let this give 
you strength and tejas. The wise man having shaved his head 
completely, should throw away the external thread. He should 
wear, as the holy thread, the supreme and indestructible 
Brahman. It is called sutra, because suchanat (indicating) 
(that the Atma is in the heart). Sutra means the supreme 
abode. He who knows that sutra is a vipra (brahmana), he has 
crossed the ocean of the Vedas. On that sutra (thread), 
everything is strung, like the beads on the thread. The yogin, 
well versed in yoga and having a clear perception of Truth, 
should wear the thread. Practising the noble yoga, the wise 
man should abandon the external thread. He who wears the 
sutra as Brahman, he is an intelligent being. By wearing the 
sutra, he is not polluted. They whose sutra is within, whose 
yajnopavita is jnana they only know the sutra, and, they only 
wear the yajnopavita in this world. Those whose tuft of hair is 
jnana, who are firmly grounded in jnana and whose yajnopavita 
is jnana, consider jnana only as supreme. Jnana is holy and ex 
cellent. He whose s ikha (tuft of hair) is jnana like the s ikhi 
(name of agni) he, the wise one, only wears a true s ikha ; 
others wear a mere tuft of hair. Those brahmanas and others 
who perform the ceremonies prescribed in the Vedas they wear 
this thread only as a symbol of their ceremonies. Those who 
know the Vedas say that he only is a true brahmana who wears 
the s ikha of jnana and whose yajnopavita is the same (jnana). 
This yajnopavita (Yajfia means Vishnu or sacrifice and Upavita 
is that which surrounds ; hence that which surrounds Vishnu) is 
supreme and is the supreme refuge. He who wears that really 
knows he only wears the sutra, he is Yajna (Vishnu) and he only 
knows Yajfia (Vishnu). One God hidden in all things, pervades 
all things and is the Inner Life of all things. He awards the fruits 

1 This mantra is repeated whenever the holy thread is newly worn, 


of karma, he lives in all things, he sees all things without any 
extraneous help, he is the soul of all, there is nothing like him, 
and he is without any gunas (being secondless). He is the 
great wise one. He is the one doer among the many action- 
less objects. He is always making one thing appear as several 
(by maya). Those wise men who see him in bucldhi, they only 
obtain eternal peace. Having made Atma as the (upper) 
arani (attritional piece of wood) and Pranava the lower arani, 
by constant practice of dhyana one should see the concealed 
deity. As the oil in the sesamum seed, as the ghee in the curds, 
as the water in the rivers, and as the fire in the arani, so they 
who practise truth and austerities see Him in the buddhi. As 
the spider throws out and draws into itself the threads, so the 
jiva goes and returns during the jagra^a and the svapna 
states. The heart is in the form of a closed lotus-flower, with 
its head hanging down ; it has a hole in the top. Know it to be 
the great abode of All. Know that during jagrata it (jiva) dwells 
in the eye, and during svapna in the throat ; during sushupti, it 
is in the heart and during t ur y a i n the head. ^Because buddhi 
unites) the Pratyagatma with the Paramatma, the worship of 
sandhya (union) arose. So we should perform sandhyavandana 
(rites). The sandhyavandana performed by dhyana requires no 
water. It gives no trouble to the body or the speech. That 
which unites all things is the sandhya of the one-staffed 
(sannyasins) . Knowing That from which speech and mind turn 
back without being able to obtain it and That which is the bliss 
of jiva, the wise one is freed. The secret of Brahmavidya is to 
reveal the real nature of the Atma, that is all-pervading, that 
is like ghee in the milk, that is the source of atmavidya and 
tapas and to show that everything is in essence one. 
" So ends the Brahmopanishad." 

1 The five sentences from here relating to Sandhya are not to be found in 
the South Indian Edition. 




I NOW proceed to declare the vajrasuchi the weapon that is 
the destroyer of ignorance which condemns the ignorant and 
praises the man of: divine vision. 

There are four castes the brahmana, the kshatriya, 
the vais ya, and the s udra. Even the smrtis declare in accord 
ance with the words of the vedas that the brahmana alone 
is the most important of them. 

Then this remains to be examined. What is meant by the 
brahmana ? Is it a jiva ? Is it a body ? Is it a class ? Is it jnana ? 
Is it karma ? Or is it a doer of dharma ? 

To begin with : is jiva the brahmana ? No. Since the jiva is 
the same in the many past and future bodies (of all persons), and 
since the jiva is the same in all of the many bodies obtained 
through the force of karma, therefore jiva is not the brahmana. 

Then is the body the brahmana ? No. Since the body, as 
it is made up of the five elements, is the same for all people 
down to chandalas, 2 etc., since old age and death, dharma 
and adharma are found to be common to them all, since there 
is no absolute distinction that the brahmanas are white- coloured, 
the kshatriyas red, the vais yas yellow, and the s udras dark, and 
since in burning the corpse of his father, etc., the stain of 
the murder of a brahmana, etc., will accrue to the son, etc., 
therefore the body is not the brahmana. 

1 Lit., the diamond-needle-Upanishad. 
a The lowest class of persons among the Hindus. 


Then is a class the brahmana ? No. Since many great Rshis 
have sprung from other castes and orders of creation Rshya- 
s rnga was born of deer ; Kaus ika, of Kus a grass ; Jambuka of 
a jackal ; Valmiki of valmlka (an ant-hill) ; Vyasa of a fisher 
man s daughter; Gautama, of the posteriors of a hare ; Vasi- 
shtha of Urvas i x ; and Agastya of a water-pot ; thus have we 
heard. Of these, many Rshis outside the caste even have stood 
first among the teachers of divine Wisdom ; therefore a class is 
not the brahmana. 

Is jnana the brahmana ? No. Since there were many 
kshatriyas and others well versed in the cognition of divine 
Truth, therefore jnana is not the brahmana. 

Then is karma the brahmana? No. Since the prarab- 
dha 2 , sanchita 3 , and agami* karmas are the same for all beings, 
and since all people perform their actions as impelled by karma, 
therefore karma is not the brahmana. 

Then is a doer of dharma (virtuous actions) the brahmana ? 
No. Since there are many kshatriyas, etc., who are givers of 
gold, therefore a doer of virtuous actions is not the brahmana. 

Who indeed then is brahmana ? Whoever he may be, he 
who has directly realised his Atina and who is directly cogni 
zant, like the myrobalan in his palm, of his Atma that is with 
out a second, that is devoid of class and actions, that is free 
from the faults of the six stains 5 and the six changes, 6 that is of 
the nature of truth, knowledge, bliss, and eternity, that is 
without any change in itself, that is the substratum of all the 
kalpas, that exists penetrating all things that pervades every 
thing within and without as akas , that is of nature of undivided 
bliss, that cannot be reasoned about and that is known only by 
direct cognition. He who by the reason of having obtained his 
wishes is devoid of the faults of thirst after worldly objects 
and passions, who is the possessor of the qualifications beginning 

1 One of the celestial nymphs dancing in the court of Indra. 

a The karmic affinities generated by us in our former lives, the fruit of which 
is being enjoyed in our present life. 

3 The karmic affinities generated by us in our former lives and collected 
together to be enjoyed in our future lives. 

* The affinities generated by us in our present life to be enjoyed hereafter. 

5 The six stains hunger, thirst; grief, confusion, old age, and death. 

Birth, existence, etc. 


with s ama 1 , who is free from emotion, malice, thirst after world 
ly objects, desire, delusion, etc., whose mind is untouched by 
pride, egoism, etc., who possesses all these qualities and means 
he only is the brahmana. 

Such is the opinion of the vedas, the smrtis, the itihasa 
and the puranas. Otherwise one cannot obtain the status of 
a brahmana. One should meditate on his Atma as Sachchi- 
4anada, and the non-dual Brahman. Yea, one should meditate 
on his Atma as the Sachchidananda Brahman. Such is the 

Saraa, daraa, uparati, titikahii, samadhana, and sraddha. 




OM. The body is a compound of prthivi (earth) and other 
mahabhutas (primordial elements, as apas or water, agni or 
fire, vayu or air, and akas ). (In the body), that which is 
hard is (of the essence of) earth ; that which is liquid is (of 
the essence of) water; that which is hot is (of the essence of) 
fire ; that which moves about is (of the essence of) vayu ; that 
which is perforated is (of the essence of) akas . The ear and 
others are the jnanendriyas (organs of sense). The ear is of 
the essence of akas , the skin of the essence of vayu, the eye 
of the essence of fire, the tongue of the essence of water, and 
the nose of the essence of earth ; sound, touch, form, taste, and 
odour being respectively the objects of perception for these or 
gans. These arose respectively out of the primordial elements, 
beginning with earth. The mouth, the hands, the legs, the 
organs of excretion and the organs of generation are the 
karmendriyas (or organs of action). Their functions are re 
spectively talking, lifting, walking, excretion, and enjoyment. 
Antahkarana (or the internal organ) is of four kinds 
manas, buddhi, ahankara, and chitta. Their functions are 
respectively sankalpa-vikalpa, (or will-thought and doubt), 
determination, egoism, and memory. The seat of manas is the 
end of the throat, that of buddhi the face, that of ahankara the 
heart, and that of chitta the navel. The bone, skin, nadis, 
nerves, hair, and flesh are of the essence of earth. Urine, 

1 This Upanishad treats of Sorlra or the body. 


phlegm, blood, s ukla (or sperm), and sweat are of the essence of 
water. Hunger, thirst, sloth, delusion, and (desire of) copula 
tion are of the essence of fire. Walking, scratching, opening 
and closing the gross eyes, etc., are of the essence of vayu. 
Desire, anger, avarice, delusion, and fear are of the essence of 
akas . Sound, touch, form, taste, and odour are the properties of 
earth : sound, touch, form, and taste are the properties of water : 
sound, touch, and form, are the properties of fire : sound 
and touch are the properties of vayu : sound alone is the 
property of akas . There are three gunas (or qualities), 
sSttvika, rajasa, and tamasa. Non-killing, veracity, not stealing, 
continence, non-covetousness, refraining from anger, 
serving the guru, purity (in mind and body), con 
tentment, right conduct, abstinence from self-praise, freedom 
from pompousness, firm conviction in the existence of God, and 
not causing any injury to others all these are to be known as 
sattvika-gunas chiefly. I am the actor, I am the enjoyer, I am 
the speaker, and I am the egoistic such are said by knowers of 
Brahman to be rajasa-gunas. Sleep, sloth, delusion, desire, 
copulation, and theft are said by expounders of the Vedas to be 
tamasa-gunas. Those having sattva-guna (go) up (viz., to higher 
spheres) those having rajasa-guna (stay) in the middle (viz.) 
the sphere of earth) those having tamasa-guna (go) down (viz., 
to hell, etc.). Perfect (or divine) knowledge is of sattvika- 
guna; knowledge of dharma is of rajasa-guna, and mental 
darkness is of tamasa. Jagrata (waking state), svapna 
(dreaming state), sushupti (dreamless sleeping state), and 
turya (the fourth state beyond these three) are the four 
states. Jagrata is (the state) having (the play of) the 
fourteen organs, the organs of sense (five), the organs of action 
(five), and the four internal organs. Svapna is (the state) 
associated with the four internal organs. Sushupti is (the state) 
where the chitta is the only organ. Turya is that state having 
jiva alone. Regarding jivatma and Paramatma (enjoying the 
three states) of a person with opened eyes, with closed eyes, and 
with eyes in an intermediate state with neither, jiva is said to 
be the Kshetrajna (the lord of the body). The organs of sense 


(five), the organs of action (five), pranas (five), manas, and 
buddhi all these seventeen are said to constitute the sukshma or 
linga (viz., subtle) body. Manas, buddhi, ahankara, akas , vayu, 
fire, water, and earth these are the eight prakrtis (or matter) : 
ear, skin, eye, tongue, nose the fifth, Jhe organs of excretion, 
the organs of secretion, hands, legs, speech the tenth, sound, 
form, touch, taste, and odour are the fifteen modifications (of the 
above eight prakrtis). Therefore the tattvas are twenty- 
three. The twenty-fourth is avyakta (the undifferentiated 
matter) or pradhana. Purusha is other than (or superior to) 
this. Thus is the Upanishad. 




OM. The body is composed of the five (elements) ; it exists in 
the five (objects of sense, etc.); it has six supports: it is associat 
ed with the six gunas ; it has seven dhatus (essential ingredients) 
and three malas (impurities); it has three yonis (wombs) and is 
formed of four kinds of food. 

Why is the body said to be composed of five ? Because 
there are five elements in this body (viz.), prthivi, apas, agni, 
vayu, and akas . In this body of five elements, what is the prthivi 
element ? what apas ? what agni ? what vayu ? and what 
akas ? Prthivi is said to be that which is hard ; apas is said to 
be that which is liquid ; agni is said to be that which is hot ; 
vayu is that which moves ; akas is that which is full of holes 
(or tubes 2 ). Of these, prthivi is seen in supporting (objects), 
apas in cohesion, tejas (or agni) in making forms visible, vayu 
in moving, akas chiefly in avakas a (viz.j giving space). (Then 
what are the five objects of sense, etc. ?) The ear exists in 
sound, the skin in touch, the eye in forms, the tongue in taste, 
and the nose in odour. (Then) the mouth (exists) in speech, the 
hand in lifting, the feet in walking, the anus in excreting, and 
the genitals in enjoying. (Then) through buddhi, one knows 
and determines ; through manas, he thinks and fancies ; through 
chitta, he recollects ; through ahankara, he feels the idea of I . 
Thus these perform their respective functions. 

1 The Upanishad treating of embryo, etc. 

a The Sanskrit word sushira means perforated or tubular. 


Whence the six supports ? There are six kinds of rasas 
(essences or tastes) sweet, sour, saltish, bitter, astringent, and 
pungent. The body depends upon them while they depend upon 
the body. There are six changes of state (viz.), the body 
exists, is born, grows, matures, decays, and dies. And there are 
also six chakras (wheels) depending on the dhamani (nerves), 
(viz.), muladhara, svadhishthana, manipuraka, anahata, vis uddhi, 
and ajna. Also the gunas are six kama (passion) and others 
and s ama (mental restraint) and others ; there being properly 
association (with the former) and devotion (to the latter). Then 
there are seven kinds of sounds, (viz.), shad j a (sa), rshabha (ri), 
gandhara (ga), madhyama (ma), pafichama (pa), daivata (da), 
and nishada (ni), which are stated to be seven agreeable and 
disagreeable ones ; and there are seven kinds of clhatus having 
seven colours, (viz.), s ukla (white), rakta (red), krshna (dark- 
blue or indigo), dhurnra (blue), pita (yellow), kapila (orange-red), 
and pandara (yellowish white). In whomsoever these substances 
arise and increase, the rasa (essence) is the cause of the one 
following and so on (as stated below). (These) rasas are six in 
number ; from the rasas (probably chyme) arises blood : from 
blood, flesh ; from flesh, fat ; from fat, bones ; from bones, mar 
row ; and from marrow, s ukla (the male seminal fluid) . From the 
union of s ukla and s onita (the female vital energy), occurs garbha 
(conception in the womb). Being stationed in the heart, it is 
led. In the heart of persons, (there is) an internal agni ; in the 
seat of agni, there is bile ; in the seat of bile, there is vayu ; in 
the seat of vayu, is hrdya (heart or Atma). 

Through having connection at the rtu (season) fit for 
raising issues, it (the embryo formed in the womb) is like water 
in the first night ; in seven nights, it is like a bubble ; at the end 
of half a month, it becomes a ball. At the end of a month, it is 
hardened ; in two months, the head is formed ; in three months, 
the region about the feet ; and in the fourth month, the region 
about the stomach and the loins and also ankle is formed ; in the 
fifth month, the back (or spinal) bone ; in the sixth, the face of the 
nose, eyes, and ears ; in the seventh, it becomes united with Jiva 
(Atma) j in the eighth month, it becomes full (of all organs) ; in the 


ninth, it becomes fatty. S ukla belongs to men and s onita to 
women. Each (by itself) is neutral (or is powerless). (But in 
their combination) a son is born when the father s seed preponder 
ates. A daughter is born when the mother s seed preponderates. 
Should both be equal, a eunuch is born. Since females have 
more of passion, on account of their deriving more pleasure (than 
males from sexual union), a greater number of females are 
born. Action corresponds to the mental state (of the actor). 
Hence the child (born) takes after (the thought of) the parents. 
From parents with minds full of anxieties (at the time of union) 
are born the blind, the lame, the hunchback, the dwarf, and the 
limbless. (From impregnation) during the eclipses of the sun 
and the moon, children are born with defective limbs. Increase 
or decrease, similarities or dissimilarities of bodies arise (in 
children) through the influence of time, place, action, dravya 
(substance), and enjoyment. From a well-conducted intercourse 
(or union), the child being born with the form of the father 
possesses, his qualities, just as the image in a glass reflects truly 
the original. When s ukla bursts into two through the inter 
action (or blowing against one another) of the vayu of both 
s ukla and s onita, then twins (of the same sex) are born. In the 
same manner when the ret as (the seminal fluids), mz. } (s ukla 
and s onita) of both the parents burst into two, then mixed 
progeny (male and female) is the result. Among mankind, five 
embryos (only can be formed at a pregnancy in the womb). A 
womb with one embryo is common. There are some with two. 
Those with three are only to be found (as rarely) as one in a 
thousand. Where there is a frequent pouring (of seminal fluid 
into the womb), a greater number of limbs is produced (in the 
child). When the pouring (within the womb) is only once, then 
the child becomes dried up (or contracted). By pouring (with 
in) more than once, couples are (sometimes) born. 

Then, (viz., in the ninth month), this (in the body) made of 
the five elements and able to sense odour, taste, etc., through 
tejas (spiritual fire), etc., which is also made up of the five ele 
ments this cognizes the indestructible Omkara through its 
deep wisdom and contemplation. It cognizes as the one letter 


(Om). Then there arise in the body the eight prakrtis 1 and 
the sixteen vikaras (changes). Through the food and drink of 
the mother transmitted through her nadis, the child obtains 
prana. In the ninth month, it is full of all attributes. 

It then remembers its previous births, finds out what has 
been done and what has not been done, and discriminates be 
tween actions, right and wrong. (Then it thinks thus :) " Many 
thousands of wombs have been seen by me, many kinds of food 
have been tasted (by me), and many breasts have been suckled 
(by me). All parts of the world have been my place of 
birth, as also my burning-ground in the past. In eighty-four 
lakhs of wombs, have I been born. I have been often born 
and have often died. I have been subject to the cycle of re 
births very often. I have had birth and death, again birth 
and death, and again birth (and so on). There is much 
suffering whilst living in the womb. Delusion and sorrow 
attend every birth. In youth are sorrow, grief, dependence on 
others, ignorance, the non-performance of what is beneficiall 
laziness, and the performance of what is unfavourable. In 
adult age, (the sources of sorrow are) attachment to sensual 
objects and the groaning under the three kinds 3 of pain. In 
old age anxiety, disease, fear of death, desires, love of self, 
passion, anger, and non-independence all these pro 
duce very great suffering. This birth is the seed of sorrow, 
and being of the form of sorrow is unbearable. I have not 
attained the dharma of nivrtti, (viz., the means of overcoming the 
cycle of re-birth) nor have I acquired the means of yoga and 
jfiana. Alas ! I am sunk in the ocean of sorrow and find no 
remedy for it. Fie on ajfiana ! fie on ajfiana ! fie on the troubles 
caused by passion and anger; fie on the fetters of samsara (the 
mundane existence) ! I shall attain wisdom from a guru. If I get 
myself freed from the womb, then I shall practise sankhya yoga 
which is the cause of the extinction of all evil and the bestower 

1 The eight prakrtis aremulaprakrti, mahat, aharikara, and the five elements; 
the sixteen vikaras are the five organs of sense, the five organs of action, the five 
pranas, and antahkarana. 

2 The Hindus believe in so many number of wombs to be born on the earth. 

3 Those that arise from the body, the elements, and the devaa. 


of the fruit of emancipation. If I get myself freed from the 
womb, I shall seek refuge in Mahes vara (the great Lord) who is 
the cause of the extinction of all evil and bestower of the (four *) 
ends of life. If I get myself freed from the womb, then I shall 
seek refuge in that Lord of the world who is the Chidatma of 
all s aktis and the cause of all causes. If I get myself freed from 
the womb, then I shall seek refuge in that supreme Lord Bhargah 
(S iva or light) who is pas upati (the lord of pas us or souls), 
Rudra, Mahadeva (the great Deva) and the G-uru of the world. 
If I get myself freed from the bondage of the womb, I shall per 
form great penances. If I get myself freed from the passage of 
the womb, I shall worship Vishnu in my heart who is the be 
stower of nectar, who is bliss, who is Narayana, and who never 
decays. I am now confined in my mother s womb ; and were I 
freed from its bonds, I shall please the divine Yasudeva without 
diverting my mind from Him. I am burnt through actions, good 
and bad, committed by me alone before for the sake of others, 
whilst those who enjoyed the fruits thereof have disappeared. 
Through non-belief (unspirituality), I formerly gave up all fear 
(of sin) and committed sins. I now reap their fruits. I shall 
become a believer hereafter a ." 

Thus does the Jiva (Atma) within the (mother s womb) 
contemplate again and again the many kinds of miseries (it had 
undergone), and remembering always the miseries of the cycle 
of re-births, becomes disgusted (with the material enjoyments 
of the world), often fainting in the inmost centre (viz., heart) 
of all creatures at (the idea of) his avidya, desire, and karma. 
Then this being, who had entered many hundreds of female 
wombs of beings (in the previous births), comes to the 
mouth of the womb wishing to obtain release. Here being 
pressed by the yantra (neck of the uterus), it suffers much 
trouble. Moreover it is much affected by prasuti (delivery) 
vayu. As soon as it is born, it comes in contact with the 
vaishnavi vayu and ceases to remember anything of the past; 

1 They are kama (passion), artha (acquisition of wealth), dharma (perfor 
mance of duty), and moksha (salvation). 

a The reason -why it remembers them seems to be that the jivatma is in 
the pineal gland then, prior to its coming down. 


it also ceases to see far and to be the cognizer of the real. 
Coming into contact with the earth, it becomes fierce-eyed and 
debased. The evil of the eye after it is rubbed with (or cleaned 
by) water vanishes ; and with it, vanishes memory of birth and 
death, good and bad actions and their affinities. Then how does 
he understand vayu, bile, and s leshma (phlegm) ? When they 
are in their proper state, they produce health : with their dis 
turbance, diseases are generated. It should be known that one 
becomes capable of knowing through a proper quantity of bile ; 
through having a little more or a little less of it, he comes to 
know more. When the bile is changed (otherwise), he becomes 
changed and acts like a mad man. And that bile is agni. Agni 
influenced by karma is kindled by vayu, the source (or seat) of 
virtue and vice, as fuel is kindled within (by fire) from without 
(by the wind). 

And of how many kinds is that agni ? It has three bodies, 
three retas (seeds or progeny), three puras (cities), three dhatus, 
and three kinds of agni threefold. Of these three, Vais vanara is 
bodiless. And that agni becomes (or is subdivided into) Jnanagni 
(wisdom-fire), Dars anagni (eye-fire), and Koshthagni (digestive 
fire). Of these Jnanagni pertains to the mind ; Dars anagni per 
tains to the senses \ and Koshthagni pertains to dahara and daily 
cooks (or digests) equally whatever is eaten, drunk, licked, or 
sucked through prana and apana. Dars anagni is (in) the eye 
itself and is the cause of vijnana and enables one to see all objects 
of form. It has three seats, the (spiritual) eye itself being the 
(primary) seat, and the eyeballs being the accessory seats. 
Dakshinagni is in the heart, Garhapatya is in the belly, and in 
the face is Ahavaniya. (In this sacrifice with the three agnis), 
the Purusha is himself the sacrificer ; buddhi becomes his wife ; 
santosha (contentment) becomes the dlksha (vow) taken ; the 
mind and the organs of the senses become the sacrificial vessels ; 
the karmendriyas (organs of action) are the sacrificial instruments. 
In this sacrifice of the body, the several devas who become the 
rtvijas (sacrificial priests) perform their parts following the 
master of the sacrifice, (viz., the true individuality), wherever 
he goes. In this (sacrifice), the body is the sacrificial place, 


the skull of the head is the fire-pit, the hairs are the kus a 
grass ; the mouth is the antarvedi (raised platform in sacri 
fice) ; kama (or passion) is the clarified butter ; the period of 
life is the period of sacrifice ; nada (sound) produced in dahara 
(heart) is the samaveda (recited during the sacrifice) ; vaikharl 
is the yajus (or yajurveda hymns) ; para, pas yanti, and madh- 
yama x are the rks (or rgveda hymns) ; cruel words are the 
atharvas (atharvaveda hymns) and khilas (supplementary texts 
of each veda) ; true words are the vyahrtis 2 . Life, strength, 
and bile are the pas us (sacrificial creatures) and death is 
avabhrta (the bath which concludes the sacrifice). In this sacri 
fice, the (three) fires blaze up and then according to (the desires 
of) the wordly, the devas bless him. All who are living (in 
this world) are the sacrificers. There is none living who does 
not perform yajfia (sacrifice). This body is (created) for yajna, 
and arises out of yajna and changes according to yajna. If 
this yajna is continued in a direction changed (from the right 
course, or is abused), then it leads to an ocean of misery. 

In this body, there are sixteen side-teeth, having each a 
membrane (as its root) and fifteen openings. It (the body) is 
measured by ninety-six digits. There are in it fourteen 
nadi seats and 108 joints. There are seventy-two tubes 
seats with seventy-two nadis between them, of which three 
are important, viz., ida, pingala, and sushumna, the fourth 
is puritati, and jivata the fifth. Above jivata is bile and 
near bile is Puritati. Above the navel, two digits to the left of 
it, is seated the source of bile. The food taken in is divided 
into three parts urine, faeces, and sara (the essence or chyme). 
The urine dividing itself into two, spreads to the left below 
the navel. The faeces is in the right side and is of seven 
kinds. The sara is of five kinds and spreads itself over 
the body. Hence the semen and blood are produced from 
food and drink. In this body, vayu which is moving as prana 
is the Sutratma. Through it, one inspires and expires and 
moves (his limbs). Without it, no limb of the body will be 

1 Vaikharl and the three others are the different stages of nada (sound). 
a Vyahrtis are parts of the Gayatri Mantra, -ytg., Bhuh, Bhuvah, Suvah. 


animated. Through vayu, the current of blood is driven into tho 
nadis from the chakra (plexus) of the heart, find those which 
can be touched (on the body) are easily discernible. ThlTJuicy 
essences (of food) which arise out ol digestion enter the womb 
which is suspended in the stomach of Jhe mother and coming 
near the child s head nourishes the child s prana through the 
sushumna (on the head or pineal gland). Sushumna is the 
Brahma-nadi. Prana and others are found there. It 
(prana) descends lower and lower as the time of birth 
approaches and settles in the heart when the child is 
born. Through yoga, it should be brought from the middle 
of the eyebrows to the end of sushumna (viz., the pineal 
gland), when he becomes the cognizer of the Real like the child 
in the womb. In the body of this nature, Atma is latent and 
deathless, and is the witness and Purusha. It lives in this 
body, being enveloped (by may a). Pram (or the jiva having 
prana) has abhim&na (identification with the body) on account of 
avidya. Ajriana which surrounds it is the seed ; the antahkarana 
(internal organ) is the sprout and the body is the tree. In this 
tree (of body), there are eight crores of hairs, eighty hundreds of 
joints, nine hundreds of tendons, eight palams of heart 1 , twelve 
palams of tongue, one prastha (or two palams) of bile ; one 
adhaka of phlegm, one kudupa (or */4 prastha) of s ukla and two 
prasthas of marrow. One should consider everything as evanesc 
ent, like the child in the womb (with its prana, etc.,) stationed 
in the sushumna (of the head). Then he becomes freed and 
gets no more body. If not, an ignorant man becomes subject to 
the cycle of re-births, etc., is exposed like a worm to the drink 
of urine and faeces, and undergoes in this body the sufferings 
of hell. Therefore knowing all this, one should be averse to 
worldly objects. Thus ends the moksha-s astra of Pippalada 
thus ends the moksha-s astra of Pippalada. Thus ends the 

1 Eight palams are 3 / 6 of a Ib. (avdp.) 




OM. Brhaspati asked Yajnavalkya : " That which is called 
Kurukshetra is the place of the sacrifice of the Devas and the 
spiritual seat of all beings. Therefore where should one go 
in order that he may cognize Kurukshetra, the place of the 
sacrifice of the Devas and the spiritual seat of all beings ? " (To 
which Yajnavalkya replied :) " Avimukta 2 is Kurukshetra, the 
place of the sacrifice of the Devas and of the study of Brahman, 
because it is there that Rudra initiates one into the Taraka 3 
Brahman when prana (life) goes out. Through this, one becomes 
immortal and the enjoyer of moksha. Therefore one should 
always be in the midst of that place aviuiukta, and should never 
leave, reverend sir, avimukta." Thus said Yajnavalkya. 

Then Bharadvaja asked Yajnavalkya : " What is taraka ? 
what is that which causes one to cross (this mundane existence) ." 
To which Yajnavalkya replied : " Om-Namo-Narayanaya is the 
taraka. It should be worshipped as Chidatma. Om is a single 
syllable and of the nature of Atma. Namah is of two syllables 
and is of the nature of prakrti (matter) . Narayanaya is of five 
syllables and is of the nature of Parabrahman. He who knows 
this becomes immortal. Through Om, is Brahma produced; 
through Na is Vishnu produced; through Ma is Rudra produced; 
through Na is Is vara produced ; through Ra is the Anda- 
Virat (or Virat of the universe) produced ; through Ya is 

1 This Upanishad treats of the sara (essence) for tara (crossing). 

2 It is one of the many names given to Benares. 

3 r .Caraka is Om from fr } to cross. 



Purusha produced ; through Nd is Bhagavan (Lord) produced ; 
and through Ta is Paramatma produced. This Ashtakshara 
(eight syllables) of Narayana is the supreme and the highest 
Purusha. Thus is the Rgveda with the first foot (or half). 
That which is Om is the indestructible, the supreme, and Brah 
man. That alone should be worshipped. It is this that is of 
the eight subtle syllables. And this becomes eight, being of eight 
forms. A is the first letter U is the second j M is the third ; 
Bindu is the fourth; Nada is the fifth; Kala is the sixth; 
Kalatlta (that beyond kala) is the seventh ; and that which is 
beyond these is the eighth. It is called Taraka, because it 
enables one to cross this mundane existence. Know that 
Taraka alone is Brahman and it alone should be worshipped." 
The (following) verses may be quoted here : " From the 
letter A came Brahma named Jambavan (the bear 1 ). From the 
letter U came Upendra a , named Hari. From the letter M came 
Siva, known as Hanuman 3 . Bindu is named Is vara and is S atru- 
ghna, the Lord of the discus itself. Nada should be known as 
the great Lord named Bharata and the sound of the conch 
itself. From Kala came the Purusha himself as Laksh- 
mana and the bearer of the earth. Kalatlta is known as the 
goddess Sita Herself. That which is beyond is the Paramatma 
named Sfri-Rama and is the highest Purusha. All this is the 
explanation of the letter Om, which i s the past, the present, and 
future, and which is other than these (m z.,) tattva, mantra, 
varna, (colour), devata (deity), chhandas (metre), rk, kala, s akti, 
and srshti (creation). He who knows this becomes immortal. 
(Thus is) Yajurveda with the second foot." 

Then Bharadvaja asked Yajnavalkya : " Through what 
mantra is Paramatma pleased and shows his own Atma (to per 
sons) ? Please tell this." Yajnavalkya replied : 

" (1st Mantra :) Om. He who is S rl -Paramatma, Narayana, 
and the Lord described by (the letter) A and is Jambavan (the 
bear) and Bhuh, Bhuvah, and Suvah : Salutation to Him." 

1 As the bear, Brahma incarnated according to the Ramayana . 

a As Upendra, Vishnu incarnates in the lower ^alaas well in the legs in man. 

8 Hanuman is the incarnation of vayu, one of the elements of Siva. 


" (2nd Mantra :) He who is Paramatma, Narayana, and the 
Lord described by (the letter) U and is Upendra (or) Hari and 
Bhuh, Bhuvah, and Suvah : Salutation to Him. 

" (3rd Mantra :) Om. He who is S ri-Paramatma, Narayana, 
and the Lord described by (the letter) M and is of the form of 
Sfiva (or), Hanuman and Bhuh, Bhuvah, and Suvah : Salutation 
to Him. 

" (4th Mantra :) Om. He who is S ri-Paramatma, Narayana, 
the Lord of S^atrughna * of the form of Bindu and the Bhuh, 
Bhuvah, and Suvah : Salutation to Him. 

" (5th Mantra :) Om. He who is S ri-Paramatma, Narayana, 
and the Lord, and is Bharata l of the form of Nada and the 
Bhuh Bhuvah, and Suvah : Salutation to Him. 

" (6th Mantra:) Om. He who is S ri-Paramatraa, Narayana, 
and the Lord, and is Lakshmana of the form of Kala and the 
Bhuh, Bhuvah, and Suvah : Salutation to Him. 

" (7th Mantra:) Om. He who is S ri-Paramatma, Narayana, 
and the Lord, and is Kala^ita, tho Goddess Sita, of the form of 
Chit and the Bhuh, Bhuvah, and Suvah : Salutation to Him. 

" (8th Mantra :) Om. He who is S ri-Paramatma, Narayana, 
and the Lord that is beyond that (Kalatita), is the supreme 
Purusha, and is the ancient Purushottama, the eternal, the 
immaculate, the enlightened, the emancipated, the true, the 
highest bliss, the endless, the secondless, and the all-full that 
Brahman is myself. I am Rama and the Bhuh, Bhuvah, and 
Suvah : Salutation to Him." 

He who has mastered this eightfold mantra is purified by 
Agni ; he is purified by Vayu ; he is purified by the sun ; he is 
purified by S iva ; he is known by all the Devas. He attains the 
fruit of reciting Itihasas, Puranas, Rudra (Mantras), a hundred 
thousand times. He who repeatedly remembers (or recites) 
the Ashtakshara (the eight-syllabled mantra) of Narayana 
gains the fruit of the recitation of Gayatri a hundred thousand 
times or of Pranava (Om) a myriad of times. He purifies (his 
ancestors) ten (degrees) above and (his descendants) ten 

1 Bharata is rather the incarnation of discus or consciousness and Satrughna, 
that of conch viz., akasic sound. 


(degrees) below. He attains the state of Narayana. He who 
knows this (attains the state of Narayana). 

Like the eye (which sees without any obstacle) the things 
spread (in the sky), the wise ever see this supreme seat of 
Vishnu. Brfihmanas who are spiritually awake praise in diverse 
ways and illuminate the supreme abode of Vishnu. Thus is the 
Upanishad. (Thus is) the Samaveda with the third foot. 




OM. Then Narayana, the supreme Purusha desired. " I shall 
create offspring/ From Narayana emanates prana, manas, 
the several organs of sense and action, akas , vayu, agni, apas 
and prthivi that supports all. From Narayana emanates 
Brahma. From Narayana emanates Budra. From Narayana 
emanates Indra. From Narayana emanates Prajapati (the divine 
progenitor). From Narayana emanates the twelve adityas 
rudras, vasus, and all the chhandas (Vedas). From Narayana 
only do (all these) proceed. Through Narayana do (they) 
prosper. In Narayana (they) are absorbed. The Rgveda 
teaches this. 

Then Narayana is eternal. Brahma is Narayana, S iva 
is Narayana, Indra is Narayana, Kala (time) is Narayana, Dik 
(space) is Narayana, the intermediate quarters also are Narayana ; 
that which is above is Narayana, that which is below is Nara 
yana, that which is in and out is Narayana, the whole universe 
which existed and will exist is Narayana. Narayana is the only 
one that is stainless, sinless, changeless, and unnameable, and 
that is pure and divine. There is no second. Whoever 
knows Him thus, becomes Vishnu Himself. The Yajurveda 
teaches this. 

One should utter " Om " first, then " namah, " and 
then " Narayanaya." "Om" (is) a single syllable; " Namah" 
contains two syllables : " Narayanaya contains five syllables. 
This is the sentence known as the Ashtakshara 1 of Narayana. 

1 The eight syllables. 


Whoever studies this Ashtakshara of Narayana and recites it 
constantly, attains fall life and supremacy over men, enjoys the 
pleasures of royalty and becomes the master of all souls. He 
attains moksha ; yea, he attains moksha. The Samaveda teaches 

The Yogin having pronounced (the name of) Him who is 
complete bliss, who is Brahrna-purusha and who is of the nature 
of Pranava (Om) a combination of A, U, and M is released 
from the bondage of birth and mundane existence. He who 
practises the mantra " Om-Namo-Narayanaya " reaches Vaikuntha 
(the abode of Vishnu). It is this lotus (heart). It is replete 
with vijnana : It has the brilliancy of lightning. The son 
of Devaki is Brahmanya 1 . Madhusudana is Brahmanya. 
Narayana who pervades all elements, who is one only, who is 
the cause Purusha and who is causeless, is known as 
Parabrahman. The Atharvana Upanishad teaches this. 

Whoever recites (this Upanishad) in the morning destroys 
the sins committed the night (before). Whoever recites it 
in the evening destroys the sins committed during the day. 
Whoever recites morning and evening becomes free from sins, 
however sinful he may be. Whoever recites (it) in the noon 
facing the sun is freed from all the five 2 great sins as well as 
from the minor ones. He derives the good effects of the 
recitation of all the Vedas. Whoever knows thus attains 
Sayujya of Narayana (viz., is absorbed in the essence of Nara 
yana). He attains Sayujya of Narayana. Thus is the 

1 Means Yishnu or Brahma devoted to Tapas, Vedas, Truth, and Jiiana. 

2 They are theft of gold, drinking alcohol, the murder of a Brnhman, and 
unlawful union with the guru s wife and association with them. 




AT the end of Dvapara yuga, Narada a went to Brahma and 
addressed him thus: " Lord, how shall I, roaming 3 over the 
earth, be able to cross Kali ? " To which Brahma thus replied : 
" Well asked. Hearken to that which all Sfrutis (the Yedas) 
keep secret and hidden, through which one may cross the sam- 
sara (mundane existence) of Kali. He shakes off (the evil 
effects of) Kali through the mere uttering of the name of the 
Lord Narayana, who is the primeval Purusha." Again Narada 
asked Brahma : " What is the name ? " To which Hiranyagarbha 
(Brahma) replied thus: (the words are:) " 1. Hare, 2. Rama, 
3. Hare, 4. Rama, 5. Rama, 6. Rama, 7. Hare, 8. Hare ; 9. Hare 
10. Krshna, 11. Hare, 12. Krshna, 13. Krshna, 14. Krshna 15. Hare, 
16. Hare. These sixteen names (words) are destructive of the evil 
effects of Kali. No better means than this is to be seen in all 
the Yedas. These (sixteen names) destroy the ilvarana (or the 
centripetal force which produces the sense of individuality) of 
jiva surrounded by the sixteen kalas (rays). Then like the 

1 This Upanishad treats of the means of crossing Kali completely : Narada 
having asked the question in Dvapara yuga the third of the four yugas. 

2 Narada is called Kali-Karaka or the generator of kali or strife and discord. 
If Narada is himself the strife-maker, why should he go to Brahma for the 
means of crossing Kali ? Narada being himself an adjuster of the laws of 
karma, this Upanishad gives the means of getting over strife, etc., in this Kali- 
age when the whole of nature is thrown off its balance by the depraved tendencies 
of men. The jiva has sixteen kalas, corresponding to which sixteen mantras or 
words are given. 

3 The story is that he was cursed by Daksha to roam over the worlds with a 
lute in his hand (viz., to adjust the laws of harmony). 


sphere of the sun which shines fully after the clouds (screening 
it) disperse, Parabrahman (alone) shines." 

Narada asked : " Lord, what are the rules to be observed 
with reference to it ? " To which Brahma replied that there 
were no rules for it. Whoever in a pure or an impure state, 
utters these always, attains the same world of, or proximity 
with, or the same form of, or absorption into Brahma. 

Whoever utters three and a half kotis 1 (or thirty-five millions) 
times this mantra composed of sixteen names (or words) crosses 
the sin of the murder of a Brahmana. He becomes purified from 
the sin of the theft of gold. He becomes purified from the sin 
of cohabitation with a woman of low caste. He is purified 
from the sins of wrong done to pitrs, devas, and men. Having 
given up all dharmas, he becomes freed at once from all 
sins. He is at once released from all bondage. That he is at 
once released from all bondage is the Upanishad. 

- This number can be reached by uttering the mantra completely within one 
year if uttered at the rate of a lakh per day : and within ten years if uttered at the 
rate of 10,000 per day ; and within 100 years if uttered at the rate of 1,000 per 





AMONG bhikshus (religious mendicants) who long for mok- 
sha (salvation), there are four 2 kinds, viz., Kutichaka, Bahu- 
daka, Hamsa, and Paramahamsa. Gautama, Bharadvaja, 
Yajnavalkya, Vasishtha and others belong to the first kind. 
They take eight mouthfuls (of food daily) and strive after mok- 
sha alone through the path of yoga. The second kind carry 
three (bamboo) staves (tied together) and a waterpot, and wear 
tuft of hair (s ikha), sacred thread (yajfiopavita) and red-colour 
ed cloth. They take eight mouthfuls of food in the house of 
Brahmarshis, abstain from flesh and alcohol and strive after 
emancipation alone through the path of yoga. Then the Ham- 
sas should live not more than a night in a village, five nights in 
a town, and seven nights in a sacred place, partaking daily of 
cow s urine and cow s dung, observing Chandrayana 3 and 
striving after moksha alone through the path of yoga. 
Paramahamsas like Samvartaka, Arum, S wetaketu, Jada- 
bharata, Dattatreya, S uka, Vamadeva, Harltaka and others 
take eight mouthfuls and strive after moksha alone through 
the path of yoga. They live clothed or naked at the foot 
of trees, in ruined houses, or in burning grounds. With 

1 One who lives on bhiksha or alms. Hence a religious mendicant. 

3 In Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad there are stated to be six kinds. 

3 A religious expiatory ceremony regulated by the moon s age diminishing 
the daily consumption of food daily by one mouthful for the dark half of the 
month beginning with fifteen at the full moon until it is reduced to one at the 
new moon and then increasing it in like manner during the fortnight of the moon s 
increase. WILSON. 


them, there are no dualities as dharma and adharma, gain 
and loss, and purity and impurity. They look upon gold 
and stone and clod of earth with the same ; eye (of indif 
ference), live on alms, begging from all without any distinction 
of caste and look upon everything as Atma alone. Being 
(naked) as nature made them, being free from the sense 
of duality and from covetousness, being engaged in pure con 
templation (s ukladhyana), meditating on Ama, and begging 
at stated times, simply to keep the body and soul together, 
they reside in ruined houses, temples, straw-huts, ant-hills, 
the foot of trees, potteries, the places of agnihotra, the sand in 
the bed of rivers, mountain-caves, cavities, the hollows of trees, 
waterfalls, and sthandila (the level square piece of ground 
prepared for sacrifice). Having advanced far in the path of 
Brahman, and being pure in mind, they quit this body through 
the methods prescribed for Paramahamsa Sannyasins. These are 
the Paramahamsas. Such is the Upanishad. 





OM. Once upon a time, Narada, the ornament of Parivrajakas 
(roaming ascetics), after roaming over all worlds and cleansing, 
through merely by looking at the places of pilgrimage able to 
impart rare religious merits, observed, with a mind that had 
attained purity, without hate, quiescent and patient, and in 
different towards all (objects), the forest of Naimis a (the 
modern Nimsar), filled with Rshis that were engaged in the 
contemplation of Reality and had attained the greatness of the 
ordained bliss ; (there) through the recitation of stories about 
Hari (Vishnu), associated with the musical motes of Sa, Ri, Ga, 
Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni (of the gamut), able to impart indifference 
to objects and to make one look down upon the universe, and 
instilling divine devotion, fixed and movable (or mental and 
bodily), he entered (the forest), fascinating the crowds of beings 
human, animal, Kimpurushas 1 , celestials, Kinnaras, 3 Apsaras 
(Houris), and Uragas 3 (collected there). (Thereupon the) great 
Rshis S aunaka and others who had been engaged for twelve 
years in sattra sacrifice well-skilled in the recitation of Vedas, the 
knowers of all, and the good practisers of tapas, observed Narada 
the son of Brahma and the devotee of the Lord, and having 

1 A higher being with the form of a horse but with a human head. 
3 A higher being with a human form but with the head of a horse. 
3 A semidivine serpent with a human face. 


risen up, paid due respect to him. Then having with due 
respect requested him to sit down, they also seated themselves 
and addressed him thus : " Lord, son of Bfrahrnii, what is 
the means of salvation for us ? It is meet that it should be 
communicated (to us)." Thus addressed^ Narada replied to them 
thus : " One born in a good family and fit to go through the forty- 
four samskaras, upanayana and others, should, under a teacher 
to whom he is devoted, study, after the recitation of the 
Veda of his own s akha (division), all the different branches 
of knowledge ; then should fulfil, according to the rules 
ordained, for twelve years the observance of Brahmacharya 
(celibacy), such as the service of the guru, etc.; then for twenty- 
five years the as rama (order of life) of a grhastha (house 
holder), and for twenty-five years the as rama of a vanaprastha 
(forester). After thus practising well the fourfold celibacy, 1 the 
sixfold 2 householder s life, and the fourfold 3 forester s life, and 
having performed all the duties thereof, he should acquire the 
fourfold* means of salvation ; thus the sannyasin who gives up the 
desires along with the karmas of mind, speech, and body in 
this samsara as well as the vasana towards the threefold desire 
(of son, wife, and wealth), and being without malice and endowed 
with quiescence and patience, undisturbed in the order of life of 
Paramahamsa, quits the body in the contemplation of Reality, is 
an emancipated person. Such is the Upanishad." 


All the Rshis, S aunaka and others addressing Lord Narada 
said thus : " Lord, please tell us the rules of sannyasa." At 
which, seeing them, Narada replied : a It is but meet that 
we should know the whole truth from the mouth of Brahma 

1 The four Brahmacharyas are : (1) Gayatrl ; (2) Prajapatya ; (31 Vaidika; 
(4) Naishtika. 

2 The six Grhasthas are : (1) Vartavrtti ; viz., Agriculture ; (2) Sallnavrtti ; 
(3) Yayavara ; (4) Ghorasannyasin ; etc. 

3 The four Vanaprasthas are: (1) Audumbara ; (2) Vaikhanasa ; (3) 
Samprakshuli ; (4) Pournama. 

* They are Viveka, Vairagya, etc. 


Himself." After the sattra sacrifice was completed, he took the 
rshis along with him to satyaloka ; and after duly making pro 
strations to and eulogising Brahma engaged in meditation upon 
Brahman, he along with others was duly seated under the orders 
of Brahma. Then Narida addressed Brahma thus : " Thou art 
guru ; thou art father ; thou art the knower of the secret of all 
learning ; thou art the knower of all ; thou shalt therefore tell me 
one secret. Who else but thee is fit to tell the secret dear unto 
me ? It is this. Please tell us the rules of the real sannyasa 

Thus prayed to by Narada, Brahma surveyed all in the four 
quarters; and after meditating for one muhurta (48 minutes), 
and assuring himself that the inquiry was truly for the purpose 
of escaping from the pain of samsara, Brahma eyeing Narada, 
said thus : " The mystery that was imparted before by Virat- 
Purusha of illimitable form according to the Purusha-Sukta- 
Upanishad is now being divulged to you. It is very mysterious. 
It is fit to be hearkened to with great attention. Narada, one 
born in a good family and obedient to his parents, should, after 
the performance of upanayana according to the rules, find a virtu 
ous guru that is other than his father, is of good custom and 
habits, of faith, born of good family, a knower of Yedas, a lover 
of S astras, of (good) qualities and free from duplicity. Having 
made prostrations and rendered useful service to him, he should 
respectfully acquaint him with his intention. Having studied 
all departments of knowledge and rendered service for twelve 
years, he should, under his (the guru s) orders, marry a girl fit for 
his family and dear unto him. Then having performed for twenty- 
five years the karmas incidental to a householder and attained the 
status of a Brahmana that has performed sacrifices and the rest, 
he should beget a son with the only desire of perpetuating the 
family. After thus spending twenty-five years in the performance 
of household dharma, he should bathe thrice daily for twenty-five 
years and take only one meal in the fourth period ; he should live 
alone in the forest, after giving up his previous wanderings in 
city and village ; and without desire for fruit, should perform 
the karmaa incidental to that (forester s) order of life, and be 



without desire for objects seen and heard. Being skilled in the 
forty samskiiras, he should be devoid of desire for all, have a 
purified mind, have burnt up desire, jealousy, erivy and egoism, 
and have developed the four means of salvation. Then he 
becomes fit for sannyasa. Such is the Upanishad." 


Then Narada addressed the grandfather thus : 
" Lord, by whom, after attaining the qualifications of 
sannyasa, is it fit to be taken ? " To which Brahma replied : 
" After first expounding the qualifications of sannyasa, the 
rules of sannyasa will then be stated. Hearken carefully. 
A eunuch, the outcaste, the maimed, the lewd, the deaf, 
the youth, the dumb, the heretic, the discus-bearer, the Linga- 
wearer, the vaikhanasa (forester), the Haradhvaja (carrier of 
Sava s flag), the reciter of Vedas for hire, the bald-headed, one 
without (sacrificial) fire all these, even though they have 
attained vairagya are unfit for sannyasa. Even though they 
have become sannyasins, they are unfit to be initiated into 
the mahavakyas (sacred vedic sentences). The Paramahamsa 
sannyasin stated before (as fit to take sannyasa) is the one 
qualified. It is stated in the smrtis that he is a parivrat who is 
not afraid of others, as others are not afraid of him. The eunuch, 
the limbless, the blind, the youth, the sinful, the outcaste, the 
door-keeper, the vaikhanasa, the Haradhvaja, the chakri (discus- 
bearer), the Lingi (Liiiga-wearer), the heretic, the bald-headed, 
one without fire (sacrifice), one that had undergone sannyasa 
twice or thrice, the reciter of Vedas for hire all these are not 
fit for regular sannyasa but only for atura-sannyasa (viz., 
sannyasa taken while a person is afflicted, etc.). What is the 
opinion of aryas (Hindus) on the (fit) time for atura-sannyasa 
(being taken) ? The time when prana (life) is about to rise 
(out of the body) is called atura. The time other than it is in 
capable of conferring (upon one) the path of salvation and is 
not atura. Even in atura-sannyasa, the wise should according 
to rules, initiate themselves into sannyasa after reciting the 


mantras again and again in the course of respective mantras. 
There is no difference between regular and atura-sannyasa in the 
mantras to be uttered at the time of taking sannyasa. There is 
no karma without mantras; (hence) karma needs mantras. 
Anything done without mantra cannot be termed karma. Hence 
mantras should not be given up. Any karma done without 
mantra is like an offering made in ashes. Through the con 
ciseness (of the performance) of the karmas, it i* stated to be 

" Therefore, Muni, the recitation of mantras is stated 
to be in atura-sannyasa. One who is always duly doing agni- 
hotra (fire-sacrifice) should, when he quits (the house) for 
foreign places through indifference, perform the prajapatya 
sacrifice in water and then take up sannyasa. After complet 
ing in water the observances of karma through the mind, or 
the recitation of mantras, the wise man should attain sannyasa. 
Else he becomes a fallen man. When, in the mind, indifference 
to all objects arises, then men should long after sannyasa, (that 
being the best time for it) ; otherwise they are fallen. One 
who attains vairagya should take sannyasa. One who does not, 
should remain at home. That vile twice-born with desire, 
should he take sannyasa, reaches hell. That Brahmana who is 
a celibate, who has under control his tongue, sexual organ, 
stomach, and hand may become a sannyasin without undergoing 
the ceremony of marriage. Having known samsara as one 
without sara (or essence) and not having undergone any mar 
riage on account of the desire to know the sara (or essence of 
God), they become sannyasins on account of the practice of the 
supreme vairagya. The characteristic of pravrtti (path) is the 
performance of karma; that of nivrtti is jnana. Therefore 
placing jfiana in the forefront, the wise man should take up 
sannyasa. When the reality of the eternal Parabrahman is 
understood, then he should take up one danda (staff) and 
abandon the holy thread and tuft of hair. Then he becomes 
fit to eat the alms-food (of sannyasa), having become devoted 
to Paramatma, indifferent to those that are not-Paramatma 
and freed from all desires. He becomes fit to be the eater of 


alms-food who preserves the same countenance wnen he is beaten, 
as when he is worshipped or prostrated to. He becomes tit to be 
the eater of alms-food who is of the firm certitude that he is 
no other than the non-dual and indestructible Brahman, 
otherwise named Vasudeva. He in whom are existent s anti 
(control of the organs), s ama (control of mind), purity 
(of mind and body), satya (truth), santosha (contentment), 
arjava (straightforwardness), poverty, and non-ostentatiousness 
should be in the order of life of kaivalya (sannyasa) . When 
one does not, through actions, mind, or speech, commit any sinful 
action to any being, then he becomes fit for eating alms-food. 
Having become quiescent (through the control of the mind), 
having practised the ten kinds of dharmas, having, according to 
rules, studied vedanta, and having paid the three debts (to 
devas, rshis, and pitrs), one should take up sannyasa. Cour 
age, fortitude, the control of the body, honesty, purity of (mind 
and body), control of the (inner) organs, shame, knowledge, 
truth, and absence of anger these ten are the characteristics of 
dharma. One who does not look back (with pleasure) upon past 
enjoyments, nor forward into the future, and one who does not 
rejoice in the present, is fit to become a sannyasin. One who is 
able to control within, the inner organs and without, the external 
organs, may be in the order of life of kaivalya. One who while in 
life is not affected by pleasures and pains, as the body is unaffect 
ed by them after death, may be in the order of life of kaivalya. 
" An ascetic of the Paramahamsa (order) shall wear two 
loin-cloths, one ragged cloth, and one staff. Nothing more is 
ordained (in his case). Should he through desire wear more 
than these, he will fall into the hell of raurava and be born into 
the womb of an animal. Having stitched together old and 
clean cloths into one and having coloured it with red (ochre), 
he should wear it as his upper cloth. He may be with one 
cloth or even without it. He should roam about alone with the 
sole vision (of Brahman), devoid of desires; but he may be 
in one place alone in the rainy season. Having quite aban 
doned his family, including son and wife, vedanta, sacrifice, 
and the sacred thread, the ascetic should wander incognito. 


Having given up all faults, such as passion, anger, pride, desire, 
and delusion, the parivrat (ascetic) should become one that 
owns nothing, p He is a muni who is devoid of love and hate, 
who regards equally a clod of earth, stone, or gold, who does no in 
jury to any living creature, and is freed from all. That ascetic 
reaches salvation who is associated with Atmajfiana, who is freed 
from ostentation and egoism, from doing injury and tale-bearing. 
Through attraction to the senses, he becomes subject to fault, 
there is no doubt : through their control, he gains perfection. 
Lust when enjoyed is never gratified. Just as fire increases 
with the oblation (of ghee, etc., poured into it) so also lust waxes 
strong (with enjoyment). It should be known that that man 
who does not rejoice or grieve through hearing, touching, eating, 
seeing, or smelling is a jitendriya (conqueror of the organs). 
He whose speech and mind are well brought under control 
attains, completely and always, all the fruits of vedanta. 

" That Brahmana who is always afraid of respect as poison 
and always longs after disrespect as nectar, sleeps soundly and 
rises happily even though he is treated with disrespect. He 
moves about happily in this world. The one who treats him with 
disrespect perishes. All cruel words should be endured. None 
should be treated with disrespect. On account of bodily relation 
ship, none should be made inimical. No anger should be directed 
in turn towards one who is angry. Soft words (only) should be 
spoken, even when (violently) palled by another. No untrue 
words should be uttered, even should afflictions arise to the seven 
gates (of the body). One desirous of bliss should dwell in this 
universe through the aid of Atma alone, intent upon Atma, free 
from desires, and without the desire of blessing (others). He be 
comes fit for salvation through the control of the organs, the de 
struction of love and hate and non-injury to beings. He should 
abandon (all identification with) this feeble, perishable, and 
impure body of five elements whereof the bones are the pillars, 
which is strung by the nerves, coated over with flesh and blood, 
covered up by the skin, is of bad odour, full of urine and faeces 
is ever haunted by dotage and miseries and is the seat of all ills. 
If an ignorant man be fond of this body firmly knit together 


with flesh, blood, pus, faeces, and urine, nerves, fat, and bones, 
he would, a fortiori, be fond of hell. That (identification of the 
body with the Self) is alone the seat of the Kalajutra hell. That 
is alone the Maha-Vichi-Vagura (hell). Ttjit is alone the 
Asipatravanas reni (hell). Such an idea of the body being the 
Self should be strenuously abandoned, though all should perish. 
That love of the body is not fit to be felt by one intent upon his 
welfare, just as a low-caste woman eating dog s flesh is unfit to 
be touched. 

" One (fit to reach salvation), after leaving all meritorious 
actions to those dear to him and all sins to those not dear, at 
tains the eternal Brahman through dhyana-yoga. Such a man, 
through the ordinances, gives up little by little all associations, 
and being freed from all pairs of opposites, remains in Brahman 
alone. On account of the accomplishment (of salvation), he 
should be moving about alone and without any help. He who 
having understood the effect of being alone never derogates 
from it, is never left in want. The bowl, the foot of the tree, the 
tattered robe, the state of being without help, the equality of 
vision in all these are the characteristics of the emancipated 
one. One intent upon the welfare of all beings, with a quiescent 
mind, having the three-knotted staff and bowl, and ever devoted 
to the One (Brahman), after taking up sannyasa, may enter a 
village. Such one is a bhikshu (alms-taker). Should two unite, 
it is called mithuna (a pair or union) ; with three, it becomes a 
grama (or village) ; with more, it is a nagara (or city). No city 
or village, or, mithuna should be made, and an ascetic who 
commits these three (offences) falls from his duty. Through 
such intercourse (of ascetics), all kinds of talks connected with 
the king and alms, friendship, tale-bearing, and malice occur 
between them. There is no doubt of it. 

" He (the ascetic) should be alone and desireless. He should 
not converse with anybody. The ascetic should ever be utter 
ing the word Narayana in each sentence. Being alone, he should 
be meditating upon Brahman in all mental, spoken, and bodily 
actions. He should neither rejoice at dying or living. He 
should be anticipating the time when life will close. He should 


not be glad of dying ; nor should he be glad of living. He should 
be biding his time like a hireling (for his pay). An ascetic who 
plays the part a- the dumb, the eunuch, the lame, the blind, the 
deaf, and the idiot is emancipated through the (above six) means. 
There is no doubt of this. He who has not fondness for eating, 
saying that this is good and that is bad, who speaks only words 
that are beneficial, true, and moderate is said to be the dumb. 
He is a eunuch who is no more affected by the sight of a sixteen 
years old girl than of a new-born female baby or a hundred-years 
old woman. He who does not move about for more than the 
distance of a yojana for alms or for the calls of nature is a lame 
man. That parivrat (ascetic) is said to be a blind man, who 
whether sitting or walking, has his vision extended to no 
more than four yokes distance on the ground. He is said to be 
deaf who, though hearing words, beneficial or non-beneficial, 
pleasant or painful to the mind, is as if he does not hear them. 
That clever ascetic is said to be an idiot who is ever in a state 
of sleep, as it were, having his organs non-agitated by objects, 
even though near. He should never observe the following six 
the scenes of dancing, etc., gambling, lovely women, eatables, 
enjoyables, and women in their monthly course. 

" The ascetic should never in thought even think of others 
with the six (viz.,) love, hate, pride, deceit, treachery, and the 
illusion (of confounding them). To the ascetics, the following 
six are sinful : cot, white cloth, the stories of women, love towards 
women, sleep during the day, and vehicles. He who is engaged 
in Atmic contemplation should carefully avoid a long journey. 
He should ever practise the upanishadic vidya tending to salva 
tion. The ascetic need not bathe daily. He need not observe 
upavasa (fast). He need not be one that had studied Yedas. He 
need not be one that is able to produce a commentary (lecture) . 
He should daily observe acts without sin, deceit, or falsehood. 
He who, having withdrawn the organs within, like a turtle its 
limbs (within its shell), is with the actions of the organs and the 
mind annihilated, without desires, without possessing any object 
as his own, without dualities, without prostrations, without the 
oblations to pitr deva^as (they being with desires), without 


mine or I, without awaiting anything, without the desire to be 
happy, and living in places where men do not live he alone is 
emancipated. There is no doubt of this. 

" A celibate, or householder, or forester, w!Jo is (ever) vigi 
lant, has karma, devotion, and knowledge and is independent, 
after understanding his peculiar tendency and having become 
indifferent (to his order of life), may become an householder 
after ending the celibate life, or may from the householder s 
life enter the life of a forester, and then the life of an ascetic ; 
or from the life of a celibate, or householder, or forester may 
(directly) enter that of an ascetic. The moment vairagya 
arises in him, he may become an ascetic that moment, whether 
he is with vrata (religious observance) or not, is snataka 1 or 
not, or with a discontinued fire-sacrifice or not. On account of 
that, some perform Prajapatya-sacrifice alone; or Agneya- 
sacrifice may be performed. Is not agni, prana ? Through this 
alone, one should perform that sacrifice only which is connected 
with the three dhatus. The three dhatus are sattva, rajas, and 
tamas alone. With the mantra, 

<T 5TR*mr 3TRTfTTT 3t ri^ *ft II, a g ni (fire) should be taken in. 
Thus it is said (in the S rutis) : trq- ^ s^qfM: sm:, STR 1=^5 ^t 
zfTR *F^5 ^rrU U The agni from ahavaniya should be brought 
and taken in as before (with the mantras above mentioned). 
Should such an agni be not obtainable, the homa (oblation) 
should be done in water with the mantra, 3TPTT % ^f ^fll^Hlysft 
^TTwFt lilPr ^T^r I After performing homa, the water should be 
taken in and sipped. After uttering the mantra, ^4 ff%^RR 
jfr^f^ he abandons the tuft of hair in the head, the holy thread, 
father, son, wife, karma, vedic study and mantra and becomes an 
ascetic. The S rutis say that a knower of Atma should be en 
gaged in meditation upon Brahman, through the three mantras 
tending to salvation." 

Then Narada asked Brahma thus : " How can one, without 
the holy thread, be a Brahmana ? " To which Brahma replied : 
" The wise should, after shaving (the head) together with the 
1 A celibate who has completed his first Asrama. 


tuft of hair, cast off the holy thread. He should wear, as his 
sutra (thread), the indestructible and supreme Brahman. On 
account of (sucl anat) its being an indication, it (thread) is called 
sutra. Sutra V the Paramapada (supreme seat). He by 
whom that sutra is known is Brahman. That sutra (thread of 
Brahman) in which is strung the whole universe like beads on 
a sutra (string), should be worn by the yogin that has known 
yoga and tattva. The wise man that is in supreme yoga should 
abandon the outer sutra (thread). He who wears (in his heart) 
this sutra of Brahmic Reality is alone Brahmana. Through 
wearing this higher sutra, it becomes not a rejected one, not an 
impure one. Those only whose sutra is internal, having the holy 
thread as jnana are the real knowers of the sutra ; they are said 
to possess the yajnopavita (holy thread). To those whose s ikha 
(tuft of hair) is jnana, whose holy thread is jnana, and whose 
meditation is upon jnana, jnana alone is supreme. It is said 
that jnana alone is able to purify. That wise man alone who 
possesses the jnana-s ikha like the s ikha (flame) of agni (fire) 
is said to possess s ikha (tuft of hair). Those that have mere 
s ikha are no s ikhis. The Brahmanas and others that are entitled 
to perform the vedic karmas are allowed to wear the (external) 
thread, only as an auxiliary to the karmas. It is only vedic. 
The knowers of Brahman know that all Brahmanya (the state 
of Brahman) accrues to him only that has the jfianamaya s ikha 
(knowledge-tuft of hair) and the tanmaya (That or Brahman- 
ful) upavita (holy thread). 

"Having known it, a Brahmana should take up sannyasa. 
Such a sannyasin, should be, in order to bear the bodily afflic 
tions, with one cloth, bald-headed and without having anything 
as being required (for his use) ; or according to rules, he may 
be (naked) as nature made his body, and should abandon his 
son, friend, wife, trustworthy relatives, etc., as well as 
all karmas and love for the universe, the loin-cloth, staff, and 
covering. Enduring all pairs of opposites without cold or heat, 
happiness or grief, fame or disgrace, without the six changes, 
I-ness, malice, pride, ostentation, jealousy, slander of others, 
love and hate, pleasure and pain, passion, anger, greed and 


delusion and regarding his body as a mere carcase, without 
thinking of all the things, internal and external,, that are other 
than Self. Without prostrations, without the \forship of devas 
and pitrs and without praise or condemnation, he should 
wander about of his own accord. He should not receive 
gold and others. For him, there is no invocation or dismissal 
(of deities), mantra or non-mantra, meditation or worship, 
aim or non-aim, others or not-others ; without having another s 
or (his own) settled place of residence, and having a firm 
conviction, he should be in a desolate house or at the foot of 
trees, or in a temple, a plenteous turfed spot, a potter s place 
or that of agnihotra or sacrifice, river, tank, sand-heap, 
subterranean vault, cave, mountain-rill, the place prepared 
for sacrifice or forest ; or like the naked personages, SVeta- 
ketu, Rbhu, Nidagha, Jadabharata, Rshabha, Durvasas, Sam- 
vartaka, Sanatsujata, Vaideha (Janaka), Vatasiddha, S uka, 
Varuadeva, Dattatreya, Raivataka, and Goraksha, he should 
roam about as nature made him, without being recognised and 
without any means of discovery of his course of life, like 
a lad, or an insane man, or a ghost, with the actions of 
a madman though not mad, after discarding in water the three- 
knotted staff, the stringed sling (bag), vessel, bowl, waist-string, 
loin-cloth, stick, and cloth. He should ever be engaged in Atmic 
deliberation. Being in his natural state without being affected 
by the pairs, without receiving anything, being ever settled 
firmly in the Brahmic path, having a pure mind, eating the food 
that is obtained without asking, in the palm as vessel, or in 
another s vessel in order to merely protect the body at the tim- 
required, being of equal mind whether the object is gained 
or not, without having aught of his own, always meditat 
ing upon Brahman, being with Atma-nishtha, having eradi 
cated all actions, virtuous and sinful, and having given up 
all that one who ever utters Brahma-Pranava, that "I am 
Brahman alone, with the blissful and non-dual jnana, and 
after rising above the three bodies (to Brahman), like the 
analogy of the wasp and the worm, 1 gives up the body as a 

1 Referring to the idea of the worm becoming the wasp, with the latter s 
frequent stinging. 



sannyasin, is Slid to have done all his work (in this world). 
Such is the Upanishad." 


" One who after giving up the world, the Vedas, the ob 
jects and the organs is in Atma alone, attains the supreme abode. 
A good ascetic should not make known his caste, name, gotra 
(clan), etc., his place and time, the Vedas, etc. studied by him, 
his family, age, history, observance, and conduct. He should 
neither converse with women nor remember the women he had 
seen. He should give up all stories connected with women. 
He should not even see the figure of a woman in a picture. 
The mind of an ascetic who through delusion adopts the above 
four things connected with women is necessarily affected and 
thereby perishes. The following are prohibited (in his case) : 
Thirst, malice, falsehood, deceit, greed, delusion, the pleasant 
and the unpleasant, manual work, lecture, yoga, kama (pass 
ion) , desire, begging, I-ness, mine-ness, the obstinacy of curing 
diseases, penance, pilgrimage and the accomplishment of fruits 
of mantras, and medicines. He who performs these interdicted 
things, goes into a debased state. A muni who has moksha as 
his supreme seat should address such respectful words as 
" Please come, please go, please stay, and welcome " to one, even 
though he be his intimate friend. He should neither receive 
presents, etc., nor ask for them to be given to others. Even in 
dream, an ascetic should never direct a person (to do work for 
him). Even should he witness or hear of the happiness or 
grief of his wife, brother, son, and other relatives, he should not 
be affected thereby. He should abandon all joy and sorrow. 

" To the ascetics controlling their mind, the following are 
their svadharmas (own duties) : Harmlessness, truth, honesty, 
celibacy, non-coveting, humility, high-spiritedness, clearness of 
mind, steadiness of mind, straightforwardness, non-attachment 
(to any), service to the guru, faith, patience, bodily restraint, 
mental restraint, indifference, firm and sweet words, endurance, 
compassion, shame, jfiana, vijfiana, yoga, moderate food, and 


courage. That paramahamsa of an ascetic in the order of life 
of a sannyasin who is without dualities, always follows the pure 
sattvagunn, and sees all equally, is no other than the actual 
Narayana Himself. He may live one day ill a village and 
five days in a city, but five months in the wintry season. 
At other times he should live in ofcher places (such as 
forest, etc.). He should not live in a village for two days 
(even) ; should he do so, desires and the rest will arise in 
him and thereby he becomes fit for hell. He should live 
like a (harmless) worm on the earth with his mind under 
control and with no settled place of residence, at the end 
of the village where there are no persons. He may live in the 
same place in the wintry season. He should roam about on the 
earth with one or no cloth, with the one vision (of Brahman) 
alone, with no desires (of objects), with no condemnation of the 
actions of the wise and with meditation. That yogin of an ascetic 
should go about, observing the duties of his order of life, and with 
the eyes cast on the earth, in pure places. He should not roam 
about in night, midday or the two twilight periods in which are 
places void or difficult to be waded through or likely to injure 
living creatures. He may live for one day in a village, for three 
days in a town, for two days in a hamlet and for five days in a 
city. He may live in the wintry season (longer) in one place 
surrounded fully by water. The ascetic should regard all crea 
tures as Self and dwell upon earth like the blind, the hunch 
back, the deaf, the insane, and the dumb. The bahudaka and 
the forester should bathe thrice a day. In the case of hamsa, 
one bath only is ordained ; but none in the case of a parama 
hamsa. In the case of the one having one staff, seven things 
are ordained, viz., silence, yoga-posture, yoga, endurance, solita 
riness, desirelessness, and equal vision over all. Bathing being 
not prescribed for a paramahamsa, he should abandon all the 
modifications of the mind only ; what is the difference between 
the worms and the men that rejoice over this ill-smelling body 
which is but a collection of skin, flesh, blood, nerves, fat, mar 
row, bone, offal and urine ? What is the body but a collection of 
all, phlegm, etc. ? And what are the qualities, the vasana of the 


body, effulgenc^ , beauty, etc. ? (They are opposed to one an 
other.) The ignorant man that is fond of this body, which is but 
a compound of lesh, blood, the ill-smelling urine and offal, nerve, 
fat and bone, i vill be fond of hell too. Though there is no 
difference between the women s secret parts that cannot be 
described by words and an (ever) oozing tubular wound, yet 
through the difference of the mind, (men are deluded). Such 
men are said to be without prana, (viz., dead) though alive, 
Prostrations to those that sport in that piece of flesh which is 
rent in twain and tainted with the breaking of the wind, etc. 
What more revolting thing is there than this ? 

" To the wise, there is nothing to do, no sign (of identifica 
tion). The muni who is without ( mine 7 and fear, with quiescence, 
without duality and eating leaf (alone), should ever be in medita 
tion with either loin-cloth or no cloth. A yogin who is thus in medi 
tation becomes fit to be Brahman. Though he may have some signs 
(of identification to pass under this order of life or that), such 
signs are useless for gaming moksha. The cause of salvation 
is jnana alone. He is a (true) brahmana who cannot be iden 
tified as sat (good person) or asat, knower of religious books or 
not, follower of good conduct or bad conduct. Therefore that 
learned man who is without signs, a knower of dharma, 
engaged in the actions of Brahman and a knower of the secret 
mysteries, should roam about, incognito. He should go about 
on this earth without any caste or order of life and without 
being (even) doubted (regarding his identity) by any beings, 
like the blind, the idiot, or the mute. Then (even) the angels 
become fond of him who has a quiescent mind. It is the dictate of 
the Vedas that the sign (of non-identification) itself is Kaivalya." 

Then Narada asked the Grandfather about the rules of 
sannyasa. To which Brahma assented and said : " Before 
either the atura or regular sannyasa is taken, krchchhra penance 
should be done and then the eight s raddhas. In each of the 
(eight) s raddhas, two brahmanas should be fed, in lieu of 
Vis vedevas called Satyavasu and the (Trimurtis called) Brahma, 
Vishnu, and Mahes vara, in Devas raddha first ; then in Rshi- 
sTaddha in lieu of Jpevarshi, Kajarshi, and Manushyarshi ; then 


in Divyas raddha, in lieu of Vasu, Rudra, and ^idityas ; then in 
manushyas raddha in lieu of Sanaka, Sanandanl, Sanatkumara, 
and Sanatsujata ; then in bhutas raddha, in lieu of the five great 
elements, prthivl, etc., eye and other organs aril the four kinds 
of collections of bhutas ; then in Pitrs raddha, in lieu of father, 
grandfather and great-grandfather; ttien in matrs raddha, in 
lieu of mother, mother s father and mother s grandfather; and 
then in Atmas raddha, in lieu of himself, his father and grand 
father or of himself, grandfather and great-grandfather, 
should his father be alive. He should perform the eight 
s raddhas in one day, or eight days, with the mantras of his 
s akha in one yajfiapaksha or eight yajnapakshas. Then he 
should worship and feed the brahmanas according to the rules 
contained in pitryajna. Then offering the pindas (balls of rice to 
the pitrs), he should gladden the brahmanas with the tambula 
(nut and betel, etc.,) presents and dismiss them. Then for the 
accomplishment of the remaining karmas, he should pluck off 
seven hairs ; then again for finishing the rest of the karmas, he 
should hold seven or eight hairs and have the head shaved. Ex 
cept his arm-pit and secret parts, he should have the hairs of his 
head, whiskers and mustache and nails shaved. After shaving, 
he should bathe and perform the evening sandhya, uttering 
Gayatri a thousand times. Then performing brahmayajfia, 
he should establish his own fire and acting up to his s akha, 
should perform the oblation of ghee according to what is said 
therein till the ajya portion with those (mantras beginning 
with) Atma, etc. ; he should eat thrice the fried rice-powder, and 
then sipping the water, he should maintain the fire ; then seated 
north of the fire on a deer-skin, he should be engaged in the 
study of Puranas ; without sleeping, he should bathe at the end 
of the four yatnas and after cooking the oblation of (rice) in the 
fire, he should offer it to the fire in sixteen oblations according to 
(the mantras of) Purusha-Sukta. Then having done viraja- 
homa and sipped water, he should close it with the gift (to 
brahmanas) of cloth, golden vessel, and cows along with presents 
of money and then dismiss Brahma (who had been invoked). 
With the prescribed mantra, he should attract Agni (fire) unto 


himself. Aftei; meditating upon and coming round and pros 
trating before Phe fire, he should dismiss it. Then in the morn 
ing performingUandhya and uttering Grayatri a thousand times, 
he should mak^ upasthana (worship) to the sun. Then de 
scending into water up to the navel, he should make arghya 
(water-offering) to the^ guardians of the eight quarters ; then 
he should give leave to Grayatri, making Savitri enter into 

The mantra prescribed for this should be uttered through 
the mind and voice in high, middling, and low tones. With the 
mantra, 3T*R ^^J^TT TO: *ri ST^KT I the water should be sipped 
and having taken the water with the two hands, it should be drop 
ped on the east. Having uttered ^Ff F, he should pluck his hair 
(yet left) and uttering the prescribed mantra and having torn off 
the sacred thread and taken it in the hand with water, should 
utter off vfc < go to the ocean and cast them down as oblation in 

water iaft jj: ^N^T W I aff gfT: ^TO W I off W *FTO TOT II 
Having uttered thrice and saturated thrice (the water) with (the 
influence of) the mantra, he should sip the water; and then 
uttering the mantras sff ^: 9 etc., he should cast aside in water 
the cloth and waist-cord. Having thought himself to be the 
abdicator of all karmas, he, being in the meditation of his own 
Reality as nature made him, should go as before northwards with 
hands upraised. Should he be a sannyasin learned (in the Vedas, 
etc.), he should get himself initiated into Pranava from his teach 
er and go about at his own free will with the thought of there 
being none other but his Self, and feeding his body with fruits, 
leaves and water, live in mountains, forest and temples. That 
lover of salvation who after sannyasa roams about naked in all 
places with his heart full of the enjoyment of Atmic bliss, with 
the fruit of avoidance of karmas and maintaining his life with 
fruits, juice, barks, leaves, roots and water should abandon 
his body in mountain caves, uttering the Pranava. But an as 
pirant after wisdom, should he become a sannyasin, should, after 
walking a hundred steps, be addressed by the teacher and other 
Brahmans thus : " Mahabhaga (very fortunate person), stay, 


stay, wear the staff, cloth and bowl, come to the ijpacher in order 
to learn the meaning of Pranava mantra vakyi". He should 
then take up the waist-cord, loin-cloth, red-coloured cloth and 
bowl. A bamboo staff which is not injured frorl top to bottom, 
equal, beautiful, and not spotted with black, should be worn by 
him, after sipping the water and uttering the mantra prescribed 
for the purpose. Then the bowl should be taken up, after utter 
ing the mantra with the Pranava preceding it : aff *HinH 
*RnTRagT *TRfa *TT JF5TTO *NNCT *l4 tfN II Then after first 
uttering (the mantra) ^|T*$|^ cfchfrr sff I <A33fflt*>BrOT^ ^- 
^Ptf 3^f 3TT I) he should take up the waist-cord, loin-cloth and 
cloth with the achamana (sipping of water) preceding it. 

" Thus consecrated with yoga and thinking that he had 
done all that should be done, he should be firm in the obser 
vances of his order of life. Thus is the Upanishad." 


Then Narada said to the Grandfather thus : 

" You said that sannyasa was the liberator of all karmas. 
Now you say again that the sannyasin is one that should be in 
the observance of his as rama (order of life). (How to recon 
cile the two ?) " To which the Grandfather replied thus : 
"To the jiva possessing the body, there are three avasthas the 
waking, the dreaming, and the dreamless sleeping with turya 
(the fourth). Those beings of Purushas that are subject to these 
avasthas follow the observances, incidental to them, of karma, 
jnana and vairagya." Narada said : " Lord, if so, what are 
the differences of different orders of sannyasa ? And what are 
the differences of their observances ? Please tell us truly." 

Therefore the differences of sannyasas, and the differences 
of observances were related for the sake of Narada by Brahma, 
after assenting to his (Narada s) question thus : 

"Truly sannyasa is of one kind only. On account of ajnana, 
inability and non-performance of karmas (of persons), it is di 
vided into three and then into four, thus : vairiigya-sannyasa, 
jnana-sannyasa, jnanavairagya-sannyasa and karma-sannyasa. 


The vairagya-s* nnyasin is one who becomes an ascetic after be 
ing in a vicious condition of lust, etc., and then, becomes dis 
gusted with the objects through his former good karmas. A 
jnana-sannyasin! is one who becomes an ascetic with the four 
means of salvation, after controlling the organs through book- 
wisdom, and becoming familiar with the experiences of the 
world of virtue and vice, after abandoning anger, jealousy, 
envy, ahankara and all sannyasa productive of identification, 
after giving up the three vasanas of the body, books and world, 
which are of the form of desires for women, wealth and earth, 
and after thinking that the whole of the universe should be given 
up, like vomited food. A jnanavairagya-sannyaasin is one who 
becomes an ascetic as nature made him, after practising and 
enjoying all, and having the body alone remaining, through 
jfiana and vairagya, in the realisation of the Reality. A karma- 
sannyasin is one who, though he has no vairagya, becomes an 
ascetic by regularly passing from one as rama to another, from 
the celibate, to the householder and then to the forester. A 
vairagya-sannyasin is one who becomes an ascetic from the 
celibate order (directly), being as nature made him. 

" (There is another fourfold classification.) The four kinds 
are : vidvat-sannyasa, jnana-sannyasa, vividisha-sannyasa and 
karma-sannyasa. In karma-sannyasa, there are two (sub-) divis 
ions, nimitta (causal) and animitta (non-causal). Atura-sannya- 
sa (on account of the cause of approaching death, disease, etc.), 
is nimitta-sannyasa. The krama (regular) sannyasa is animitta. 
Atura-sannyasa is on account of defective karmas. When 
sannyasa is taken at the time of death, it is called nimitta. 
Animitta is that when one becomes duly a sannyasin when the 
body is strong, (after being convinced) that all created things 
are subject to destruction, that body and others should be given 
up, that all Atmas (souls) each one shining in the pure Akas , 
dwelling in all, moving in the antariksha (middle world) as of 
the form of vayu, in the sacrificial pit as of the form of fire, in 
the moon, in all men, in the supreme angels, in the form of 
truth, in akas , in the form of the conch, pearl, fish, etc., in 
water, in the form of grain, etc., on earth, in the form of the 


limbs of Vedas, in the form of the rivers f roirj the mountains, 
in the form of truth and the great one are jno other than 
Brahman and that others are but perishable. 

"There are six classes of sannyasins kutu!haka, bahudaka, 
hamsa, paramahamsa, a and avadlmta. Kutichaka 
is one who wears the tuft of hair, noly thread, staff, bowl, 
loin-cloth and tattered cloth, who worships mother, father, and 
teacher, who has potsherd and sling, who is uttering mantras, 
who takes food in one and the same place, who wears, vertically, 
the white earth (on the forehead as sect-mark) and who has 
a staff. Bahudaka is one who, like kutlchaka, wears the 
tuft of hair, tattered cloth, etc., as well as the three (sect-) marks, 
but who eats eight morsels of food through getting alms. The 
hamsa is one who wears matted hair and the three vertical sect- 
marks and eats the alms-food without any limit (as to the 
morsel) and wears the bare loin-cloth only. The paramahamsa 
is he who is without tuft of hair and holy thread, begs food in 
one day from five houses, has one loin-cloth, wears one red 
cloth alone and sacred ashes and has given up all. The turi- 
yatita is one who either may take fruits, eating them with his 
mouth like cows, or if he is an eater of food, may beg food from 
three houses. The naked man having the body alone has the 
bodily actions (quiescent), like the dead body. Such an one is 
the turiyatita. The avadhuta is he who is without any rules, 
gets his food (in his mouth), following the course of the boa 
constrictor, 1 from all persons except persons of ill-repute and 
outcastes, and is ever engaged in the realisation of the Real. 
Should the atura-sannyasin be alive (after taking sannyasa), he 
should take up regular sannyasa. The rules to be observed in 
the case of the (three), kutlchaka, bahuclaka and hamsa are 
the same as for the orders of life from the celibate to the 
sannyasin. For the three, paramahamsa upwards, they have no 
waist-cord, loin-cloth, cloth, bowl and staff. They may get food 
from all castes and should be as nature made them. Such are 
the rules. 

1 The snake, or boa constrictor, is said to remain in one place only on 
account of its huge body, taking any food that may come to its mouth as it is 
lying there. 



" At the time of the sannyasa, the recitation of the Vedas 
should be madeUill the mind is cleared ; and after casting aside 
in water the wUist-cord, loin-cloth, staff, cloth, bowl, etc., he 
should roam about. He should be without even the slightest 
tattered cloth. ( -He should neither utter anything other than 
Pranava, nor talk nor hear. He should not study logic or 
grammar. He should not talk many words ; they will but pain 
his vocal organ. He should not converse with people through the 
vocal organ. He should not talk in other language (than 
Samskrt). He has no worship of Grod and no witnessing of 
festivals ; he should be free from pilgrimage. The other rules of 
ascetics are : The kutichaka should beg alms in one house 
only ; for the bahudaka, eight morsels in eight houses; for the 
harnsa, there is no limit; for paramahamsa, he should beg 
with his hand as the vessel in five houses ; for the turiyatita, 
he should eat fruits with his mouth like cows; (for ava 
dhuta), he should take food like a boa constrictor in all 
castes. The ascetic should not dwell in one place for many 
days. He should not make prostrations to any one. Among 
the turiyatita and avadhuta (ascetics), even though one is 
junior, he should not make prostrations to another, a senior who 
has known the Eeality. He should not swim with his hands 
and cross the river. He should not climb up a tree, nor get 
into a carriage. Nothing should be purchased or sold (by him). 
No exchange should be made, no ostentation for him. There is 
nothing for the ascetic to do. If there is anything for him to 
do, he will perish. Therefore the only thing he is qualified to 
do is reflection, etc. 

" To the aturas and kutlchakas, the world they attain is bhur- 
loka and bhuvarloka ; to the bahudakas, swargaloka ; to the 
hamsas, tapoloka ; to the paramahamsas, satyaloka. To the turi 
yatita and avadhuta, Kaivalya in Atma according to the analogy 
of the wasp and the worm through the realisation of Reality. It 
is the command of the Vedas that whatever form one thinks of 
at the last (death) moment and before leaving the body is 
attained by him and no other. Knowing it thus, he should not 
be a practiser of anything but the realisation of Reality. 


Through the observance of any other, he goesjto the world of 
that other. To one that has attained jnana-vair jgya, his salva 
tion is in the Self, as there is no other observance for him. The 
same one (Atma) alone is styled Vis va in the waking state, 
Taijasa in the dreaming state and Prajna fn the dreamless 
sleeping state. Through the difference of states, there is the 
difference of the agent presiding over them. To the fourteen 
organs (the ten organs of sense and actions and the four organs 
of the mind in these states,) the outer and inner vrttis 
(modifications) are the material cause. There are four vrttis, 
viz., rnanas, buddhi, ahankara and chitta. Through the 
differences of actions of the vrttis, there arise the differences of 
separate functions. When (the presiding agent is) in the eyes 
there is the waking state ; in the throat, the dreaming state ; in 
the heart, the dreamless sleeping state ; and in the head, the 
turya (or fourth) state. Knowing these and that the turya is 
the indestructible, one should not hear or see anything in the 
waking state, as if he were in dreamless sleeping state, To 
such a one who does not apparently know them, even the 
dreaming state forms the same (dreamless sleeping) state. Such 
a one is termed Jivanmukta. All the Vedas say that there is 
salvation to such a one. 

" To the ascetic, there should be no desire of this world or 
the higher. Then he will be one that will practise accordingly. 
Through the practices of (the study of) books foreign to the 
realisation of Reality, he becomes a useless person like a camel 
bearing saffron paint. To him, there is no entry into yoga 
books, no study of sahkhya books, no practise of mantra or 
tantra. Should there be any entry into other books (than the 
one treating of Reality), then it will be like an ornament to a 
dead body. Like a cobbler, he should be beyond karma and 
knowledge and unfit for salutation and repeating the names of 
the Lord. He will duly get the benefit of the karmas (of his 
order of life). Having given up all like the foam (separating 
itself) from the castor oil, having the mental staff which controls 
the mind clinging to objects, having the hand as the vessel (for 
eating) and having the quarters alone as the cloth, the ascetic 


should go aboif t like a lad, idiot, or ghost. He should neither 
desire to live nd" die. Like a coolie abiding his appointed time 
(of pay), the ascetic should bide his time (of death). One 
who lives by taking alms without (the qualifications of) pa 
tience, wisdom, a vairagya and the qualifications beginning with 
s ama (control of mind/ is the spoiler of the order of life of an 
ascetic. There is no salvation obtained through the mere 
assumption of the staff or making the head bald or other dis 
guise or through ostentatious observances. That man who has 
jnana as his staff is said to be the ekadandi (one having Brahman 
alone as the staff) . An ascetic who, having merely a wooden 
staff without jnana, eats all (indiscriminately) in all places, 
goes to the terrible hells called Maharaurava. (The sense of) 
greatness in his case is likened by the rshis to the pig s dung. 
Having given it up, he should move about like a worm. Food 
and cloth without being begged for by him should be obtained 
involuntarily through the will of others. A naked (ascetic) 
may bathe at the wish of another. A man who practises the 
the meditation upon Self in the dreaming state as in the waking 
is said to be the foremost and first of Brahmavadins. He 
should neither grieve for things not obtained, nor rejoice 
at things obtained. With the organs not attached to objects, 
he should be engaged in the sole protection of life. He 
should always look down upon the gains obtained with much 
respect (shown to him). Through the gains obtained with 
much respect, the ascetic though released becomes bound. 
What is meant by the protection of life, is this : When 
the fire (of the hearth in a house) had been extinguished 
and all have taken food, he may go to the houses of caste 
people that are fit for taking alms from. The yogin who 
has his hand only as his alms-bowl should not often take alms. 
He may take (food) standing or sitting ; so in the middle (of 
taking food), he may sip water. Those who have pure mind 
should not over-step the limits like the ocean. The great ones 
do not give up their self-restraint like the sun. When the muni 
takes, like a cow, the food with the mouth only (without the 
use of the hand), he becomes of equal vision to all beings. Then 


he becomes tit for salvation. He may, for alms, go from a 
forbidden house to a non-forbidden one. II<? should go (for 
alms) to a house where the door is ajar, but not to a house where 
it is closed. The muni who has a dusty body, an uninhabited 
house or the foot of a tree as his abode, withoiX) anything dear 
or not dear to him, sleeping where t4ie sun sets, without any 
fire-worship, without any settled place and with patience and 
the organs under control, should live without any desire in any 
place obtained. He who after going to the forest dwells with 
jfiana as the sacrifice and the organs under his mastery and 
awaits his time (of death), is fit to be of the nature of Brahman. 
A muni who goes about with no cause for instilling fear into all 
beings need never have any fear from them. One without any 
abhimana (identification with body) or egoism or dualities 
or doubt, never is angry, never hates, never lies through the 
vocal organ. That person who, having visited all sacred places, 
does not do any injury to any living creature and gets 
alms at the proper time, is fit to be of the nature of Brahman. 
He should not associate with a forester or householder. 
He should conduct himself in such manner as not to be 
known to others. He should not be glad of anything. He 
should roam about on earth like a worm, according to the 
direction pointed out by the sun. He should not do or cause 
to do works tending to (his) fame or pains or people s benefit. 
He should not be inclined towards vicious books. He should 
not live dependent upon any. He should give up all over- 
disputatious reasoning. He should not join any party (fighting 
with another). He should not take any disciples. He should 
not study many books. He should not discourse. Neither 
should he commence any works. Without any distinguishing 
characteristics and without letting others know his opinions, 
that wise man, or muni, ever intent upon the Brahmic vision, 
should exhibit himself to people like an idiot, or a lad, or a 
mute person. He should neither do nor talk anything. He 
should not think of a good or bad thing. Rejoicing in 
That within himself, the muni should go about like an idiot. 
He should roam about alone without associating with any, and 


with the senses under control. The clever jnani sporting in 
Atma, ever delighting in Atma, looking upon all with equal 
vision like an Atma-jnani, and playing like a child, should 
wander about like an idiot. That learned man versed in 
Brahma-vidya fehould talk like a madman. He should 
follow the observances of cows (by eating with the mouth, 
causing no trouble to anybody). Agoodjnani whether pushed, 
disregarded, slighted, beaten, or hindered by the vicious, or 
burnt by their acts, or having urine and faeces thrown upon 
him by them, or afflicted in various other ways, should always 
think well of them though pained, and thus make them lift 
themselves through their own Selves. A yogin whether 
praised or afflicted by others, never thinks of it in order 
to reach a superior state in yoga. A yogin who is slighted 
by people, attains a higher state in yoga. A yogin never 
goes against the actions of the virtuous. He is the same 
whether people slight him or do not desire his associa 
tion. He should do all that is right through the actions 
of mind, speech and body to all beings born out of the embryo or 
the egg, etc. He should harbour no malice against any and give 
up all clinging to things. The ascetic after giving up passion, 
anger, pride, desire, delusion and other faults should be without 
fear. Eating alms-food, preserving silence, tapas, special medi 
tation, a good jnana, and vairagya these are said, in the opinion 
(of the great), to be the dharma of the ascetic. Wearing the 
red cloth, and being ever in dhyana-yoga, he should live either 
at the foot of a tree, outside the village, or in the temple. 
Daily he should live upon begging. He should not eat one 
food alone (from one only). Till the mind becomes pure, the 
learned man should thus be moving about. Then when the mind 
is purified, he may be anywhere as a parivrajaka. Seeing 
Janardana in and out everywhere, preserving silence, being 
without stain like vayu, roaming everywhere, being equal in 
happiness and pains, and with patience, eating whatever comes 
to hand, equally regarding without any hate brahmana, cow, 
horse, beasts and others, meditating through the mind upon 
Vishnu that is Paramatma and Is vara, thinking ever of Brahmic 


bliss and thinking himself to be Brahman alone such a one 
having known thus, regarding the staff to be no other than the 
certitude of the mind as above, having no desire, being naked 
and having abandoned all samsara through the actions ever done 
through the mind, speech, and body, attains salvation, accord 
ing to the analogy of the wasp and the worm, through the 
practice of the realisation of Reality without ever seeing the 
universe. Such is the Upanishad." 


Narada addressing Brahma asked : " Lord ! You said of 
abhyasa (practice) according to the analogy of wasp and the 
worm. What is that practice ? " 

To which the Grandfather replied thus : 

" One (viz., an ascetic) should live with true speech and 
jfiana- vairagya and with the body alone as the remaining (pos 
session). Know jfiana alone as the body, vairagya alone as 
prana, s anti (mental control) and danti (bodily control) as the 
eyes, manas alone as the face, buddhi alone as kala (parts of 
effulgence), the twenty-five tattvas as the limbs, the avasthas as 
the five great elements, karma, bhakti, jnana, and vairagya as the 
branches (or parts) and that the waking, dreaming, dreamless 
sleeping, and turya avasthas and the fourteen organs as being of 
the nature of a pillar planted in the mud. Though such is the 
case, the man who masters these through his buddhi like a boat 
man regarding the boat immersed in the mire, or the elephant- 
driver regarding the elephant (under his control), and has known 
that all else beside Self is illusory and destructible and become 
indifferent, should ever utter : I am Brahman alone. He should 
not know anything as other than Self. A Jivanmukta who 
lives thus is a doer of that which should be done. He should 
not discourse that he is other than Brahman. But he should 
ever be discoursing : I am Brahman . From the waking, dream 
ing and dreamless sleeping states, he should reach the turya 
state and then turyatlta (the state beyond turya). The wak 
ing state is in the day ; the dreaming in the night and the 


dreamless sleeping in the midnight. Each avastha (or state) 
has its sub-states. The functions of the fourteen organs, 
eye and others mutually dependent are the following : The 
eyes perceive forms ; the ears, sounds ; the tongue perceives 
tastes ; the nose, odours ; the vocal organ speaks ; the hand 
lifts ; the leg walks ; the anus excretes ; the sexual organ 
enjoys; the skin feels ; the buddhi perceives objects, being under 
the control of the organs; through buddhi, he understands; 
through chitta, he thinks ; through ahankara, he says I . All 
these should be abandoned. Through the identification with the 
house (the body), he, like a householder, becomes a jiva thinking 
that the body is itself. 

" The jiva is dwelling in this body. When he is in the east 
ern petal (of the heart), he is inclined to virtuous actions ; in 
the south-eastern petal, to sleep and laziness ; in the southern 
petal, to cruel actions ; in the south-western petal, to sinful ac 
tions ; in the western petal, to love of sport (or to flirt) ; in the 
north-western petal, to travelling ; in the northern petal, to peace 
of mind ; in the north-eastern petal, to jnana ; in (the middle of) 
the pericarp, to vairagya ; in the filament, to Atma-deliberation. 
Such are the different aspects to be understood (in the heart) . 
The first living avastha (of jiva) is the waking ; the second is the 
dreaming ; the third is the dreamless sleeping ; the fourth turya ; 
that which is not these four is turyatita. The one Lord alone 
that is witness and without qualities appears (as many) through 
the differences of Vis va, Taijasa, Prajfia, and Tatastha (the 
neutral). One should (always) utter: I am Brahman alone/ 
Else in the waking state, (he is) in the four states of the waking 
state and others i 1 in the dreaming state, (he is) in the four states 
of the dreaming state and others ; in the dreamless sleeping 
state, (he is) in the four states of the dreamless sleeping and 
others ; in the turya, (he is) in the four states of turya and others ; 
to the turyatita that is nirguna, such states are not. There is 
only one witness in all the states of Vis va, Taijasa and Prajfia, 
who is presiding over the gross, the subtle and the causal 

1 Probably " others " refer to the subdivisions of the dreaming ; so also 
of other states, 


(bodies). Is Tatas^ha the seer ? or is he not ? As (to Tatas^ha), 
there is the property of seeing; the jiva that is affected by 
the egoism, etc., of agency and enjoyment is not the seer. 
The one other than jiva (viz., Tatastha) is not concerned 
(with egoism, etc.). If it is said that the jiva is not so (con 
cerned with egoism), then it is not a fact. Through the 
abhimana of the jiva, there is the abhimana of the body. And 
(conversely) through the abhimana of the body, there is the 
abhimana of the jiva. The state of the jiva is as a screen (to 
screen Brahman) like (the pot and house in) the pot-akas and 
the house-akas . Through such a screen, he reaches self-realisa 
tion through the mantra Hamsa-So ham having the charac 
teristics of inspiration and expiration. Having known thus, 
if he should give up the identification with the body, then he 
does not identify himself with the body (i.e., not attain the state 
of jiva). Such a one is stated to be Brahman. Having given up 
abhimana and anger, being content with moderate food, having 
conquered the organs and having controlled the avenues (of 
the organs), one should make the mind enter into meditation. 
The yogin who has always controlled (his mind and organs) 
should ever diligently commence his meditation in empty places, 
caves and forests. The knower of yoga who is bent upon 
accomplishing the end should never be engaged in giving feasts 
to Brahmanas, in s raddha sacrifices, etc., or in going to places 
of pilgrimages, festivals or crowds. The well-controlled yogin 
should go about as if people had treated him with disrespect. 
He should not go against the actions of the wise. That great 
ascetic is said to be a tridandin (or having a three-knotted staff) 
who holds firmly the three-danda (control) of mind, speech, 
and body. That ascetic is said to be a supreme person who 
begs alms-food of worthy brahmanas, when smoke has ceased 
and fire has been extinguished (in their houses). Is he not a 
degraded ascetic who, though holding the staff and begging 
food, is without vairfigya and is not intent upon the obser 
vances of his order ? He is an ascetic not any other who does 

1 With Hamsa, there is the inspiration, and with So ham. there is the ex- 


not go to the house where he expects to find special alms or 
which he already visited. He is said to transcend all castes 
and orders of life who realises the self -shining supreme 
Tattva that is without body and organs, the all-witness, the 
real vijnana that is of the form of bliss. To the Atma that 
is of the nature of jnana, such an idea as : the order of 
life, etc., is mine/ being generated out of may a in this body, 
can never exist. He who knows thus through vedanta is 
beyond all castes and orders of life. He from whom all castes 
and orders of life slip away through Atmic vision, transcends 
them all and remains in Atma alone. That person is said by 
knower of the meaning of the Vedas to be ativarnas rami (beyond 
caste and order of life) who after crossing all castes and orders 
of life abides in Atma alone. Therefore, Narada, the castes 
and orders of life which are foreign (to Atma) are attributed 
falsely, by the ignorant, to Atma. Narada, for those that 
are Brahma-jnanis, there are no rules ordained nor prohibited ; 
there is nothing to be given up or not ; similarly nothing else 
(for them). Having attained indifference to all objects even 
up to Brahma s seat, having destroyed (or done away with) all 
fondness for everything, as for son, relatives, wife, etc., and 
having faith in the path of salvation, and through love of 
vedanta-jnana, he should approach a guru who is a knower of 
Brahman with gift (in his hand). Having an equilibrated mind, 
he should satisfy the guru for a long time through service, etc., 
and learn with a steady firm mind the meaning of the sentences 
of the Vedas. Then being devoid of I and mine and of all 
attractions, and having attained peace of mind, etc., he sees 
Atma in himself. Through observing the faults of sarnsara, 
there arises indifference. There is no doubt that sannyasa 
arises in one who becomes disgusted with samsara. The aspirant 
after salvation who is called paramahamsa should, through the 
hearing, etc., of vedanta, practise Brahma-jnana, which is the 
direct and chief means of salvation. In order to attain Brahma- 
jnana, the one named paramahamsa should possess the qualities 
of the control of mind and body, etc. He should always be a 
practiser of vedanta., being master of the mind, the body 


and the organs, being without fear and egoism, with a firm 
mind, without the pairs (of opposites), without attaching him 
self to any, having a worn-out loin-cloth, and being bald-headed 
or naked. He should have the great intelligence of the knower 
of vedanta, a yogin without { I and * mine * and being equal 
and friendly to friends and other beingS. That jnani alone and 
none else is able to cross samsara who has his mind at peace. 
With the grace of the guru towards him, he should live with 
him for one year. He should be careful to observe yama (re 
straint) and niyama (religious observance). At the end of that 
(year), ho should attain the supreme jnana-yoga, and roam 
about on this earth without going against dharma ; (or) at the 
end of one year, he should give up the three orders of life and 
attain the chief as rama (of sannyasa), as well as the supreme 
* jnana-yoga. Then, taking leave of the guru, he should wander 
over the earth, having given up association (with wife, etc., as 
well as anger, and being content with moderate food and having 
controlled the senses. The householder who does not perform 
karma, and the ascetic who performs karma both become fallen 
through their perverse doings. Each becomes intoxicated through 
seeing women. Each becomes intoxicated through drinking 
alcohol. Therefore women, mere sight of whom is poison, should 
be shunned at a distance. Such things as conversation and 
proximity with, and sight of, women, dancing, singing, using 
violence ^against persons, and disputatious arguments should 
be given up. Therefore, O Narada, to such a one, there is 
neither bath nor muttering of mantras nor worship nor homa, 
nor means of accomplishment, nor any karma of fire-sacrifice, 
etc., nor worshipping with flowers, etc., nor karmas to the pitrs 
nor pilgrimages, nor religious observances, nor dharmas, 
nor adharmas, nor any rules of observance, nor any other 
worldly karmas. He should give up all karmas and worldly 
observances. That yogin of an ascetic who is a learned 
person, having his intelligence directed towards Reality, should 
never injure any worm or insect, bird or tree. Narada, roam 
through the world with vision ever directed inwards, with purity, 
with mind under control, with a mind that is full of Brahman 


and all attraction given up within. The muni that goes about 
alone, does (or should) not dwell in countries where there is no 
king. (In his case), there is neither praise nor prostration, nor the 
propitiation of devas or pi^rs. Thus the ascetic who has his 
abode changeful*- (in body), or changeless (in Atma), should be 
content with whatever Ite gets. Thus is the Upanishad." 


The Grandfather, after eulogizing Narada who asked about 
the observance of ascetics, replied thus : 

"The ascetic that has attained indifference (to objects), 
should stay in one and the same place in the rainy season (for 
four months), and then for (the remaining) eight months should 
wander alone. Then also the ascetic should not stay in one and 
the same place for more than a day. Like a deer that 
does not stay in one place on account of fear, he should not 
stay in one place. He should not create an attraction (in his 
mind) that may serve as an obstacle to his going about. He 
should not cross a stream (by swimming) with his hand, nor 
ascend a tree, nor witness the festival of a God, nor partake of 
regal food, nor do the external worship of God. Having dis 
carded all things other than the Self, he should be with his 
body emaciated by taking food (from each house) like the bees 
(from each flower). He should not increase the fat (in the body); 
he should discard ghee like blood. Regarding such royal food 
as flesh, sandal-coating, etc., as offal, the different tastes as the 
degraded caste, the cloth a,s a defiled vessel, the oil-bath as sexual 
union, the gladdening of a friend as urine, desires as cow s flesh, 
the country known to him as the outcastes place, gold and women 
as cobra or deadly poison, the place of assembly as the burning 
ground, the capital of the town as the hell called Kumbhlpaka, 
and royal food as balls of rice offered to the dead, he should be 
without any worship of God other than the Self ; and having 
given up all the actions of the world and his own country, and 
ever thinking of the bliss of his Self like the bliss arising from 
the discovery of a lost object, forgetting his country and the 


fondness for his body, and knowing that his body should be 
slighted like a carcase, he should dwell away from son, relations 
and native place, like a thief released from prison. Taking 
whatever comes to him without effort, ever intent upon the 
realisation, through meditation, of Brahma-Prafiava, being freed 
from all karmas, having burnt up air* passion, anger, greed, 
delusion, pride, malice, etc., having transcended the three 
gunas, being without the six human infirmities, 1 without the 
six changes, ~ speaking tho truth and being opposed to all 
savoury things, he should live for one day in a village, five 
days in a town, five days in a sacred place, and five days in 
sacred waters. With no settled place of residence and with a 
firm mind, he should dwell alone in mountain caves without 
uttering falsehood. Two persons should not join together. 
Should three join, there is created a village thereby ; with 
four, is formed a city. Therefore he should live alone 
in a village. In it, the ascetic should not give scope to his 
fourteen organs. Having attained wealth of vairagya through 
the non-dissipated jnana, and having deliberated within himself 
that there is none other than the Self, he should attain Jivan- 
mukti, having seen the Reality everywhere. Till prarabdha 
karma is over, he should understand the four kinds of svarupa 3 
(in Ta^tvamasi) and should live in the realisation of Reality, till 
his body falls (a prey to death) . 

" To the kutichaka there is (prescribed) a bath three times 
daily ; to the bahudaka, twice ; to the hamsa, once ; to the para- 
mahamsa there is the mental bath; to the turyapta, there 
is the holy-ashes bath ; to the avadhuta, there is the wind as the 
bath. For the kutichaka, there is the vertical sect-mark; for the 
bahudaka, there is the three-lined (horizontal) sect-mark ; for 
the hamsa, both ; for the paramahamsa, there is the holy-ashes 
sect-mark ; for the turyatita, there is the spot-sect-mark ; for the 

1 The six human infirmities are hunger, thirst, grief, delusion, dotage, 
and death. 

3 The six changes are birth, existence, growth, transformation, decrease, 
and annihilation. 

3 " Tat " has its two aspects of tho word and its meaning which is Nirguna. 
In " Tvani " also there are two, viz., the disciple and the jiva. 


avadhuta or for the turyatita and avadhuta, there is none. 
For the kutichaka, shaving takes place once in two months ; for 
the bahudaka, once in four months ; for the hamsa and parama 
hamsa, none, or if wanted, once in a year ; for the turyatita and 
avadhuta, none at all. The kutichaka should take the food in 
one (place only) ; the bahudaka should take alms (in many places) ; 
for the hamsa and paramahainsa, the hand is the vessel ; the 
turyatita, should take food with the mouth as the cow ; for the 
avadhuta, it is like the action of the boa constrictor (opening 
the mouth and taking whatever comes into it). For the kuti 
chaka, there are two cloths ; for the bahudaka, there is one 
cloth ; for the hamsa there is a piece of cloth ; and the parama- 
hamsa should be naked or have only a loin-cloth ; in the case of 
the turyatita and avadhuta, they should be as nature made them. 
For the hamsa and paramahainsa, there is (prescribed) a deer 
skin, and for no others. For the kutichaka and bahudaka, 
there is the worship of the divine (image) ; for the hamsa and 
paramahamsa, there is mental worship ; for the turyatita and 
avadhuta, there is the idea that they alone are Brahman. The 
kutichaka and bahudaka are entitled to mantras and japas ; the 
hamsa and paramahamsa, to dhyana (meditation) ; the turyatita 
and avadhuta are entitled to none ; but they are entitled to the 
initiation of the sacred sentences of the Vedas ; so also 
the paramahamsa. The kutichaka and bahudaka are not 
entitled to initiate others ; for them, there is (the uttering 
of) the mental pranava ; for the hamsa and paramahamsa, 
there is the internal pranava (in the heart) ; for the turya 
tita and avadhuta, there is the Brahma-pranava (always). 
For the kutichaka and bahudaka, there is s ravana (hearing and 
study) ; for the hamsa and paramahamsa, there is manana (think 
ing and remembering) ; for the turyatita and avadhuta there is 
nididhyasana (profound meditation ever). For all these, there 
is necessarily the meditation upon Atma. Thus the aspirant 
after salvation ; should ever be uttering the Pranava which en 
ables one to cross samsara, and be living as a Jivanmukta. Thus 
the ascetic, according to each one s capacity, should ever be 
seeking the means to attain Kaivalya. Such is the Upanishad." 



Then Narada asked Parameshthi (Brahma) to enlighten him, 
who had surrendered himself to Him, about samsara-taraka (or 
t that taraka or Pranava which lifts one out of sftmsara). 

Assenting to which, Brahma begafn thus : " Omkara that 
is Brahman is the vyashti (individual) and the samashti 
(cosmic). What is the individual ? What is the cosmic ? Brah- 
ma-pranava is of three kinds, samhara- (destructive) pranava, 
srshti- (creative) pranava, and ubhayatmaka (belonging to 
both) pranava, as being of two forms, internal and external. 
(It is also eight :) Antah- pranava, Vyavaharika-pranava, 
bahya-pranava, arsha-pranava, ubhayatmaka or virat-pranava, 
samhara-pranava, brahma-pranava, and ardhamatra pranava. 
Om is Brahman. Know that the mantra of the one-syllabled 
Om is Pranava. It has the eight differences of akara, ukara, 
makara, ardhamatra, nada, bindu, kala, and s akti. Know it is not 
four (alone) . Akara is associated with ten thousand limbs ; ukara, 
with one thousand limbs ; makara with one hundred limbs ; ardha 
matra is of the nature of endless limbs. That which is saguna 
(associated with gunas) is virat- (preservation) pranava; that 
which is nirguna (not associated with gunas) is samhara- (or de 
struction) pranava; that which is associated with gunas and is 
not so associated, is utpatti- (or origination) pranava. Pluta (the 
elongated accent) is virat : plutapluta is samhara. The virat- 
pranava is of the form of sixteen matras and is above the thirty- 
six tattvas. The sixteen matras are thus : Akara is the first 
matra; ukara is the second; inakarais the third; ardhamatra is the 
fourth ; nfida is the fifth ; bindu is the sixth ; kala is the seventh ; 
kalatita is the eighth ; s anti is the ninth ; s antyatita is the tenth ; 
unman! is the eleventh ; manonmani is the twelfth ; purltati is 
the thirteenth ; tanumadhyama is the fourteenth ; pati is the 
fifteenth ; para is the sixteenth. Then (again) having sixty-four 
raatras and their division into the two, Prakrti and Purusha and 
resolving themselves into the onehundredand twenty-eight differ 
ences of matras, it becomes saguna and nirguna. Though Brahma- 
pranava is one only, it is the substratum of all, the support 


of the whole universe, of the form of all aksharas (letters), 
time, Vedas, and S iva. This Omkara should be sought after, that 
is mentioned in the Vedas of the nature of the Upanishads. Know 
that this Otnkara is the Atma that is indestructible during the 
three periods of time, past, present, and future, able to confer sal- ( 
vation and eulogized by v Brah ma-sound (Vedas). Having experi 
enced this one Om as immortal and ageless, and having brought 
about the Brahma-nature in this body, become convinced that 
your Atma, associated with the three bodies, is Parabrahman. 
Through Yis va and others (viz., Taijasa, Prajfia, and Turya) in 
order, the realisation of Parabrahman should be attained, 
since Atma is of four kinds through his identification with, and 
the enjoying of, the gross as well as the enjoyer of the gross, 
the subtle as well as the enjoyer of the subtle, and through 
his identification (with the third body) enjoying bliss in the 
fourth. He has four feet. The one presiding over the waking 
state is gross; and since he is the enjoyer of Vis va (the 
universe), he becomes the sthula-prajfia (gross consciousness). 
He has nineteen 1 facets and eight parts. He is pervading 
everywhere and the Lord. He is the enjoyer of the gross 
and is the chaturatma called Vis va. He alone is the Purusha 
called Vais vanara. He alone is Vis vajit (the conqueror of 
the universe). This is the first foot. When this Lord at 
tains the dreaming condition, he is the sukshma-prajna 
(subtle consciousness). O conqueror of all, he is the one 
having eight limbs, and there is none else. He is the enjoyer of 
the subtle and is chaturatma, named Taijasa and the protector 
of elements. He alone is the Hiranyagarbha, presiding over 
the gross (or subtle matter rather). He is said to form the 
second foot. Sushupti (or the dreamless sleep) is that state 
where one sleeps without any desire and where one sees not 
any dreams. The one identified with this dreamless sleep is 
Prajnana-ghana, is blissful, of the nature of eternal bliss and 
the Atma in all creatures; yet he is enjoyer of bliss, has chetas 
(consciousness) as his (one) foot, is all-pervading, indestructible, 

1 The nineteen are the five organs of sense, the five organs of action, the 
five pranas, and the four of the mind. 


chaturatma and the Lord, and is named Prajna, the third foot. 
He alone is the Lord of all, the knower of all, the subtle- 
thoughted, the latent one, and the cause of all creation. He 
alone is the origin and the destruction. These three (states) are 
obstacles to all creatures obtaining (the fina 1 !) peace. As is 
svapna, so is sushupti, it (also) being said to be illusory. The 
chaturatma, the fourth, as he is Sat, Chit and Ekarasa (the one 
essence), ends as the fourth and follows (upon the heels of each 
of the above states), is the knower of the means of vikalpa- 
jfiana and is the anujnata (the one following knower). Having 
known them, and known as maya the three vikalpas of sushupti, 
svapna and antara (the inner), even in this state, is he 
not (to be known as) Sat-Chit-Ekarasa ? This shall be expressed 
as differentiated thus : It is not even the gross prajna ; nor is it 
the very subtle prajna; nor is it prajna itself (of the causal 
body) : muni neither is it the trifling prajna ; nor is it the non- 
prajfia; nor is it the dual prajna; nor is it the internal prajna, 
though it is without prajna; it is Prajnana-ghana. It can 
never be known by the organs ; nor it can be known by the 
reason; it cannot be grasped by the organs of action. It can 
not be proved. It cannot be reached by thought. It cannot be 
proved by analogy. It can be realised by Self-realisation alone. It 
is with the waking state, etc. It is the auspicious, with changes, 
without a second. Such a one is thought to be Turya. This 
alone is Brahman, Brahma-pranava. This should be known. 
There is no other Turya. To the aspirants after salvation, it is 
the support, like the sun everywhere ; it is the Self-light. As 
it alone is Brahman, this Brahma-Akas is shining always. 
Thus is the Upanishad." 


Narada asked : " Who is Brahma-swarupa ? " To which 
Brahma replied thus : " Brahma-swarupa is thus : Those who 
know that he (Brahman) is one and I am another are only 
pas us (animals). The real pas us (animals) are no animals. The 
wise man who knows Brahman thus (as himself, and himself 



as Brahman) escapes out of the mouth of death. There is no 
other path to salvation. 

" Is time the cause (of origination of universes) ? l or 
nature ? or karma ? or accident ? or the (great) elements ? or 
Purusha ? This Should be considered. It is not the union of 
them. (Then) there is c the Atma, but (jiva-) Atma is not the 
Lord, as it is subject to pleasures and pains. Those (Rshis) 
following dhyana-yoga have beheld, as the cause, the devatma- 
s akti concealed by its own qualities of that One that presides 
over all the causes associated with time and Atma. Him (the 
Universal Soul), we consider as the wheel which has one 
circumference, which is covered by three (layers), which has 
sixteen end-parts, which has fifty spokes and twenty counter- 
spokes, which has six times eight (nails), which has one rope of 
various forms, which has the threefold path, ami which has 
delusion arising from the twofold cause. Him (we worship as 
a river) which has (water) oozing out of the five currents (of 
organs), which is terrible and crooked through the five causes 
(of elements), whose pranas are the five waves, which hasbuddhi, 
etc., as the root cause, which has five whirlpools, which is Impel 
led by the velocity of the five pains, which has fifty differences 
(or has the five miseries), and which has the five obstacles. 
In this wheel of Brahman, which is the support of life and the 
last abiding place of all beings, and which is infinite, is whirling 
deluded the jiva, thinking that it is different from the one 
(Lord) Ordainer. Being blessed by Him, he gains salvation 
through such (a blessing). This is declared as Brahman, as 
the supreme and the indestructible. In it, are the three (the 
enjoyer, the enjoyed and enjoyment). Hence it is the firm 
abode (of all). The knowers of Brahman having known 
Brahman within (the universe, etc.,) attain samadhi in Brahman 
and are absorbed in Brahman. Is vara upholds this universe, 
closely associated with the destructible and the indestructi 
ble, which are manifest and unmanifest ; but the not-ruler 
of (jiva-) Atma is bound through the thought of its being 
the enjoyer ; and having known the Lord is freed from all 
1 The Svetasvatara Upanishad begins thus. 


fetters. Both ts vara and jlva are birthless ; one (the former is 
jnani and the other (latter) is ajnani. (The goddess of) Brahm- 
iitma-s tikti, is birthless, is alone engaged (in this world), on 
account of the enjoyment of the enjoyers. Atma is endless. 
. The universe is His form. He is not the agent.* Whoever knows 
the Brahman that is threefold ^as jlva, Is vara and the universe) 
is released from bondage. It is pradhana alone that is 
destructible. It is Is vara that is immortal and indestructible. 
The one Lord (Is vara) ordains Pradhana and Purusha. 

" The illusion of the universe disappears through medita 
tion on union (or absorption) and sattva-bhava of Parames vara 
always. Through knowing the Lord, avidya and the rest are 
destroyed. Through the removal of such pains, there is freedom 
from birth and death. Through the meditation of that Para 
mes vara, the third body is acquired after this (physical) body, 
all wealth is enjoyed, and he attains whatever should be attained. 
He should know with certitude that all the three things (viz.,) the 
enjoyer, the enjoyed, and enjoyment are nothing but Brahman, 
and are of the nature of his own Self. There is none but It to be 
known. All Atmic knowledge is through tapas (only). That, 
Brahman contains in itself all excellence. Having known thus, 
whoever meditates upon the (Atma-) svarupa, to him where then 
is grief ? Where then is delusion ? Therefore the Virat is the 
past, present, and future time, and is of indestructible nature. 

" Atma, that is the atom of atoms and the greatest of the 
greatest, is in the cave of the heart of all creatures. One 
without the thought of objects and without grief, knows the 
A^ma capable of neither increase nor decrease through the 
grace of Is vara or through the non-attraction to the objects of 
the senses. He (Atma) walks speedily without legs, lifts objects 
without hands, sees without eyes and hears without ears. He 
knows all, but none knows Him. He is said to be the foremost 
Maha-Purusha. Having known Atma that is bodiless in this 
fleeting body, the great, the all-pervading, the support of all 
with incomprehensible power, fit to be known through the 
meaning, etc., of all the Upanishads, the supreme of the supreme, 
the supreme object fit to be known, the one remaining after all, 


the all- knowing, the eternal, the foremost of all foremost beings, 
the ordainer of all, the one fit to be worshipped by all angels, 
the one without beginning, end, and middle, without limit or 
destruction, the cause of Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra, the one 
that has all the universe latent in himself, of the nature of the , 
five elements with the u expansion of all the quintuplicated 
creation, without being enveloped by his own limbs of quintupli 
cated objects, superior to the supreme, greater than the 
greatest, of the nature of effulgence, the eternal and the 
auspicious, the undaunted personage never grieves. One who has 
neither given up vicious actions, nor controlled his organs, nor 
mastered his mind, nor given up longing after fruits of actions 
though the mind is undisturbed, nor brought his mind to one 
state (or point), will not attain this At ma. 

" This (Brahman) is neither internal nor external conscious 
ness ; is neither gross, nor jnana, nor ajnana ; nor is it the state 
between the waking and the dreaming states. It cannot be cog 
nised by the organs ; is not subject to proof ; is within. He who 
knows that which is by Itself alone is an emancipated person." 

The Lord Brahma said that he becomes an emanci 
pated person. He who knows Reality is a Parivrat. Such 
a Parivrat roams about alone. Through fear, he is like a 
terrified deer. He will not be opposed to going anywhere. 
Having given up all but his body, he will live like a bee, and 
without considering others as foreign to himself ; ever meditat 
ing upon Reality, he attains liberation in himself. Such a 
Parivrat will be without delusion, without action or causing 
others to act, being absolved from teacher, disciple, books, etc., 
and having abandoned all samsara. Such a Parivrat roams 
about thus without wealth, being happy, able to get wealth (if 
wanted), having crossed jnana and ajnana as well as happiness 
and grief, being Self-effulgence, being fit to be known by the 
Vedas, having known all, able to confer siddhis and remaining 
himself as Brahman, the Lord. Such a Parivrat attains the 
supreme abode of Vishnu, from which a yogin that has gone to 
it does not return, and where the sun and the moon do not shine. 
He does not return. Such is Kaivalya. Such is the Upanishad. 




OM. S andilya questioned Atharvan thus : " Please tell me about 
the eight angas (parts) of Yoga which is the means of attain 
ing to Atma/ ? 

A^harvan replied : " The eight aiigas of yoga are yama, niya- 
ma, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and sama- 
dhi. Of these, yama is of ten kinds : and so is niyama. There 
are eight asanas. Pranayama is of three kinds ; pratyahara is of 
five kinds : so also is dharana. Dhyana is of two kinds, and 
samadhi is of one kind only. 

" Under yama (forbearance) are ten : l ahimsa, satya, asteya 
brahmacharya, daya, arjava, kshama, dhrti, mitahara, and 
s aucha. Of these, ahimsa is the not causing of any pain to any 
living being at any time through the actions of one s mind, 
speech, or body. Satya is the speaking of the truth that 
conduces to the well-being of creatures, through the actions of 
one s mind, speech, or body. Asteya is not coveting of 
another s property through the actions of one s mind, speech, 
or body. Brahmacharya is the refraining from sexual inter 
course in all places and in all states in mind, speech or body. 
Daya is kindliness towards all creatures in all places. Arjava 
is the preserving of equanimity of mind, speech, or body in the 
performance or non-performance of the actions ordained or 
forbidden to be done. Kshama is the bearing patiently of all 
pleasant or unpleasant things, such as praise or blow. Dhrti is 
1 Under yama and niyama Patanjali has five kinds only. 


the preserving of firmness of mind during the period of gain 
or loss of wealth or relatives. Mitahara is the taking of oily 
and sweet food, leaving one-fourth of the stomach empty. 
S aucha is of two kinds, external and internal. Of these, 
the external is the cleansing of the body by earth and water ; the, 
internal is the cleansing of the mind. This (the latter) is to be 
obtained by means of the adhyatma-vidya (science of Self). 

" Under niyama (religious observances), are ten, viz., tapas, 
santosha, astikya, dana, Is varapujana, siddhanta-s ravana, 
hrih, mati, japa, and vrata. Of these tapas, is the eman 
cipation of the body through the observances of such pen 
ances as krchchhra, chandrayana, etc., according to rules. 
Santosha is being satisfied with whatever comes to us of 
its own accord. Astikya is the belief in the merits or 
demerits of actions as stated in the Vedas. Dana is the 
giving with faith to deserving persons, money, grains, etc., 
earned lawfully. Is varapujana is the worshipping of Vishnu, 
Rudra, etc., with pure mind according to one s power. 
Siddhanta-s ravana is the inquiry into the significance of Vedanta. 
Hrih is the shame felt in the performance of things contrary to 
the rules of the Vedas and of society. Mati is the faith in the 
paths laid down by the Vedas. Japa is the practising of the 
mantras into which one is duly initiated by his spiritual 
instructor, and which is not against (the rules of) the Vedas. 
It is of two kinds the spoken and the mental. The mental is 
associated with contemplation by the mind. The spoken is of 
two kinds the loud and the low. The loud pronunciation gives 
the reward as stated (in the Vedas): (while) the low one (gives) 
a reward thousand times (that). The mental (gives) a reward a 
crore (of times that). Vrata is the regular observance of or 
the refraining from the actions enjoined or prohibited by the 

" Asanas (the postures) are (chiefly) eight, viz., svastika, 
gomukha, padma, vira, simha, bhadra, mukta, and mayura. 

" Svastika is the sitting at ease with the body erect, placing 
each foot between the thighs and knees of the other. Gomukha 
is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,) placing the hollow 


of the left foot under the side of the right posteriors and the 
hollow of the right foot under the side of the left posteriors, 
resembling Gomukha (cow s face). Pad ma is (the sitting at 
ease with the body erect) placing the back of each foot in the 
thigh of the other, the right hand grasping the right toe and 
the left hand the left toe. This, S arjdilya, is praised by all. 
Vira is the sitting at ease (with the body erect), placing one 
foot on the thigh of the other and the other foot underneath 
the corresponding (opposite thigh.) Simha is (the sitting at 
ease with the body erect,) pressing the right side (of the thigh) 
with the hollow of left heel and vice versa. Rest your hands 
on the knees, spread out the fingers, open your mouth and 
carefully fix your gaze on the tip of your nose. This is always 
praised by the yogins. Siddha x is (the sitting at ease with the 
body erect), pressing the perineum with the left heel and placing 
the heel of the right foot above the genital organ, concentrating 
the mind between the two eyebrows. Bhadra is (the sitting at ease 
with the body erect,) pressing the two ankles of the two feet firmly 
together against the Sivini (viz., lower part of the seed) and 
binding the knees firmly with the hands. This is the bhadra 
which destroys all diseases and poisons. Mukta is (the sitting at 
ease with the body erect,) pressing with the left heel the right 
side of the tender part of the Sivini, and with the right heel the 
left side of the tender part of the Sivini. Mayura (lit., peacock). 
Rest your body upon the ground with both palms and place your 
elbows on the sides of the navel, lift up the head and feet and 
remain like a stick in the air, (like the plant balance in gym 
nastics). This is the mayura posture which destroys all sins. 
By these, all the diseases within the body are destroyed ; all the 
poisons are digested. Let the person who is unable to practise 
all these postures betake himself to any one (of these) which he 
may find easy and pleasant. He who conquers (or gets mastery 
over) the postures he conquers the three worlds. A person who 
has the practice of yama and niyama should practise prana- 
yama ; by that the nadis become purified." 

Then SYmdilya questioned Athavvan thus : " By what 
means are the nadis purified ? How many are they in number ? 
1 In the explanation one more posture is introduced. 


How do they arise ? What vay us (vital airs) are located in them ? 
What are their seats? What are their functions? Whatever 
is worthy of being known in the body, please tell me." To that 
A tharvan replied (thus) : "This body is ninety-six digits in length. 
Prana extends twelve digits beyond the body. He who through, 
the practice of yoga reduces his prana within his body to make 
it equal to or not less than the fire in it becomes the greatest of 
the yogins. In men, the region of fire which is triangular in 
form and brilliant as the molten gold is situated in the middle 
of the body. In four-footed animals, it (fire) is quadrangular. 
In birds, it is round. In its (the region of fire s) centre, 
the purifying, beneficial, and subtle flame is situate. Two 
digits above the anus and two digits below the sexual 
organ is the centre of the body for men. For four-footed 
animals, it is the middle of the heart. For birds, it 
is the middle of the body. Nine digits from (or above) 
the centre of the body and four digits in length and breadth is 
situated an oval form. In its midst is the navel. In it, is 
situated the chakra (viz., wheel) with twelve spokes. In the 
middle of the chakra, the jiva (Atma) wanders, driven by its good 
and bad deeds. As a spider flies to and fro within a web of 
fine threads, so prana moves about here. In this body, the 
jiva rides upon prana. Lying in the middle of the navel and 
above it, is the seat of kundalini. The kundalini s akti is of the 
form of eight prakrtis (matter) and coils itself eight ways or 
(times). The movement of vayus (vital airs) checks duly the 
food and drink all round by the side of skandha. 1 It closes by 
its head (the opening of) the brahmarandhra, and during the 
time of (the practice of) yoga is awakened by the fire (in the 
apana); then it shines with great brilliancy in the akas of the 
heart in the shape of wisdom. Depending upon kundalini which 
is situated in the centre, there are fourteen principal nadis 
(viz.,) Ida, Pingala, Sushumna, Sarasvati, Varuni, Pusha, 
Hastijihva, Yas asvim, Vis vodharl, Kuhuh, S ankhini, Payasvini, 
Alambusa, and Gandhari. Of them, Sushumna is said tc be the 

1 In Varaha Upanishad and later on, this is named " Kandha ". Herein is 
described the web of life. 


sustainer of the universe and the path of salvation. Situated at 
the back of the anus, it is attached to the spinal column and 
extends to the brahmaraudlmi of the head and is invisible 
and subtle and is vaishnavi (or has the s akti force of Vishnu). 
^ On the left of Sushumna is situated Ida, }in& on the right is 
Pingala. The moon moves in Ida a.^d the sun in Pingala. 
The moon is of the nature of tamas and the sun of rajas. 
The poison share is of the sun and the nectar of the moon. 
They both direct (or indicate) time and Sushumna, is the enjoyer 
(or consumer) of time. To the back and on the side of Sushumna 
are situate Sarasvati and Kuhuh respectively. Between 
Yas asvini and Kuhuh stands Varum. Between Pusha and 
Sarasvati lies Payasvini. 1 Between Gandhari and Sarasvati is 
situated Yas asvini. 3 In the centre of the navel is Alambusa. 
In front of Sjishumna there is Kuhuh, which proceeds as far as 
the genital organ. Above and below kundalini is situated 
Varuni, which proceeds everywhere. Yas asvini which is 
beautiful (or belonging to the moon), proceeds to the great toes. 
Pingala goes upwards to the right nostril. Payasvini goes to 
right ear. Sarasvati goes to the upper part or the tongue and 
S ankhini to the left ear, (while) Gandharl goes from the back of 
Ida to the left eye. Alambusa goes upwards and downwards from 
the root of the anus. From these fourteen nadis, other (minor) 
nadis spring; from them springing others, and from them 
springing others ; so it should be known. As the leaf of the 
as vattha tree (ficus religiosa) etc., is covered with minute fibres 
so also is this body permeated with nadis. 

" Prana, Apana, Samana, Udana, Vyana, Naga, Kurma, 
Krkara, Devada^ta, and Dhananjaya these ten vayus (vital 
airs) move in all the nadis. Prana moves in the nostrils, 
the throat, the navel, the two great toes and the lower and 
the upper parts of kundalini. Vyana moves in the ear, the 
eye, the loins, the ankles, the nose, the throat and the buttocks. 
Apana moves in the anus, the genitals, the thighs, the knees, 
the stomach, the seeds, the loins, the calves, the navel, and the 

1 This should be perhaps between Pingalii and Payasvini is Pfishu. 
a Yasaavim should be " Sankhim." 


seat of the anus of fire. Udana lives in all the joints and also 
in the hands and legs. Samana lives, permeating in all parts 
of the body. Along with the fire in the body, it causes the food 
and drink taken in, to spread in the body. It moves in the 
seventy-two thousand nadis and pervades all over the body along t 
with the fire. The fivej vayus beginning with Naga go towards 
the skin, the bones, etc. The Prana which is in the navel 
separates the food and drink which is there and brings about 
the rasas (juices) and others. 1 Placing the water above the fire 
and the food above (or in) the water, it goes to the Apana and 
along with it, fans up the fire in the centre of the body. The 
fire thus fanned up by the Apana gradually increases in bright 
ness in the middle of the body. Then it causes through its 
flames the water which is brought in the bowels by the Prana to 
grow hot. The fire with the water causes the focd and condi 
ments, which are placed above, to be boiled to a proper degree. 
Then Prana separates these into sweat, urine, water, blood, 
semen, the faeces and the like. And along with the Samana, it 
takes the juice (or essence) to all the nadis and moves in the 
body in the shape of breath. The vayus excrete the urine, 
the faeces, etc., through the nine openings in the body which 
are connected with the outside air. The functions of Prana are 
inspiration, expiration, and cough. Those of Apana are the ex 
cretion of the faeces and the urine. Those of Vyana are (such 
actions as) giving and taking. Those of Udana are keeping 
the body straight, etc. Those of Samana are nourishing the 
body. Those of Naga are vomiting, etc. ; of Kurma, the 
movement of the eyelids ; of Krkara, the causing of hunger, 
etc., of Devadatta, idleness, etc., and Dhananjaya, phlegm. 
" Having thus acquired a thorough knowledge of the seat 
of the nadis and of the vayus with their functions, one should 
begin with the purification of the nadis. A person possessed 
of yama and niyama, avoiding all company, having finished 
his course of study, delighting in truth and virtue, having 
conquered (his) anger, being engaged in the service ( of his 
spiritual instructor and having been obedient to his parents 
1 Here the prooess of digestion of food is described. 


and well instructed in all the religious practices and the 
knowledge of his order of life, should go to a sacred grove 
abounding in fruits, roots, and water. There he should 
select a pleasant spot always resounding with the chanting of 
t the Vedas, frequented by the knowers o* Brahman that 
persevere in the duties of their orders of life and filled with 
fruits, roots, flowers, and water. (Else) either in a temple or on 
the banks of a river or in a village or in a town, he should build 
a Jbeautiful monastery. It should be neither too long nor too 
high, should have a small door, should be besmeared well with 
cow-dung and should have every sort of protection. 1 There 
listening to the exposition of vedanta, he should begin to 
practise yoga. In the beginning having worshipped Vinayaka 2 
(Ganes a), he should salute his Ishta-Devata (tutelary deity) and 
sitting in any of the above-mentioned postures on a soft seat, 
facing either the east or the north and having conquered them, 
the learned man keeping his head and neck erect and fixing his 
gaze on the tip of his nose, should see the sphere of the moon 
between his eyebrows and drink the nectar (flowing there 
from through his eyes. Inhaling the air through Ida 3 for the 
space of twelve madras/ he should contemplate on the sphere 
of fire 5 situated in the belly as surrounded with flames 
and having as its seed ^ (ra) ; then he should exhale it through 
Pihgala. Again inhaling it through Pingala 3 and retaining 
it (within), he should exhale it through Ida. For the period of 
twenty-eight months, 8 he should practise six times at every 
sitting through the three sandhyas (morning, noon, and evening) 

1 Both by physical protection and that of mantras to scare away evil 

a He is the son of Siva, having an elephant s face symbolical of wisdom. 
Ho is considered as the remover of all obstacles, and as such is he invoked and 
worshipped in the beginning of every religious rite. 

3 Ida and Pingala are the two nadis upon which our breaths alternate 
from the left nostril to the right and vice versa and between which isSushumna. 
Hence these two terms arc applied to and mean the left aud right nostrils. 

* According to Yogatattva-Upanishad, a matra is the time occupied in 
circling the knee once with the palm of the hand and filliping the fingers. 

6 According to Varaha-Upanishad the seat of fire is the muladhara (sacral 

8 The original is not clear. It says, * For the space of 3, 4, 3, 4, 7, 3 and 4 
months" which when added becomes 2tt. 


and during the intervals. By this, the nadis become purified. 
Then the body becomes light and bright, the (gastric) fire is 
increased (within) and there is the manifestation of nada (in 
ternal sound). 

" Pranayam&! is said to be the union of Prana and Apana. It 
is of three kinds expiration, inspiration, and cessation. They 
are associated with the letters of the (Samskrt) alphabet 1 (for the 
right performance of pranayama). Therefore Pranava (On) 
only is said to be Pranayama. Sitting in the padrna posture, 
the person should meditate that there is at the tip of his nose 
Grayatri, 2 a girl of red complexion surrounded by the numberless 
rays of the image of the rnoon and mounted on a hamsa (swan) 
and having a mace in her hand. She is the visible symbol of 
the letter A. The letter U has as its visible symbol Savitri, 2 
a young woman of white colour having a disk in -her hand and 
riding on a garuda (eagle). The letter M has as its visible 
symbol Sarasvati, 2 an aged woman of black colour riding on a 
bull, having a trident in her hand. He should meditate that 
the single letter the supreme light the pranava (On) is the 
origin or source of these three letters A, U, and M. Drawing 
up the air through Ida for the space of sixteen matras, he 
should meditate on the letter A during that time; retaining 
the inspired air for the space of sixty-four madras, he 
should meditate on the letter U during the time ; he should 
then exhale the inspired air for the space of thirty-two matras, 
meditating on the letter M during that time. He should 
practise this in the above order over and over again. 

"Then having become firm in the posture and preserved per 
fect self-control, the yogin should, in order to clear away the 
impurities of the Sushumna, sit in the padinasana (padma 
posture), and having inhaled the air through the left nostril, 
should retain it as long as he can and should exhale it through 
the right. Then drawing it again through the right and having 
retained it, he should exhale it through the left in the order 

1 According to the Mantra Sastra, Pranayama is performed through the 
letters of Sarnskrfc alphabet, the vowels corresponding to inspiration, etc. 

2 These are the Goddesses representing Sakti and being the wives of 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra. 


that he should draw it through the same nostril by which he 
exhaled it before and retained it. In this context, occur (to 
memory) the following verses : " In the beginning having 
inhaled the breath (Prana) through the left nostril, according 
to the rule, he should exhale it through the oiher ; then having 
inhaled the air through the right nostril, should retain it and 
exhale it through the other." To those who practise according 
to these rules through the right and left nostrils, the nadis 
bt^ome purified within three months. He should practise 
cessation of breath at sunrise, in the midday, at sunset and at 
midnight slowly till eighty (times a day) for four weeks. In the 
early stages, perspiration is produced; in the middle stage 
the tremor of the body, and in the last stage levitation in the 
air. These (results) ensue out of the repression of the breath, 
while sitting in the padma posture. When perspiration arises 
with effort, he should rub his body well. By this, the body 
becomes firm and light. In the early course of his practice, 
food with milk and ghee is excellent. One sticking to this rule 
becomes firm in his practice and gets no tapa (or burning 
sensation in the body). As lions, elephants and tigers are 
gradually tamed, so also the breath, when rightly managed 
(comes under control) ; else it kills the practitioner. 1 

" He should (as far as is consistent with his health and 
safety) properly exhale it, properly inhale it or retain it proper 
ly. Thus (only) will he attain success. By thus retaining the 
breath in an approved manner and by the purification of the 
nadis, the brightening of the (gastric) fire, the hearing distinctly 
of (spiritual) sounds and (good) health result. When the ner 
vous centres have become purified through the regular prac 
tice of Pranayama, the air easily forces its way up through 
the mouth of the Sushumna which is in the middle. By the 
contraction of the muscles of the neck and by the contraction 
of the one below (viz.,) Apana, the Prana (breath) goes into the 
Sushumna which is in the middle from the west nadi. a Drawing 

1 his passage clearly indicates the dreadful consequences of the per 
formance of Pranayama rashly and without a guru. 

3 As already pointed out, the Sushumna uadi is between Ida and Pingala. If 
Praua which alternates ordinarily between Ida and Pingala is restrained by long 


up the Apana and forcing down the Prana from the throat, 
the yogin free from old age becomes a youth of sixteen. 

" Seated in a pleasant posture and drawing up the air through 
the right nostril and retaining it inside from the top of the 
hair to the toe< nails, he should exhale it through the same 
nostril. Through it, the brain becomes purified and the dis 
eases in the air nadis * are destroyed. Drawing up the 
air through the nostrils with noise (so as to fill the space) 
from the heart to the neck, and having retained it (within) *as 
long as possible, he should exhale it through the nose. Through 
this, hunger, thirst, idleness and sleep do not arise. 

" Taking in the air through the mouth (wide open) and hav 
ing retained it as long as possible, he should expel it through 
the nose. Through this, (such diseases as) gulma, pleeha (both 
being splenetic diseases), bile and fever as also hunger, etc., 
are destroyed. 

"Now we shall proceed to kumbhaka (restraint of breath). 
It is of two kinds sahi^a and kevala. That which is coupled 
with expiration and inspiration is called sahita. That which is 
devoid of these is called kevala (alone). Until you become per 
fect in kevala, practise sahita. To one who has mastered kevala, 
there is nothing unattainable in the three worlds. By kevala- 
restraint of breath, the knowledge of kundalini arises. Then he 
becomes lean in body, serene in face and clear-eyed, hears the 
(spiritual) sounds distinctly, becomes free from all diseases and 
conquers his (bindu) seminal fluid, 1 his gastric fire being 

" Centring one s mind on an inward object whilst his eyes are 
looking outside without the shutting and opening of his eyelids, 
has been called Vaishnavimudra. This is kept hidden in all the 

kumbhaka, then it along with the soul, its attendant will enter the Sushumna 
(central nadi) at one of the three places where it yields space for entrance through 
such restraint of breath and in the navel, from the Sarasvati nadi on the west. 
After such entry it is that the yogin becomes dead to the world, being in the 
state called trance. 

1 Through such and other methods of Pranayama prescribed in this passage 
and the subsequent ones, chronic diseases that defy European doctors Vill be 
rooted out. 

a He becomes an IJrdhva-retas his vital energy goes up. 


works. With his mind and breath absorbed in an inter 
nal object, the yogin, though he does not really see the objects 
outside and under him, still (appears to) see them with eyes in 
which the pupils are motionless. This is called Khecharimudra. 
It has as its sphere of extension one object And is very bene 
ficial. (Then) the real seat of Vishni>, which is void and non- 
void, dawns on him. With eyes half closed and with a firm mind, 
fixing his eyes on the tip of his nose and becoming absorbed in the 
su> and moon, he after remaining thus unshaken (becomes consci 
ous of) the thing which is of the form of light, which is free from 
all externals, which is resplendent, which is the supreme truth 
and which is beyond. O S andilya, know this to be T^t (That). 
Merging the sound in the light and elevating the brows a little, 
this is of the way of (or is a part of) the former practice. This 
brings about ihe state of Unmanl which causes the destruction 
of the mind. Therefore he should practise the Khecharimudra. 
Then he attains to the state of Unmanl and falls into the yoga 
sleep (trance). To one who obtains this yoga sleep, time does 
not exist. Placing the mind in the midst of s akti and s akti l 
in the midst of the mind and looking on the mind with the mind, 
S andilya be happy. Place the At ma in the midst of akas 
and akas in the midst of Atma, and having reduced everything 
to akas , do not think of anything else. You should not (then) 
entertain thoughts, either external or internal. Abandoning all 
thoughts, become abstract thought itself. As camphor in fire 
and salt in water become absorbed, so also the mind becomes 
absorbed in the Tattva (Truth). What is termed manas (mind) 
is the knowledge of everything that is known and its clear 
apprehension. When the knowledge and the object cognised 
are lost alike, there is no second path (or that is the only path). 
By its giving up all cognition of objects, it (the mind) is 
absorbed and when the mind is absorbed, kaivalya (isolation) 
alone remains. 

" For the destruction of the chitta, there are two ways 
yoga ,and jnana. O prince of sages! yoga is the (forcible) 

1 There are six centres of energy in the body (muladhara, sacral plexus, etc.), 
which are presided over by six eaktis (goddesses of energy). 


repression of the modifications of the mind, and jfiana is the 
thorough inquiry into them. When the modifications of the 
mind are repressed, it (the mind) verily obtains peace. Just as 
the actions of the people cease with the stopping of the fluctua 
tions of the suni (viz., with sunset), so when the fluctuations 
of the mind cease, this cyflle of births and deaths comes to an end. 
(Then) the fluctuations of prana are prevented, when one has no 
longing for this mundane existence or when he has gratified his 
desires therein through the study of religious books, the com- 
pany of good men, indifference (to enjoyments), practice and 
yoga or long contemplation with intentness on any desired 
(higher) object or through practising one truth firmly. 

" By the repression of the breath through inhalation, etc., 
by continual practice therein which does not cause fatigue, and 
by meditating in a secluded place, the fluctuations of the mind 
are arrested. Through the right realisation of the true nature 
of the sound which is at the extreme end of the pronunciation 
of the syllable OM (viz., Ardhamatra), and when sushupti 
(dreamless sleeping state) is rightly cognised through con 
sciousness, the fluctuations of prana are repressed. When 
the passage at the root of the palate which is like the bell, 
viz., uvula, is closed by the tongue with effort and when 
the breath goes up through (the upper hole), then the fluc 
tuations of prana are stopped. When the consciousness 
(samvit) is merged in prana, and when through practice the 
prana goes through the upper hole into the dvadas anta 1 (the 
twelfth centre) above the palate, then the fluctuations of prana 
are stopped. When the eye of consciousness (viz., the spiritual or 
third eye) becomes calm and clear so as to be able to distinctly 
see in the transparent akas at a distance of twelve digits from the 
tip of his nose, then the fluctuations of prana are stopped. 
When the thoughts arising in the mind are bound up in the 
calm contemplation of the world of taraka (star or eye) between 
one s eyebrows and are (thus) destroyed, then the fluctuations 
cease. When the knowlege which is of the form of the knowable, 

1 This twelfth centre is identified by some with the pituitary body in the 
head, there being six centres in the brain besides the six below the brain. 


which is beneficent and which is untouched by any modifications 
arises in one and is known as OM only and no other, then 
the fluctuations of prana cease. By the contemplation for a 
long time of the akas which is in the heart, and by the con 
templation of the mind free from vasanas, theji the fluctuations 
of prana cease. By these methods arid^ various others suggested 
by (one s) thought and by means of the contact of the many 
(spiritual) guides, the fluctuations cease. 

" Having by contraction opened the door of kundalini, one 
should force open the door of moksha. Closing with her mouth 
the door through which one ought to go, the kundalini sleeps 
spiral in form and coiled up like a serpent. He who causes this 
kundalini to move he is an emancipated person. If this kundalini 
were to sleep in the upper part of the neck of any yogin, it goes 
towards his emancipation. (If it were to sleep) in the lower part 
(of the body), it is for the bondage of the ignorant. Leaving the 
two nadis, Ida and the other (Pingala), it (prana) should move 
in the Sushumna. That is the supreme seat of Vishnu. One should 
practise control of breath with the concentration of the mind. 
The mind should not be allowed by a clever man to rest on any 
other thing. One should not worship Vishnu during the day alone. 
One should not worship Vishnu during the night alone ; but should 
always worship Him, and should not worship Him merely during 
day and night. The wisdom-producing opening (near uvula) has 
five passages. S andilya this is the khecharimudra ; practise 
it. With one who sits in the khecharimudra, the vayu which 
was flowing before through the left and right nadis now flows 
through the middle one (Sushumna). There is no doubt about it. 
You should swallow the air through the void (Sushumna) 
between Ida and Piiigala. In that place is khecharimudra 
situated, and that is the seat of Truth. Again that is khechari 
mudra which is situated in the akas a-chakra (in the head) in the 
niralamba (supportless) seat between the sun and moon (viz., 
Ida and Pingala). When the tongue has been lengthened to the 
length of a kala (digit) by the incision (of the fraenuin lingum) 
and by rubbing and milking it (viz., the tongue), fix the gaze 
between the two eyebrows and close the hole in the skull with 



the tongue reversed. This is khecharimudra. When the 
tongue and the chitta (mind) both move in the akas* (khechari), 
then the person with his tongue raised up becomes immortal. 
Firmly pressing the yoni (perineum) by the left heel, stretching 
out the right leg grasping the feet with both hands and in 
haling the air through ^he nostrils, practise kantha-bandha, x 
retaining the air upwards. By that, all afflictions are destroyed ; 
then poison is digested as if it were nectar. Asthma, splenetic 
disease, the turning up of the anus and the numbness of th^e 
skin are removed. This is the means of conquering prana and 
destroying death. Pressing the yoni by the left heel, place the 
other foot over the left thigh : inhale the air, rest the chin on the 
chest, contract the yoni and contemplate, (as far as possible), 
your Atma as situated within your mind. Thus is the direct 
perception (of truth) attained. 

"Inhaling the prana from outside and filling the stomach 
with it, centre the prana with the mind in the middle of the 
navel, at the tip of the nose and at the toes during the sandhyas 
(sunset and sunrise) or at all times. (Thus) the yogin is 
freed from all diseases and fatigue. By centring his prana at 
the tip of his nose, he obtains mastery over the element of air; 
by centring it at the middle of his navel, all diseases are destroy 
ed; by centring it at the toes, his body becomes light. He 
who drinks the air (drawn) through the tongue destroys fatigue, 
thirst and diseases. He who drinks the air with his mouth du 
ring the two sandhyas and the last two hours of the night, 
within three months the auspicious Sarasvati (goddess of 
speech) is present in his vak (speech) viz., (he becomes eloquent 
and learned in his speech). In six months, he is free from all 
diseases. Drawing the air by the tongue, retain the air at the 
root of the tongue. The wise man thus drinking nectar enjoys 
all prosperity. Fixing the Atma in the Atma itself in the middle 
of the eyebrows, (having inhaled) through Ida and breaking 
through that (centre) thirty times, even a sick man is freed 
from disease. He who draws the air through the nadis 
and retains it for twenty-four minutes in the navel and in 
1 Lit., binding the air up the throat. 


the sides of the stomach becomes freed from disease. He who 
for the space of a month during the three sandhyas (sunset, 
sunrise, and midnight or noon) draws the air through the tongue, 
pierces thirty times and retains his breath in the middle of his 
navel, becomes freed from all fevers and poison^. He who retains 
the prana together with the mind at the tip of his nose even 
for the space of a muhurta (forty-eight minutes), destroys all 
sins that were committed by him during one hundred births. 

" Through the samyama of tara (OM), he knows all things. 
By retaining the mind at the tip of his nose, he acquires a 
knov/ledge of Indra-world ; l below that, he acquires a know 
ledge of Agni-(fire) world. 1 Through the samyama of chitta in. 
the eye, he gets a knowledge of all worlds : in the ear, a 
knowledge of Yama-(the god of death) world i 1 in the sides 
of the ear,, a knowledge of Nrrti-world : l in the back of it 
(the ear), a knowledge of Varuna-world : x in the left ear, a know 
ledge of Vayu-world : l in the throat, a knowledge of Soma- 
(moon) world : l in the left eye, a knowledge of Sfiva-world : * 
in the head, a knowledge of Brahma-world : l in the soles of the 
feet, a knowledge of Atala world : 2 in the feet, a knowledge of 
Yitala world : in the ankles, a knowledge of Ni^ala (rather Sutala) 
world : in the calves, a knowledge of Sutala (rather Talatala 
world) : in the knees, a knowledge of Mahatala world : in the 
thighs, a knowledge of Rasatala world : in the loins, a knowledge 
of Talatala (rather Patala) world : in the navel, a knowledge of 
Bhurloka (earth- world) : in the stomach, a knowledge of 
Bhuvar (world) : in the heart, a knowledge of Suvar (world) : in 
the place above the heart, a knowledge of Mahar world : in the 
throat, a knowledge of Jana world : in the middle of the brows, 
a knowledge of Tapa world : in the head, a knowledge of 
Satya world. 

" By conquering dharma and adharma, one knows the 
past and the future. By centring it on the sound of 
every creature, a knowledge of the cry (or language) of the 

1 These correspond severally to the several directions and the devatas 
presidyi^ over them, corresponding respectively to east, south-east, south, south 
west, west, north-west, north, and north-ra.sU 

a The fourteen worlds, Inkaw and talas are referred to : the order in talaa 
teems to be wrong, Talatala should bo in the middle. 


animal is produced. By centring it on the sanchita-karma 
(past karma yet to be enjoyed), a knowledge of one s 
previous births arises in him. By centring it on the mind 
of another, a knowledge of the mind (or thoughts) of others is 
induced. By centring it on the kaya-rupa (or form of the 
body), other forms are se,en. By fixing it on the bala (strength), 
the strength of persons like Hanuman is obtained. By fixing it 
on the sun, a knowledge of the worlds arises. By fixing it on 
the moon, a knowledge of the constellation is produced. By 
fixing it on the Dhruva (Polar star) a perception of its motion 
is induced. By fixing it on his own (Self), one acquires the 
knowledge of Purusha ; on the navel, he attains a knowledge 
of the kaya-vyuha (mystical arrangement of all the particles of 
the body so as to enable a person to wear out his whole karma 
in one life) : on the well of the throat, freedom fro in hunger and 
thirst arises : on the Kurma nadi (which is situated in the well 
of the throat), a firmness (of concentration) takes place. By 
fixing it on the tara (pupil of the eye), he obtains the sight of the 
siddhas (spiritual personages). By conquering the akas in the 
body, he is able to soar in the akas 7 : (in short) by centring the 
mind in any place, he conquers the siddhis appertaining to 
that place. 

" Then comes pratyahara, which is of five kinds. It is the 
drawing away of the organs from attaching themselves to 
i the objects of senses. ^Contemplating upon everything that one 
sees as Atma is pratyahara. Renouncing the fruits of one s 
daily actions is pratyahara.^ Turning away from all objects of 
sense is pratyahara. C Dharana in the eighteen important 
places (mentioned below) is pratyahara, (viz.,) the feet, the toes, 
the ankles, the calves, the knees, the thighs, the anus, the penis, 
the navel, the heart, the well of the throat, the palate, 
the nose, the eyes, the middle of the brows, the forehead, and 
the head in ascending and descending orders. 

" Then (comes) dharana. It is of three kinds, (viz.,) fixing 
the mind in the Atma, bringing the external akas in^o the 
akas of the heart and contemplating the five murtis (forms of 
devatas) in the five elements earth, apas, fire, vayu, and akas . 


"Then comes dhyana. It is of two kinds, saguna (with 
gunas or quality) and nirguna (without quality). Saguna is 
the meditation of a murti. Nirguna is on the reality of 

" Samadhi is the union of the Jl vittmfi (iralividual self) and 
the Paramfitrnfi (higher self) without ,the threefold state, (viz., 
the knower, the known, and the knowledge). It is of the nature 
of extreme bliss and pure consciousness. 
j " Thus ends the first chapter of Sfandilya Upanishad." 


Then the Brahrnarshi Sfondilya not obtaining the knowledge 
of Brahman in the four Vedas, approached the Lord Atharvan 
and asked him : " What is it ? Teach me the science of Brahman 
by which I shall obtain that which is most excellent." 

Atharvan replied : " O S andilya, Brahman is satya, vijnana 
and ananta in which all this (world) is interwoven, warp-wise 
and woof-wise, from which all originated and into which all 
are absorbed, and which being known makes everything 
else known. It is without hands and feet, without eyes 
and ears, without tongue or without body, and is unreacha- 
ble and undefinable. From which, vak (speech) and mind 
return, being unable to obtain (or reach) It. It is to be 
cognised by jnana and yoga. 1 From which, prajna of old 
sprang. That which is one and non-dual, that which pervades 
everything like iikas , which is extremely subtle, without a 
blemish, actionless, sat (be-ness) only, the essence of the bliss 
of consciousness, beneficent, calm and immortal and which is 
beyond. That is Brahman. Thou art That. Know That by 
wisdom. He who is the one, the shining, the giver of the power 
of Atma, the omniscient, the lord of all, and the inner soul of 
all beings, who lives in all beings, who is hidden in all beings 
and the source of all beings, who is reachable only through yoga 
and who creates, supports and destroys everything He is Atma. 
Knov the several worlds in the Atma. Do not grieve, O knower 
of Atma, thou shalt reach the end of pains." 
1 Some texts leave the words " and yoga". 



Then S andilya questioned Atharvan thus : " Prom the Brah 
man that is OM, imperishable, actionless, beneficial, sat (be-ness) 
only and supreme, how did this universe arise ? How does it ex- 
1st in It ? And how is ?t absorbed in It ? Please solve me this 

Atharvan replied: The Supreme Brahman, the Truth, is the 
imperishable and the actionless. Then from the formless Brah 
man, three forms (or aspects) arose, (viz.,} nishkala (partless,) 
sakala (with parts), and sakala-nishkala (with and without 
parts). That which is satya, vijnana and ananda, That which is 
actionless, without any impurity, omnipresent, extremely subtle, 
having faces in every direction, undefinable and immortal that 
is His nishkala aspect. Mahes vara (the great Lord) who 
is black and yellow rules, with avidya, mulaprakrti or maya 
that is red, white, and black, and that is co-existent with 
Him. This is his sakala-nishkala aspect. Then the Lord 
desired (or willed) by his spiritual wisdom (thus) : May I become 
many ? ; may I bring forth ? Then from this Person who was 
contemplating and whose desires are fulfilled, three letters 
sprang up. Three vyahrtis, 1 the three-footed Gayatri, 2 the 
three Vedas, the three devas, the three varnas (colours or castes) 
and the three fires sprang. That Supreme Lord who is endowed 
with all kinds of wealth, who is all pervading, who is situated in 
the hearts of all beings, who is the Lord of maya and whose 
form is maya He is Brahma. He is Vishnu : He is Rudra : He 
is Indra . He is all the devas : He is all the bhutas (elements 
or beings) : He only is before : He only is behind : He only 
is on our left : He only is on our right : He only is below : 
He only is above : He only is the all. That form of him as 
Dattatreya, 3 who sports with his S akti, who is kind to his 
devotees, who is brilliant as fire, resembling the petals or a red 
lotus and is of four hands, who is mild and shines sinlessly this 
is His sakala form." 

i a These relate to the Gayatri mantras depending upon sound. 

s According to Bhagavata, he is one of the minor incarnations of Vishnu. 


Then S^andilya questioned Atharvan, " Lord, that which 
is Sat only and the essence of the bliss of consciousness why is 
He called Parabrahman ? " 

Atharvan replied : " Because He increases brhati and causes 
to increase everything (Irhanti) ; so he is called Parabrahman. 
\Vhy is He called Atma ? Since He obtains (apnoti) everything, 
since He takes back everything and since He is everything, so 
he is called Atrna. Why is He called Mahes vara (the great 
Lord) ? Since by the sound of the words Maha^-Is a (the great 
Lord) and by His own power, the great Lord governs everything. 
Why is He called Dattatreya? Because the Lord being extreme 
ly pleased with Atri (Rshi) who was performing a most difficult 
penance and who had expressed his desire to see Him who is 
light itself, offered Himself (datta) as their son, and because the 
woman Anasuya was his mother and Atri was his father. There 
fore he who knows the (secret) meaning knows everything. He 
who always contemplates on the supreme that It is himself be 
comes a knower of Brahman. Here these s lokas (stanzas) occur 
(to memory). He who contemplates always the Lord of Lords 
and the ancient thus as Dattatreya, the beneficent, the calm, 
of the colour of sapphire, one who delights in his own maya and 
the Lord who has shaken off everything, as naked and as one 
whose whole body is besmeared with the holy ashes, who 
has matted hair, who is the Lord of all, who has four arms, 
who is bliss in appearance, whose eyes are like full-blown 
lotus, who is the store of jnana and yoga, who is the spirit 
ual instructor of all the worlds and who is dear to all 
the yogins, and one who is merciful towards His devotees, 
who is the witness of all and who is worshipped by all 
the siddhas is freed from all sins and will attain (the Spirit)/ 

" OM Satyam (truth). Thus ends the Upanishad." 




I SHALL now describe yoga-tattva (yoga-truth) for the benefit 
of yogins who are freed from all sins through the hearing and 
the studying of it. The supreme Purusha callecj Vishnu, who 
is the great yogin, the great being and the great tapasvin, is 
seen as a lamp in the path of the truth. The Grandfather 
(Brahma) having saluted the Lord of the universe (Vishnu) and 
having paid Him due respects, asked Him (thus) : " Pray, explain 
to us the truth of yoga which includes in it the eight subservi- 
ents." To which Hrshikes a (the Lord of the senses or Vishnu) 
replied thus : " Listen. I shall explain its truth. All souls are 
immersed in happiness and sorrow through the snare of maya. 
Kaivalya, the supreme seat, is the path which gives them 
emancipation, which rends asunder the snare of maya, which is 
the destroyer of birth, old age and disease and which enables 
one to overcome death. There are no other paths to salvation. 
Those who go round the net of S astras are deluded by that 
knowledge. It is impossible even for the Devas to describe that 
indescribable state. How can that which is self-shining be 
illuminated by the Sfastras ? That only which is without parts 
and stains and which is quiescent beyond all and free from 
decay becomes the jiva (self) on account of the results of past 
virtues and sins. How did that which is the seat of Paramat/ma, 
is eternal, and above the state of all existing things and is of 
the form of wisdom and without stains attain the state of ji va ? 
A bubble arose in it as in water and in this (bubble) arose 


ahankara. To it arose a ball (of body) made of the five (ele 
ments) and bound by dha^us. Know that to be jiva which is 
associated with happiness and misery and hence is the term 
jiva applied to Paramatma which is pure. That jiva is consi 
dered to be the kevala (alone) which is freecUfrom the stains of 
passion, anger, fear, delusion, greed^ pride, lust, birth, death, 
miserliness, swoon, giddiness, hunger, thirst, ambition, shame, 
fright, heart-burning, grief and gladness. 

" So I shall tell you the means of destroying (these) sins. 
How could jnana capable of giving moksha arise certainly with 
out yoga ? And even yoga becomes powerless in (securing) 
moksha when it is devoid of jnana. Sp the aspirant after 
emancipation should practise (firmly) both yoga and jnana. The 
cycle of births and deaths comes only through ajnana and 
perishes onty through jnana. Jnana alone was originally. Ifc 
should be known as the only means (of salvation). That is jnana 
through which one cognises (in himself) the real nature of 
kaivalya as the supreme seat, the stainless, the partless, and of 
the nature of Sachchidananda without birth, existence and death 
and without motion and jnana. 

" Now I shall proceed to describe yoga to you. Yoga is 
divided into many kinds on account of its actions : (m z.,) 
Mantrayoga, Layayoga, Hathayoga, and Rajayoga. There 
are four states common to all these: (viz.,) Arambha, Ghata, 
Parichaya, and Nishpatti. O Brahma, I shall describe these 
to you. Listen attentively. One should practise the Mantra 
along with its ma^rikas (proper intonations of the sounds) and 
others for a period of twelve years; then he gradually obtains 
wisdom along with the sidHhis, (such as) anima, etc. Persons 
of weak intellect who are the least qualified for yoga practise 
this. The (second) Laya-yoga tends towards the absorption of 
the chit^a and is described in myriads of ways ; (one of which 
is) one should contemplate upon the Lord who is without parts 
(even) while walking, sitting, sleeping, or eating. This is called 
Laya-yoga. Now hear (the description of) Hatha-yoga. This 
yoga is said to possess (the following) eight subservients 
yama (forbearance), niyama (religious observance), asana 



(posture), pranayama (suppression of breath), pratyahara (sub 
jugation of the senses), dharana (concentration), dhyana, 
the contemplation on Hari in the middle of the eyebrows 
and samadhi that is the state of equality. Mahamudra, Maha- 
bandha and Khe^hari, jJalandhara, Uddiyana, and Mula- 
bandha, uttering without intermission Pranava (Oitf) for a 
long time, and hearing the exposition of the supreme truths, 
Vajroli, Amaroli and Sahajoli, which form a triad all these 
separately I shall give a true description of. four-faced 
one (Brahma), among (the duties of) yama moderate eating and 
not others forms the principal factor ; and non-injury is most im 
portant in niyama. (The chief postures are) four (viz.,) Siddha, 
Padma, Simha and Bhadra. During the early stages of practice, 
the following obstacles take place, four-faced one, (viz.,) 
laziness, idle talk, association with bad characters, acquisition of 
mantras, etc., playing with metals (alchemy) and woman, etc., 
and mirage. A wise man having found out these should abandon 
them by the force of his virtues. Then assuming Padma posture, 
he should practise pranayama. He should erect a beautiful 
monastery with a very small opening and with no crevices. It 
should be well pasted with cow-dung or with white cement. It 
should be carefully freed from bugs, mosquitoes and lice. It 
should be swept well every day with a broom. It should be 
perfumed with good odours ; and fragrant resins should burn in 
it. Having taken his seat neither too high nor too low on a cloth, 
deerskin and kus a grass spread, one over the other, the wise man 
should assume the Padma posture and keeping his body 
erect and his hands folded in respect, should salute his tutel 
ary deity. Then closing the right nostril with his right 
thumb, he should gradually draw in the air through the left 
nostril. Having restrained it as long as possible, he should 
again expel it through the right nostril slowly and not very fast. 
Then filling the stomach through the right nostril, he should 
retain it as long as he can and then expel it through the left 
nostril. Drawing the air through that nostril by which he expels, 
"he should continue this in uninterrupted succession. The time 
taken in making a round of the knee with the palm of the 


hand, neither very slowly nor very rapidly, and snapping the 
fingers once is called a inatra. Drawing the air through the 
left nostril for about sixteen matrfis and having retained it (within) 
for about sixty-four matras, one should expel it again through the 
right nostril for about thirty-two matrqe. Again fill the 
right nostril as before (and continue tfye rest). Practise cessation 
of breath four times daily (viz.,) at sunrise, noon, sunset and 
midnight, till eighty (times are reached). By a continual 
practice for about three months, the purification of the nadis 
takes place. When the nadis have become purified, certain 
external signs appear on the body of the yogin. I shall proceed 
to describe them. (They are) lightness of the body, brilliancy 
of complexion, increase of the gastric fire, leanness of the body, 
and along with these, absence of restlessness in the body. The 
proficient in yoga should abandon the food detrimental to the 
practice of yoga. He should give up salt, mustard, things sour, 
hot, pungent, or bitter, vegetables, asafoetida, etc., worship of 
fire, women, walking, bathing at sunrise, emaciation of the 
body by fasts, etc. During the early stages of practice, food 
of milk and ghee is ordained ; also food consisting of wheat, 
green pulse and red rice are said to favour the progress. 
Then he will be able to retain his breath as long as he 
likes. By thus retaining the breath as long as he likes, 
kevala kumbhaka (cessation of breath without inspiration and 
expiration) is attained. When kevala kumbhaka is attained 
by one, and thus expiration and inspiration are dispensed 
with, there is nothing unattainable in the three worlds to 
him. In the commencement (of his practice), sweat is given 
out; he should wipe it off. Even after that, owing to 
the retaining of the breath, the person practising it gets 
phlegm. Then by an increased practice of dhfirana, sweat arises. 
As a frog moves by leaps, so the yogin sitting in the Pad ma 
posture moves on the earth. With a (further) increased practice, 
he is able to rise from the ground. He, while seated in Padrna 
posture, levitates. There arises to him the power to perform ex 
traordinary feats. He does (or should) not disclose to others 
his feats of great powers (in the path). Any pain small or 


great, does not affect the yogin. Then excretions and sleep are 
diminished; tears, rheum in the eye, salivary flow, sweat and 
bad smell in the moufch do not arise in him. With a still further 
practice, he acquires great strength by which he attains 
Bhuchara siddhi,^ which enables him to bring under his control 
all the creatures that tread this earth ; tigers, s arabhas, 1 ele 
phants, wild bulls or lions die on being struck by the palm of 
the yogin. He becomes as beautiful as the god of love himself. 
All females being taken up with the beauty of his person will 
desire to have intercourse with him. If he so keeps connection, 
his virility will be lost; so abandoning all copulation with women, 
he should continue his practice with great assiduity. By the 
preservation of the semen, a good odour pervades the body of 
the yogin. Then sitting in a secluded place, he should repeat 
Pranava (On) with three pluta-matras (or prolongad intonation) 
for the destruction of his former sins. The mantra, Pranava 
(Oil) destroys all obstacles and all sins. By practising thus he 
attains the arambha (beginning or first) state. 

" Then follows the ghata (second state) one which is ac 
quired by constantly practising suppression of breath. When a 
perfect union takes place between prana and apana, manas and 
buddhi, or jivatma and Paramatma without opposition, it is 
called the ghata state. I shall describe its signs. He may now 
practise only for about one-fourth of the period prescribed for 
practice before. By day and evening, let him practise only for 
a yama (3 hours). Let him practise kevala kumbhaka once a 
day. Drawing away completely the organs from the objects of 
sense during cessation of breath is called pratyahara. What 
ever he sees with his eyes, let him consider as Atma. Whatever 
he hears with his ears let him consider as Atma. Whatever he 
he smells with his nose let him consider as Atma. Whatever he 
tastes with his tongue let him consider as Atma. Whatever the 
yogin touches with his skin let him consider as Atma. The 
yogin should thus unwearied gratify his organs of sense for a 
period of one yama every day with great effort. Then various 
wonderful powers are attained by the yogin, such as clairvoyance, 
1 An animal said to have eight legs and to be stronger than lion. 


clairaudience, ability to transport himself to great distances 
within a moment, great power of speech, ability to take any 
form, ability to become invisible, and the transmutation of 
iron into gold when the former is smeared over with hia excre 

" That 3 ogin who is constantly practising yoga attains the 
power to levitate. Then should the wise yogin think that 
these powers are great obstacles to the attainment of yoga, and 
so he should never take delight in them. The king of yogins 
should not exercise his powers before any person whatsoever. 
He should live in the world as a fool, an idiot, or a deaf 
man, in order to keep his powers concealed. His disciples 
would, without doubt, request him to show his powers for the 
gratification of their own desires. One who is actively engaged 
in one s duties forgets to practise (yoga) ; so he should practise 
day and night yoga without forgetting the words of the guru. 
Thus passes the ghata state to one who is constantly- 
engaged in yoga practice. To one nothing is gained by use 
less company, since thereby he does not practise yoga. 
So one should with great effort practise yoga. Then by this 
constant practice is gained the parichaya state (the third state). 
Vayu (or breath) through arduous practice pierces along with, 
agni the Kundalini through thought and enters the Sushumna 
uninterrupted. When one s chit^a enters Sushumna along with 
prana, it reaches the high seat (of the head probably) along with 

" There are the five elements (viz.,) prthivi, apas, agni, vayu 
and akas*. To the body of the five elements, there is the 
fivefold dliarana. From the feet to the knees is said to be the 
region of prthivi, is four-sided in shape, is yellow in colour and 
has the varna (or letter) La. Carrying the breath with the 
letter La along the region of earth (viz., from the foot to the 
knees) and contemplating upon Brahma with four faces and four 
mouths and of a golden colour, one should perform dharana there 
for a period of two hours. He then attains mastery over the 
earth. Death does not trouble him, since he has obtained mas 
tery over the earth element. The region of apas is said to 


extend from the knees to the anus. Apas is semi-lunar in shape 
and white in colour and has Fa for its bija (seed) letter. Carrying 
np the breath i with the letter Va along the region of apas, he 
should contemplate on the God Narayana having four arms and 
a crowned head, ar* being of the colour of pure crystal, as dressed 
in orange clothes and as decayless; and practising dharana 
there for a period of two hours, he is freed from all sins. Then 
there is no fear for him from water, and lie does not meet his 
death in water. From the anus to the heart is said to be 
the region of agni. Agni is triangular in shape, of red 
colour, and has the letter Ra for its (bija) seed. Raising 
the breath made resplendent through the letter Ra along the 
region of fire, he should contemplate on Rudra, who has three 
eyes, who grants all wishes, who is of the colour of the midday 
sun, who is daubed all over with holy ashes and who is of a 
pleased countenance. Practising dharana there for a period of 
two hours, he is not burnt by fire even though his body enters 
the fire-pit. From the heart to the middle of the eyebrows 
is said to be the region of vayu. Vayu is hexangular in shape, 
black in colour and shines with the letter Ya. Carrying 
the breath along the region of vayu, he should contemplate 
on Is vara, the Omniscient, as possessing faces on all sides; 
and practising dharana there for two hours, he enters vayu 
and then akas . The yogin does not meet his death through 
the fear of vayu. From the centre of the eyebrows to 
the top of the head is said to be the region of akas , is 
circular in shape, smoky in colour and shining with the 
letter Ha. Raising the breath along the region of akas , 
he should contemplate on Sadas iva in the following man 
ner, as producing happiness, as of the shape of bindu, as the 
great deva, as having the shape of akas , as shining like pure 
crystal, as wearing the rising crescent of moon on his head, as 
having five faces, ten heads and three eyes, as being of a 
pleased countenance, as armed with all weapons, as adorned with 
all ornaments, as having Uma (the goddess) in one-half o.f his 
body, as ready to grant favours, and as the cause of all the causes. 
By practising dharana in the region of akas , he obtains 


certainly the power of levitating in the Skat? (ether). Whererer 
he stays, he enjoys supreme bliss. The proficient in yoga 
should practise these five dharanas. Then his body becomes 
strong and he does not know death. That great-minded man 
does not die even during the deluge of Brahrr^i. 

" Then he should practise dhurant) for a period of six gha- 
tikas (2 hours, 24 minutes). Restraining the breath in (the 
region of) ilkas and contemplating on the deity who grants his 
wishes this is said to be saguna 1 dhyana capable of giving 
(the siddhis) aniimi, etc. One who is engaged in nirguna 1 
dhyana attains the stage of samadhi. Within twelve days at 
least, he attains the stage of samadhi. Restraining his breath, 
the wise one becomes an emancipated person. Samadhi is that 
state in which the jivatma (lower self) and the Paramatmit 
(higher self)are differenceless (or of equal state). If he desires 
to lay aside his body, he can do so. He will become absorbed in 
Parabrahman and does not require utkranti (going out or up). 
But if he does not so desire, and if his body is dear to him, he 
lives in all the worlds possessing the siddhis of anima, etc. 
Sometimes he becomes a deva and lives honoured in svarga ; or 
he becomes a man or an yaksha through his will. He can 
also take the form of a lion, tiger, elephant, or horse through his 
own will. The yogin becoming the great Lord can live as long 
as he likes. There is difference only in the modes of procedure 
but the result is the same. 

" Place the left heel pressed on the anus, stretch the right 
leg and hold it firmly with both hands. Place the head on the 
breast and inhale the air slowly. Restrain the breath as long as 
you can and then slowly breathe out. After practising it with the 
left foot, practise it with the right. Place the foot that was 
stretched before on the thigh. This is mahabandha and should be 
practised on both sides. The yogin sitting in mahabandha and 
having inhaled the air with intent mind, should stop the course of 
vayu (inside) by means of the throat-mudra, and occupying the 
two slides (of the throat) with speed. This is called mahavedha 
and is frequently practised by the siddhas. With the tongue thrust 

* Lit., " with gunas " and " without gunas ". 


into the interior cavity of the head (or throat) and with the eyes 
intent on the spot between the eyebrows, this is called khe- 
charimudra. Contracting the muscles of the neck and placing- 
the head with a firm will on the breast, this is called the 
jalandhara (bandjia) and is a lion to the elephant of death. 
That bandha by which Tirana flies through Sushumna is called 
uddiyanabandha by the yogins. Pressing the heel firmly against 
the anus, contracting the anus and drawing up the apana, this 
is said to be yonibandha. Through mulabandha, praria and 
apana as well as nada and bindu are united and gives success 
in yoga : there is no doubt about this. To one practising in a 
reversed manner (or on both sides) which destroys all diseases, 
the gastric fire is increased. Therefore a practitioner should 
collect a large quantity of provisions, (for) if he takes a small 
quantity of food, the fire (within) will consume his body in a 

" On the first day, he should stand on his head with the feet 
raised up for a moment. He should increase this period gradual 
ly every day. Wrinkles and greyness of hair will disappear 
within three months. He who practises only for a period of a 
yama (twenty-four minutes) every day conquers time. He who 
practises vajroli becomes a yogiri and the repository of all siddhis. 
If the yoga siddhis are ever to be attained, he only has them 
within his reach. He knows the past and the future and certainly 
moves in the air. He who drinks of the nectar thus is rendered 
immortal day by day. He should daily practise vajroli. Then 
it is called amaroli. Then he obtains the rajayoga and cer 
tainly he does not meet with obstacles. When a yogin fulfils 
his action by rajayoga, then he certainly obtains discrimination 
and indifference to objects. Vishnu, the great yogin, the 
grand one of great austerities and the most excellent Purusha 
is seen as a lamp in the path of truth. 

"That breast from which one suckled before (in his previous 
birth) he now presses (in love) and obtains pleasure. He enjoys 
the same genital organ from which he was born before.,. She 
who was once his mother will now be wife and she who is now 
wife is (or will be) verily mother. He who is now father will be 


again son, and he who is now son will be again father. Thus 
are the egos of this world wandering in the womb of birth and 
death like a bucket in the wheel of a well and enjoying the 
worlds. There are the three worlds, three vedas, three 
sandhvas, (morning, noon and evening), three svaras (sounds), 
* three agnis, and gunas, and all these are placed in the three 
letters (Ou). He who understands thfit which is indestructible 
and is the meaning of the three (Ou) by him are all these worlds 
strung. This is the Truth, the supreme seat. As the smell in 
tiie flower, as the ghee in the milk, as the oil in the gingelly seed 
and as the gold in the quartz, so is the lotus situated in the heart. 
Its face is downwards and its stem upwards. Its bindu is 
downwards and in its centre is situated manas. By the letter A, 
the lotus becomes expanded ; by the letter U, it becomes split (or 
opened), by the letter M, it obtains nada ; and the ardhamatra 
(half-metre) is silence. The person engaged in yoga obtains the 
the supreme seat, which is like a pure crystal, which is without 
parts and which destroys all sins. As a tortoise draws its 
hands and head within itself, so drawing in air thus and ex 
pelling it through the nine holes of the body, he breathes 
upwards and forwards. Like a lamp in an air-tight jar which is 
motionless, so that which is seen motionless through the process 
of yoga in the heart and which is free from turmoil, after haying 
been drawn from the nine holes, is said to be Atmu alone/ 




EVEN if sin should accumulate to a mountain extending over 
many yojanas (distance), it is destroyed by dhyanayoga. At 
no time has been found a destroyer of sins like this. Bijak- 
shara (seed-letter) is the supreme bindu. Nada (spiritual 
sound) is above it. When that nada ceases along with letter, 
than the nada-less is supreme state. That yogin who considers 
as the highest that which is above nada, which is anahata, 3 has 
all his doubts destroyed. If the point of a hair be divided 
into one-hundred thousand parts, this (nada) is one-half of that 
still further divided ; and when (even) this is absorbed, the yogin 
attains to the stainless Brahman. One who is of a firm mind 
and without the delusion (of sensual pleasures) and ever resting 
in Brahman, should see like the string (in a rosary of beads) all 
creatures (as existing) in Atma like odour in flowers, ghee in 
milk, oil in gingelly seeds and gold in quartz. Again just as the 
oil depends for its manifestation upon gingelly seeds and odour 
upon flowers, so does the Purusha depend for its existence upon 
the body, both external and internal. The tree is with parts 
and its shadow is without parts but with and without parts, 
Atma exists everywhere. 

The one akshara (letter OMJ should be contemplated upon 
as Brahman by all who aspire for emancipation. Prthivi, agni, 
rgveda, bhuh and Brahma all these (are absorbed) when Akara 

1 The Upanishad of the seed of meditation. 

2 Of the heart. 


(A), the first ams a (part) of pranava (OM) becomes absorbed. 
Antariksha, yajurveda, vayu, bhuvah and Vishnu, the Jana- 
rdana all these (are absorbed) when Ukara (U), the second amsra 
of pranava becomes absorbed. Dyur, sun, samaveda, suvah and 
Mahetfvara all these (are absorbed) when Makara (M), the third 
* ams a of pranava becomes absorbed. Akara is of (pita) yellow 
colour and is said to be of rajoguna ; Utfara is of white colour and 
of sattvaguna ; Makara is of dark colour and of tamoguna. He 
who does not know Ornkara as having eight aho-as (parts), four 
padas (feet), three sthanas (seats) and five devatas (presiding 
deities) is not a Brahmana. Pranava is the bow. Atma is the 
arrow and Brahman is said to be the aim. One should aim at it 
with great care and then he, like the arrow, becomes one with 
It. When that Highest is cognised, all karmas return (from him, 
viz., do not affect him). The Vedas have Omkara as their cause. 
The swaras (sounds) have Omkara as their cause. The three 
worlds with (all) the locomotive and the fixed (ones in them) 
have Omkara as their cause. The short (accent of OM) 
burns all sins, the long one is decayless and the bestower of pros 
perity. United with ardhamatra (half-metre of OM), the 
pranava becomes the bestower of salvation. That man is the 
knower of the Vedas who knows that the end (viz., ardhamatra) 
of pranava should be worshipped (or recited) as uninterrupted 
as the flow of oil and (resounding) as long as the sound of a 
bell. One should contemplate upon Omkara as Is vara resem 
bling an unshaken light, as of the size of a thumb and as motion 
less in the middle of the pericarp of the lotus of the heart. 
Taking in vayu through the left nostril and filling the stomach 
with it, one should contemplate upon Omkara as being in the 
middle of the body and as surrounded by circling flames. 
Brahma is said to be inspiration ; Vishnu is said to be cessa 
tion (of breath), and Rudra, is said to be expiration. These 
are the devatas of pranayama. Having made Atma as the 
(lower) arani (sacrificial wood) and pranava as the upper arani, 
one should see the God in secret through the practice of churn 
ing "which is dhyana. One should practise restraint of breath 
as much as it lies in his power along with (the uttering of) 


Omkara sound, until it ceases completely. Those who look upon 
OM as of the form of Hamsa staying in all, shining like crores 
of suns, being alone, staying in gamagama (ever going and coin 
ing) and being devoid of motion at last such persons are freed 
from sin. That manas which is the author of the actions (viz.), 
creation, preservation and destruction of the three worlds, is 
(then) absorbed (in the supreme One). That is the highest state 
of Vishnu. 

The lotus of the heart has eight petals and thirty- two fila 
ments. The sun is in its midst : the moon is in the middle of 
the sun. Agni is in the middle of the moon : the prabha 
(spiritual light) is in the middle of agni. Pitha (seat or centre) is 
in the midst of prabha, being set in diverse gems. One should 
meditate upon the stainless Lord Vasudeva as being (seated) 
upon the centre of Pitha, as having Sfrivatsa x (black mark) 
and Kaustubha (garland of gems) on his chest and as adorned 
with gems and pearls resembling pure crystal in lustre and as 
resembling crores of moons in brightness. He should meditate 
upon Maha-Vishnu as above or in the following manner. (That 
is) he should meditate with inspiration (of breath) upon Maha- 
Vishnu as resembling the atasi flower and as staying in the 
seat of navel with four hands ; then with restraint of breath, he 
should meditate in the heart upon Brahma, the Grandfather 
as being on the lotus with the gaura (pale-red) colour of gems and 
having four faces : then through expiration, he should meditate 
upon the three-eyed S iva between the two eyebrows shining like 
the pure crystal, being stainless, destroying all sins, being in that 
which is like the lotus facing down with its flower (or face) below 
and the stalk above or like the flower of a plantain tree, being 
of the form of all Vedas, containing one hundred petals and one 
hundred leaves and having the pericarp full-expanded. There 
he should meditate upon the sun, the moon and the agni, one 
above another. Passing above through the lotus which has the 
brightness of the sun, moon and agni, and taking its Hrim bija 
(letter), one leads his Atma firmly. He is the knower of V^das 

1 The black mark on the breast standing for mulaprakj-ti and the garland for 
the five elements. 


who knows the three seats, the three matras, the three Brahmas, 
the three aksharas (letters) and the three matras associated with 
the ardhamatra. He who knows that which is above bindu, 
nada and kala as uninterrupted as the flow of oil and (resound 
ing) as long as the sound of a bell that man is a knower of the 
Vedas. Just as a man would draw up (with his mouth) the 
water through the (pores of the) lotus-stalk, so the yogin treading 
the patli of yoga should draw up the breath. Having made the 
lotus-sheath of the form of ardhamatra, one should draw up the 
t>reath through the stalk (of the nadis Sushumna, Ida and 
Pirigala) and absorb it in the middle of the eyebrows. He 
should know that the middle of the eyebrows in the forehead 
which is also the root of the nose is the seat of nectar. That is 
the great place of Brahman. 

Posture^, restraint of breath, subjugation of the senses 
dharana, dhyana and sarnadhi are the six parts of yoga. There 
are as many postures as there are living creatures ; and Mahes - 
rara (the great Lord) knows their distinguishing features. 
Siddha, bhadra, siinha and padma are the four (chief) postures. 
Muladhara is the first chakra. Svadhishthana is the second. 
Between these two is said to be the seat of yoni (perineum), 
having the form of Kama (God of love). In the Adhara of the 
anus, there is the lotus of four petals. In its midst is said 
to be the yoni called Kama and worshipped by the siddhas. In 
the midst of the yoni is the Linga facing the west and split at 
its head like the gem. He who knows this, is a knower of 
the Vedas. A four-sided figure is situated above agni and 
below the genital organ, of the form of molten gold and shining 
like streaks of lightning. Prana is with its sva (own) sound, 
having Svadhishthana as its adhishthana (seat), (or since sva 
or prana arises from it). The chakra Svadhishthana is spoken 
of as the genital organ itself. The chakra in the sphere 
of the navel is called Manipuraka, since the body is pierced 
through by vayu like manis (gems) by string. The jiva 
(egoj urged to actions by its past virtuous and sinful karmas 
whirls about in this great chakra of twelve l spokes, so long as it 
1 In other places, it is ten. 


does not grasp the truth. Above the genital organ and 
below the navel is kanda of the shape of a bird s egg. There 
arise (from it) nadis seventy-two thousand in number. Of these 
seventy-two ar-e generally known. Of these, the chief ones 
are ten and carry the pranas. Ida, Pingala, Sushumna, Gandhari, 
Hastijihva,Pusha, Yas asvini, Alambusa, Kuhuh and S ankhini are 
said to be the ten. This chakra of the nadis should ever be known 
by the yogins. The three nadis Ida, Pingala and Sushumna are 
said to carry prana always and have as their devatas, moon, sun 
and agni. Ida is on the left side and Pingala on the right side, 
while the Sushumna is in the middle. These three are known 
to be the paths of prana. Prana, Apana, Samana, Udana, and 
Vyana; Naga, Kurma, Krkara, Devadatta and Dhananjaya; 
of these, the first five are called pranas, etc., and last five Naga, 
etc. are called vayus (or sub-pranas). All these are situated 
(or run along) the one thousand nadis, (being) in the form of 
(or producing) life. Jiva which is under the influence of prana 
and apana goes up and down. Jiva on account of its ever 
moving by the left and right paths is not visible. Just as a ball 
struck down (on the earth) with the bat of the hand 
springs up, so jiva ever tossed by prana and apana is never 
at rest. He is knower of yoga who knows that prana always 
draws itself from apana and apana draws itself from prana, 
like a bird (drawing itself from and yet not freeing itself) from 
the string (to which it is tied). 

The jiva comes out with the letter Ha and gets in again 
with the letter Sa. Thus jiva always utters the mantra Ham- 
sa/ Hamsa 7 . The jiva always utters the mantra twenty- 
one thousand and six hundred times in one day and night. This 
is called Ajapa Gayatri and is ever the bestower of nirvana to 
the yogins. Through its very thought, man is freed from sins. 
Neither in the past nor in the future is there a science equal to 
this, a japa equal to this or a meritorious action equal to this. Para- 
mes vari (viz., kundalini s akti) sleeps shutting with her mouth 
that door which leads to the decayless Brahma-hole. Being 
aroused by the contact of agni with manas and prana, she takes 
the form of a needle and pierces up through Sushumna. The 


yogin should open with great effort thia door which is shut. 
Then he will pierce the door to salvation by means of kundalini. 
Folding firmly the fingers of the hands, assuming firmly the 
Padma posture, placing the chin firmly on the breast and fixing 
the mind in dhyfma, one should frequently raisg up the apana, fill 
up with air and then leave the prana. Then the wise man gets 
matchless wisdom through (this) s akti. That yogin who assum 
ing Padma posture worships (i.e., controls) vayu at the door of the 
nadis and then performs restraint of breath is released without 
tloubt. Rubbing off the limbs the sweat arising from fatigue, 
abandoning all acid, bitter and saltish (food), taking delight 
in the drinking of milk and rasa, practising celibacy, being 
moderate in eating and ever bent on yoga, the yogin becomes 
a siddha in little more than a year. No inquiry need be 
made concerning the result. Kundalini s akti, when it is up 
in the throat, makes the yogi get siddhi. The union of prana 
and apana has the extinction of urine and faeces. 

One becomes young even when old through performing 
mulabandha always. Pressing the yoni by means of the heels 
and contracting the anus and drawing up the apana this is 
called mulabandha. Uddiyana bandha is so called because it is 
(like) a great bird that flies up always without rest. One should 
bring the western part of the stomach above the navel. This 
Uddiyana bandha is a lion to the elephant of death, since it binds 
the water (or nectar) of the akas which arises in the head and 
flows down. The Jalandhara bandha is the destroyer of all the 
pains of the throat. When this Jalandhara bandha which is 
destroyer of the pains of the throat is performed, then nectar 
does not fall on agni nor does the vayu move. When the 
tongue enters backwards into the hole of the skull, then there 
is the mudra of vision latent in the eyebrow called khechari. He 
who knows the mudra, khechari has not disease, death, sleep, 
hunger, thirst, or swoon. He who practises this mudra is not 
affected by illness or karma ; nor is he bound by the limitations 
of time. Since chitta moves in the kha (akas ) and since the 
tongue has entered (in the mudra) kha (viz., the hole in the 
mouth), therefore the mudra is called khechari and worshipped by 


the siddhas. He whose hole (or passage) above the uvula is closed 
(with the tongue backwards) by means of khecharimudra 
never loses his virility, even when embraced by a lovely woman. 
Where is the "fear of death, so long as the bindu (virility) stays 
in the body. Bindu does not go out of the body, so long 
as the khecharimudra is practised. (Even) when bindu comes 
down to the sphere oit the perineum, it goes up, being 
prevented and forced up by violent effort through yonimudra. 
This bindu is twofold, white and red. The white one is called 
s ukla and the red one is said to contain much rajas. Tht, 
rajas which stays in yoni is like the colour of a coral. The bindu 
stays in the seat of the genital organs. The union of these two 
is very rare. Bindu is s iva and rajas is s akti. Bindu is the 
moon and rajas is the sun. Through the union of these two is 
attained the highest body ; when rajas is roused up by agitating 
the s akti through vayu which unites with the sun, thence is 
produced the divine form. S^ukla being united with the moon 
and rajas with the sun, he is a knower of yoga who knows the 
proper mixture of these two. The cleansing of the accumulated 
refuse, the unification of the sun and the moon and the com 
plete drying of the rasas (essences), this is called mahamudra. 
Placing the chin on the breast, pressing the anus by means of 
the left heel, and seizing (the toe of) the extended right leg by 
the two hands, one should fill his belly (with air) and should 
slowly exhale. This is called mahamudra, the destroyer of the 
sins of men. 

Now I shall give a description of Atma. In the seat of the 
heart is a lotus of eight petals. In its centre is jivatma of 
the form of jyotis and atomic in size, moving in a circular line. 
In it is located everything. It knows everything. It doea 
everything. It does all these actions attributing everything to 
its own power, (thinking) I do, I enjoy, I am happy, I am 
miserable, I am blind, I am lame, I am deaf, I am mute, I am 
lean, I am stout, etc. When it rests on the eastern petal which 
is of s veta (white) colour, then it has a mind (or is inclined) to 
dharma with bhakti (devotion). When it rests on the south 
eastern petal, which is of rak^a (blood colour), then it is inclined 


to sleep and laziness. When it rests on the southern petal, which 
is of krshna (black) colour, then it is inclined to hate and 
anger. When it rests on the south-western petal which 
is of mla (blue) colour, then it gets desire for sinful or harmful 
actions. When it rests on the western petal which is of crystal 
colour, then it is inclined to flirt and amuse. When it rests on the 
north-western petal which is of ruby cdlour, then it has a mind to 
walk, rove and have vairagya (or be indifferent). When it 
rests on the northern petal which is pita (yellow) colour, then 
*t is inclined to be happy and to be loving. When it rests on 
the north-eastern petal which is of vaidurya (lapis lazuli) 
colour, then it is inclined to amassing money, charity and 
passion. When it stays in the interspace between any two 
petals, then it gets the wrath arising from diseases gener 
ated through (the disturbance of the equilibrium of) vayu, 
bile and phlegm (in the body). When it stays in the 
middle, then it knows everything, sings, dances, speaks and is 
blissful. When the eye is pained (after a day s work), then in 
order to remove (its) pain, it makes first a circular line and 
sinks in the middle. The first line is of the colour of bandhuka 
flower (Bassia). Then is the state of sleep. In the middle of 
the state of sleep is the state of dream. In the middle of the 
state of dream, it experiences the ideas of perception, Vedas, 
inference, possibility, (sacred) words, etc. Then there 
arises much fatigue. In order to remove this fatigue, it cir 
cles the second line and sinks in the middle. The second is of 
the colour of (the insect) Indragopa (of red or white colour). 
Then comes the state of dreamless sleep. 

During the dreamless sleep, it has only the thought con 
nected with Parames vara (the highest Lord) alone. This state is 
of the nature of eternal wisdom. Afterwards it attains the nature 
of the highest Lord (Parames vara). Then it makes a round of 
the third circle and sinks in the middle. The third circle is of 
the colour of paclmaniga (ruby). Then comes the state of turya 
(the fourth). In turya, there is only the connection of Para- 
miitma. It attains the nature of eternal wisdom. Then one 
should gradually attain the quiescence of bucjdhi with 


self-control. Placing the manas in Atma, one should think of 
nothing else. Then causing the union of prana and apana, he 
concentrates his aim upon the whole universe being of the 
nature of Atma. Then comes the state of turyatita (viz., that 
state beyond the fourth). Then everything appears as bliss. 
He is beyond the pairs (of happiness and pains, etc.). He stays 
here as long as he should wear his body. Then he attains the 
nature of Paramatma and attains emancipation through this 
means. This alone is the means of knowing Atma. 

When vayu (breath) which enters the great hole associat 
ed with a hall where four roads meet gets into the half of 
the well-placed triangle/ then is Achyuta (the indestructible) 
seen. Above the aforesaid triangle, one should meditate on the 
five bija (seed) letters of (the elements) prthivi, etc., as also on 
the five pranas, the colour of the bijas and their position. The 
letter q* 2 is the bija of prana and resembles the blue cloud. 
The letter ^ is the bija of agni, is of apana and resembles the 
sun. The letter 55 is the bija of prthivi, is of vyana and resem 
bles bandhuka flower. The letter ^ is the bija of jiva (or vayu), is 
of udana and is of the colour of the conch. The letter f is the 
bija of akas , is of samana, and is of the colour of crystal. Prana 
stays in the heart, navel, nose, ear, foot, finger, and other places, 
travels through the seventy-two thousand nadis, stays in the 
twenty-eight crores of hair-pores and is yet the same everywhere. 
It is that which is called jiva. One should perform the three, 
expiration, etc., with a firm will and great control : and drawing 
in everything (with the breath) in slow degrees, he should bind 
prana and apana in the cave of the lotus of the heart and utter 
pranava, having contracted his throat and the genital organ. 
From the Muladhara (to the head) is the Sushumna resembling the 
shining thread of the lotus. The nada is located in the Vmadaflda 
(spinal column) ; that sound from its middle resembles (that of) 
the conch, etc. When it goes to the hole of the akas , it 
resembles that of the peacock. In the middle of the cave of the 

1 Probably it refers to the triangle of the initiates. 
3 There seems to be some mistake in the original. 


skull between the four doors shines Atrna, like the sun in the sky. 
Between the two bows in the Brahma-hole, one should see 
Purusha with s akti as his own Atma. Then his manas is 
absorbed there. That man attains kaivalya who understands 
the gems, moonlight, nada, bindu, and the seat of Mahes vara 
(the great Lord). 

Thus is the Upanishad. 




GAUTAMA addressed Sanatkumara thus : " Lord, thou art the 
knower of all dharmas and art well versed in all Sfastras, pray 
tell me the means by which I may obtain a knowledge of Brahma- 
vidya. Sanatkumara replied thus : 

" Hear, O Grautama, that Tattva as expounded by Parvati 
after inquiring into all dharmas and ascertaining Suva s opinion. 
This treatise on the nature of Hamsa which gives the fruit of 
bliss and salvation and which is like a treasure to the yogin, is 
(a) very mystic (science) and should not be revealed (to the 
public) . 

" Now we shall explain the true nature of Hamsa and Para- 
mahamsa for the benefit of a brahmacharin (a seeker after 
Brahman or celibate), who has his desires under control, is 
devoted to his guru and always contemplates (as) Hamsa, and 
realises thus : It (Hamsa) is permeating all bodies like fire (or 
heat) in all kinds of wood or oil in all kinds of gingelly seeds. 
Having known (It) thus, one does not meet with death. 

" Having contracted the anus (with the heels pressed against 
it), having raised the vayu (breath) from (Mula) 2 Adhara 

1 This word " Hamsa " is very mysterious and has manifold meanings ac 
cording to different standpoints. It is composed of Ham (or Aham) and Sa (ha), 
which mean " I " (am) " that ". In its highest sense, it is Kalahamsa (or Para- 
brahman). It is also Brahma when he has Hamsa (or swan) as the vehicle or 
Hamsa-vahana. When Hamsa which is the manifestation of Prana is applied 
to the human breath, we are said to exhale with Ha and to inhale with Sa. It 
is also called Ajapa-Gayatri. 

2 The different chakras of those that are above the anus, in the genitals, 
navel, heart, and throat, between the eyebrows and in the head. 



(chakra), having made circuit thrice round Svadhishthana, 
having gone to Manipuraka, having crossed Anahata, having 
controlled Prana in Vis uddhi and then having reached Ajfia, one 
contemplates in Brahmarandhra (in the head), and having 
meditated there always < I am of three matras, cognises (his 
Self) and becomes formless. The S isna l (penis) has two sides 
(left and right from head to foot). This is that Paramahamsa 
(Supreme Hamsa or Higher Self) having the resplendence of 
crores of suns and by whom all this world is pervaded. 
" It (this Hamsa which has buddhi as vehicle) 2 has eight 
fold vrtti. (When it is) in the eastern J petal, there is the 
inclination (in a person) to virtuous actions ; in the south-eastern 
petal, there arise sleep, laziness, etc. ; in the southern, there is the 
inclination to cruelty ; in the south-western, there is the inclina 
tion to sins^ in the western, there is the inclination to sensual 
sport ; in the north-western, there arise the desire of walking, 
and others; in the northern, there arises the desire of lust ; in the 
north-eastern, there arises the desire of amassing money ; in the 
middle (or the interspaces between the petals), there is the in 
difference to material pleasures. In the filament (of the lotus), 
there arises the waking state ; in the pericarp^ there arises 
the svapna (dreaming state) ; in the bija (seed of pericarp), 
there arises the sushupti (dreamless sleeping state) ; when leav 
ing the lotus, there is the turya (fourth state). When Hamsa is 
absorbed in Nada (spiritual sound), the state beyond the fourth 
is reached. Nada (which is at the end of sound and beyond 
speech and mind) is like a pure crystal extending from (Mula) 
Adhara to Brahmarandhra. It is that which is spoken of as 
Brahma and Paramatma. 

" (Here the performance of Ajapil Gayatrl is given). 

" Now Hamsa is the rshi ; the metre is Avyakta Gayatrl ; 
Paramahamsa is the devata (or presiding deity) Ham is the 
bija ; Sa is the s akti ; So ham is the kilaka. 4 Thus there are 

1 This is omitted in the Calcutta edition and seemingly makes no sense here. 

2 This is how a commentator explains. 

ii This refers to the different petals in the heart. Vide the same in Narada- 
Parivrajaka and Dhyanabindu Upanishads. 

4 Kilaka means wedge. In the Ajapa mantra Hamsa-so ham , So ham is the 
wedge to which the whole mantra is fastened. 


six. There are 21, 600 Hamsas (or breaths) l in a day and night. 
(Salutation* to) Surya, Soma, Niranjana (the stainless) and 
Nirabhasa (theuniverseless). Ajapa mantra. (May) the bodiless 
and subtle one guide 3 (or illuminate my understanding). Vaushat 
to Agni-Soma. Then Anganyasas and Karanyasas occur (or should 
be performed after the mantras as they are performed before the 
mantras) in the heart and other (seats). Having done so, one 
should contemplate upon Hamsa as the Atma in his heart. Agni 
and Soma are its wings (right and left sides) ; Omkara is its head ; 
Ukara and bindu are the three eyes * and face respectively ; 
Rudra and Rudram (or Rudra s wife) are the feet kanthata (or 
the realisation of the oneness of jivatma or Hamsa, the lower 
self with Paramatma or Paramahamsa, the Higher Self) is done 
in two ways, (samprajnata 5 and asamprajnata). 

"After that, Unman! 6 is the end of the Ajapa (mantra). 
Having thus reflected upon rnanas by means of this (Hamsa), 
one hears Nada after the uttering of this japa (mantra) a crore 
of times. It (Nada) is (begun to be heard as) of ten kinds. 
The first is chini (like the sound of that word) ; the second is 
chini-chini ; the third is the sound of bell ; the fourth is that of 
conch ; the fifth is that of tantri (lute) ; the sixth is that sound 
of tala (cymbals) ; the seventh is that of flute ; the eighth is that 
of bheri (drum) ; the ninth is that of mrdanga (double drum) ; and 
the tenth is that of clouds (viz., thunder). He may experience 
the tenth without the first nine sounds (through the initiation of 

1 One commentator gives the table for 21,600 thus : 60 breaths make one 
Prana ; 6 Pranas, one nadi ; and 60 nadis, one day and night. 

a The words are : Suryaya, Somaya, Niranjanaya, Nirabhasaya. It is with the 
pronunciation of these words that the different places in the body are touched, viz., 
Anganyasas and Karanyasas are performed. The first word is pointed to the 
heart with the thumb ; the second, to the head, and the third, to the hair of the 
head. With the last, a kavacha (armour) is made by circling the fingers round the 
head and then circling one hand over another- This process is carried on again 
after the pronunciation of Ajapa mantra which follows. Here Soma (moon) is that 
which is united with Uma or the emblem of the union of the lower and higher 
Selves. Surya or Sun is the causer of the state of one-ness. 

3 As it stands, it means "the bodiless, the subtle and the guide. The 
original is Atanu Sukshmam Prachodayat. 

* The three eyes are the two eyes commonly now in use with the Divine eye. 

5 Contemplation with an object as seed and the seedless one. 

6 A state above manas or when manas is transcended. 


a guru). In the first stage, his body becomes chini-chini ; in the 
second, there is the (bhanjana) breaking (or affecting) in the 
body ; in the third, there is tho (bhedana) piercing ; in the fourth, 
the head shakes ; in the fifth, the palate produces saliva ; in the 
sixth, nectar is attained; in the seventh, the^ knowledge of the 
* hidden (things in the world) arises; in the eighth, Paravak is 
heard ; in the ninth, the body becomes invisible and the pure 
divine eye is developed; in the tenth, he attains Parabrahman 
in the presence of (or with) Atma which is Brahman. After 
that, when manas is destroyed, when it which is the source of 
sankalpa and vikalpa disappears, owing to the destruction of these 
two, and when virtues and sins are burnt away, then he shines 
as Sadasiva of the nature of Sfakti pervading everywhere, being 
effulgence in its very essence, the immaculate, the eternal, 
the stainless, and the most quiescent Om. Thus is the teaching 
of the Vedas ; and thus is the Upanishad." 




THE wise, having studied the S^astras and reflected on thorn 
again and again and having come to know Brahman, should 
abandon them all like a firebrand. Having ascended the car of 
Om with Vishnu (the Higher Self) as the charioteer, one wish 
ing to go to the seat of Brahmaloka intent on the worship of 
Rudra, should go in the chariot so long as he can go. Then 
abandoning the car, he reaches the place of the Lord of the car. 
Having given up matra, linga, 2 and pada, 3 he attains the 
subtle pada (seat or word) without vowels or consonants by 
means of the letter M without the svara (accent). That is 
called pratyahara when one merely thinks of the five objects of 
sense, such as sound, etc., as also the very unsteady mind as 
the reins of At ma. Pratyahara (subjugation of the senses), 
dhyana (contemplation), pranayama (control of breath), clharana 
(concentration), tarka 4 and sainadhi are said to be the six 
parts of yoga. Just as the impurities of mountain-minerals are 
burnt by the blower, so the stains committed by the organs are 
burned by checking prana. Through pranayamas should be 
burnt the stains ; through dharana, the sins ; through pratyahara, 

1 The Upanishad treating of Nada (spiritual sound) which is Amrta 
(nectar). Here Pranas are spoken of, as they produce Nada within and without. 

a It is said to be the subtle, gross and other microcosmic bodies. It also 
means sign. 

3 It is said to be the macrocosmic bodies of Virat, etc. It means a word or 

4 In this classification, tarka is introduced newly. It means ; the examina 
tion of the mind being attracted to objects and knowing that siddhis are impedi 
ments to progress. 


the (bad) associations; and through dhyana, the godless 
qualities. Having destroyed the sins, one should think of 
Ruchira (the shining). Ruchira (cessation), expiration and 
inspiration these three are pranayama of (recha&a, puraka and 
kumbhaka) expiration, inspiration and cessation of breath. That 
is called (one) pranayfima when one repeats with a prolonged 
(or elongated) breath three times the Gayatri with its vyahrtis 
and Pranava (before it) along with the s iras l (the head) 
joining after it. Raising up the vayu from the akas 
(region, viz., the heart) and making the body void (of vayu) 
and empty and uniting (the soul) to the state of void, is 
called rechaka (expiration). That is called puraka (inspiration) 
when one takes in vayu, as a man would take water into his 
mouth through the lotus-stalk. That is called kumbhaka 
(cessation erf breath) when there is no expiration or inspiration 
and the body is motionless, remaining still in one state. Then 
he sees forms like the blind, hears sounds like the deaf and sees 
the body like wood. This is the characteristic of one that has 
attained much quiescence. That is called dharana when the 
wise man regards the mind as safikalpa and merging sankalpa into 
Atma, contemplates upon his Atma (alone). That is called 
tarka when one makes inference which does not conflict with 
the Vedas. That is called samadhi in which one, on attaining 
it, thinks (all) equal. 

Seating himself on the ground on a seat of kus a grass which 
is pleasant and devoid of all evils, having protected himself 
mentally (from all evil influences), uttering ratha-mandala, 2 
assuming either padma, svastika, or bhadra posture or any other 
which can be practised easily, facing the north and closing the 
nostril with the thumb, one should inspire through the other 
nostril and retain breath inside and preserve the Agni (fire). Then 
he should think of the sound (Om) alone. Om, the one letter is 
Brahman ; Om should not be breathed out. Through this divine 
mantra (Om), it should be done many times to rid himself of 

J *The vyahrtis are Bhuh, Bhuvah, etc., and the head is Om, Apo, etc. 

2 Lit., car-circle which is a mystical chakra or diagram for invoking the 
devata ; but some commentators make ratha mean Om ; and mandala, the circle 
of Siva. 



impurity. Then as said before, the mantra-knowing wise should 
regularly meditate, beginning with the navel upwards in the 
gross, the primary (or less) gross and subtle (states) . The greatly 
wise should ive up all (sight) seeing across, up or down, and 
should practise ivoga always being motionless and without, 
tremor. The union as stated (done) by remaining without tre 
mor in the hollow stalk (viz., Sushumna) alone is dharana. 
The yoga with the ordained duration of twelve matras is called 
(dharana). That which never decays is Akshara (Om) which 
is without ghosha (third, fourth, and fifth letters from K), con 
sonant, vowel, palatal, guttural, nasal, letter R and sibilants. 
Prana travels through (or goes by) that path through which 
this Akshara (Om) goes. Therefore it should be practised daily, 
in order to pass along that (course). It is through the opening 
(or hole) of the heart, through the opening of va^u (probably 
navel), through the opening of the head and through the open 
ing of moksha. They call it bila (cave), sushira (hole), or 
mandala (wheel). 1 

(Then about the obstacles of yoga) . A yogin should always 
avoid fear, anger, laziness, too much sleep or waking and too 
much food or fasting. If the above rule be well and strictly 
practised each day, spiritual wisdom will arise of itself in 
three months without doubt. In four months, he sees the 
devas ; in five months, he knows (or becomes) Brahmanishtha ; 
and truly in six months he attains Kaivalya at will. There is no 

That which is of the earth is of five matras (or it takes 
five matras to pronounce Parthiva-Pranava) . That which is of 
water is} of four matras ; of agni, three matras ; of vayu, two ; and 
of akas , one. But he should think of that which is with no 
matras. Having united Atma with manas, one should contem 
plate upon Atma by means of atma. Prana is thirty a digits 
long. Such is the position (or range) of pranas. That is called 
Prana which is the seat of the external pranas. The breaths by 

1 There are four openings in the body ; three from which the astral, the lower 
mental and the higher mental bodies escape : the last being of turya. 

3 As measured by the width of the middle finger : Yajnavalkya says, Prana is 
12 digiti beyond the body. 


day and night are numbered as 1,13,180. 1 (Of the pranas) 
the first (viz.,) Prana is pervading the heart ; Apana, the anus; 
Sam ana, the navel ; Udana, the throat ; and Vyana, all parts 
of the body. Then come the colours of the five pranas 
in order. Prana is said to be of the colour oj a blood-red gem 
(or coral) ; Apana which is in the middle is of the colour of Indra- 
gopa (an insect of white or red colour)*; Samana is between the 
colour of pure milk and crystal (or oily and shining), between 
both (Prana and Apana) : Udana is apandara (pale white) ; and 
Vyana resembles the colour of archis (or ray of light). That 
man is never reborn wherever he may die, whose breath goes 
out of the head after piercing through this mapdala (of the 
pineal gland). That man is never reborn. 

1 One commentator makes it thus : Taking 21,600 for each of the five Pranas 
T?^ ? 0001 for the tive 8ub -P?as, 5X1036 is 5,180. Hence the total i 8 
1,13,180- Another commentator makes it 21,600 alone. 

(V , 




THE great sage Rbhu performed penance for twelve deva 
(divine) years. At the end of the time, the Lord appeared before 
him in the form of a boar. He said : " Rise, i-ise and choose your 
boon." The sage got up and having prostrated himself before 
him said : " Lord, I will not, in my dream, wish of thee those 
things that are desired by the worldy. All the Vedas, S astras, 
Itihasas a and all the hosts of other sciences, as well as Brahma 
and all the other Devas, speak of emancipation as resulting from 
a knowledge of thy nature. So impart to me that science of 
Brahman which treats of thy nature." 

Then the boar-shaped Bhagavan (Lord) said : " Some dispu 
tants hold that there are twenty-four tattvas (principles) and some 
thirty-six, whilst others maintain that there are ninety-six. I 
shall relate them in their order. Listen with an attentive mind. 
The organs of sense are five, viz. : ear, skin, eye and others. The 
organs of action are five, viz. : mouth, hand, leg and others. Pranas 
(vital airs) are five ; 3 sound and others (viz., rudimentary princi 
ples) are five. 4 Manas, buddhi, chitta and ahankara are four ; 5 thus 

1 This means boar and refers to the incarnation of Vishnu as a boar. 
a Books such as Mahabhdrata and Ramayana. 

3 Prana, Apana, Udana, Vyana and Samana, having their respective places 
and functions in the body. 

4 Sound, touch, form, taste and odour. 

5 Producing respectively uncertainty, certain knowledge, fluctuation of 
thought, and egoism and having certain centres in the body. 


those that know Brahman know these to be the twenty-four 
tattvas. Besides these, the wise hold the quintuplicated elements 
to be five, viz. : earth, water, fire, vayu and akas ; the bodies 
to be three, viz. : the gross, the subtle and the karana or 
causal ; the states of consciousness to be three, viz. : the waking, 
the dreaming and the dreamless sleeping. The munis know the 
total collection of tattvas to be thirty-six (coupled with jiva). 

" With these tattvas, there are six changes, viz. : existence, 
birth, growth, transformation, decay and destruction. Hunger, 
thirst, grief, delusion, old age and death are said to be the six 
infirmities. Skin, blood, flesh, fat, marrow and bones are said 
to be the six sheaths. Passion,- anger, avarice, delusion, pride 
and malice are the six kinds of foes. Vis va, Taijasa and 
Prajfia l are the three aspects of the jiva. Sattva, rajas and 
amas are fhe three gunas (qualities). Prarabdha, 3 sanchita and 
agamin are the three karmas. Talking, lifting, walking, 
excreting and enjoying are the five actions (of the organs of 
action) ; and there are also thought, certainty, egoism, compas 
sion, memory (functions of manas, etc.,), complacency, sympathy 
and indifference : dik (the quarters), Vayu, Sun, Varuna, 3 As vini 
devas, 4 Agni, Indra, Upendra, 5 and Mrtyu (death) : and then the 
moon, the four-faced Brahma, Rudra, Kshetrajna, 6 and Is vara. 
Thus these are the ninety-six tattvas. Those that worship, 
with devotion, me of the form of boar, who am other than the 
aggregate of these tattvas and am without decay are released 
from ajfiana and its effects and become jivanmuktas. Those that 
know these ninety-six tattvas will attain salvation in whatever 
order of life they may be, whether they have matted hair 
or are of shaven head or have (only) their tuft of hair on. 7 
There is no doubt of this. Thus ends the first chapter." 

1 In the states of waking, dreaming and dreamless sleeping. 

3 Being past karmas now being enjoyed, past karmas being in store to be 
enjoyed hereafter and the karmas now produced to be enjoyed hereafter. 

3 Presiding over water or tongue. 

4 Presiding over odour or nose. 

* Presiding over leg or nether world. 

6 Vide the translation of Sarvasara-Upauishad. 

7 This refers to the several class of persons iii different modes of life who wear 
their hair in different ways as yogins, ascetics and so on. 



The great Rbhu (again) addressed the Lord of Lakshmi of 
the form of boar thus : " Lord, please initiate me into the 
supreme Brahmavi/Jya (or science)." Then the Lord who removes 
the miseries of his devotees being thus questioned, answered 
thus : " Through (the right observance of) the duties of one s 
own caste and orders of life, through religious austerities and 
through the pleasing of the guru (by serving him rightly), arise to 
persons the four, vairagya, etc. They are the discrimination of 
the eternal from the non-eternal ; indifference to the enjoyments 
of this and the other worlds ; the acquisition of the six virtues, 
s ama, 1 etc., and the longing after liberation. These should be 
practised. Having subdued the sensual organs and having given 
up the conception of mine in all objects, you should" place your 
consciousness of ( I in (or identify yourself with) me, who am 
the witness Chaitanya (consciousness) . To be born as a human 
being is difficult more difficult it is to be born as a male being 
and more so is it to be born as a Brahman. Even then, if the 
fool does not cognise through the hearing, 2 etc., of vedanta, 
the true nature of the Sachchidananda (of Brahman) that is 
all-pervading, and that is beyond all caste and orders of life, 
when will he obtain moksha ? I alone am happiness. There is 
none other. If there is said to be another, then it is not 
happiness. There is no such thing as love, except on my account. 
The love that is on account of me is not natural to me. As I am 
the seat of supreme love, that ( I am not is not. He who is 
sought after by all, saying " I should become such," is myself, 
the all-pervading. How can non-light affect Atma, the self- 
shining which is no other than the light whence originates the 
words I am not light . My firm conviction is, whoever knows 
for certain that (Atma) which is self-shining and has itself no 
basis (to rest upon), is one of vijnana. 

1 Meaning respectively mental restraint, bodily restraint, the renunciation or 
practising of works without reference to their fruits, endurance of heart and soul, 
etc., faith and settled peace of mind. 

2 Meaning meditation and reflection thereon. 


" The universe, jiva, Is vara, maya and others do not really 
exist, except my full Atma. I have not their characteristics. 
Karma which has dharana and other attributes and is of the 
form of darkness and ajnana is not fit to touch (or affect) me, 
, who am Atma, the self-resplendent. That *ian who sees (his) 
Atma which is all-witness and is beyond all caste and orders of 
life as of the nature of Brahman, becomes himself Brahman. 
Whoever sees, through the evidence of vedanta, this visible 
universe as the Supreme Seat which is of the form of light, 
attains moksha at once. When that knowledge which dispels the 
idea that this body (alone) is Atma, arises firmly in one s mind 
as was before the knowledge that this body (alone) is Atma, 
then that person, even though he does not desire moksha, gets 
it. Therefore how will a person be bound by karma, who always 
enjoys the* bliss of Brahman which has the characteristics of 
Sachchidfinanda, and which is other than ajnana ? Persons with 
spiritual eyes see Brahman, that is the witness of the three states 
that has the characteristics of be-ness, wisdom and bliss, that 
is the underlying meaning of the words Thou (Tvam) and 
( I* (Aham), and that is untouched by all the stains. Asa 
blind man does not see the sun that is shining, so an ignorant 
person does not see (Brahman). Prajnana alone is Brahman. 
It has truth and prajfiana as its characteristics. By thus 
cognising Brahman well, a person becomes immortal. One who 
knows his own Atma as Brahman, that is bliss, and without 
duality and gunas (qualities), and that is truth and absolute 
consciousness is not afraid of anything. That which is con 
sciousness alone which is all-pervading, which is eternal, which 
is all-full, which is of the form of bliss, and which is indestruc 
tible, is the only true Brahman. It is the settled determination 
of Brahmajnanls that there is naught else but that. As the 
world appears dark to the blind and bright to those having 
good eyes, so this world full of manifold miseries to the ignorant 
is full of happiness to the wise. In me, of the form of boar, who 
am Infinite and the Bliss of absolute Consciousness, if there is 
the conception of non-dualism, where then is bondage ? And 
who is the one to be emancipated ? The real nature of all 


embodied objects is ever the absolute Consciousness. Like the 
pot seen by the eyes, the body and its aggregates are not (viz., 
do not really exist). Knowing, as Atma, all the locomotive and 
fixed worlds tliat appear as other than Atma, meditate upon 
them as It I amV Such a person then enjoys his real nature. 
There is no other to be enjoyed than one-Self. If there is any 
thing that is, then Brahman alone has that attribute. One who 
is perfect in Brahmajnana, though he always sees this establish 
ed universe, does not see it other than his Atma. By cognis 
ing clearly my form, one is not trammelled by karma. He 
is an undaunted person who by his own experience cognises 
as his own real nature all " (the universe and Brahman) 
that is without the body and the organs of sense that is the all- 
witness that is the one noumenal vijfiana, that is the blissful 
Atma (as contrasted with jivatma or the lower self) and that is 
the self-resplendent. He is one that should be known as * I 
(myself). O Rbhu, may you become He. After this, there 
will be never any experience of the world. Thereafter there 
will always be the experience of the wisdom of one s own true 
nature. One who has thus known fully Atma has neither emanci 
pation nor bondage. Whoever meditates, even for one muhurta (48 
minutes) through the cognition of one s own real form, upon Him 
who is dancing as the all-witness, is released from all bondage. 
Prostrations prostrations to me who am in all the elements, who 
am the Chidatma (viz, Atma of the nature of wisdom) that is 
eternal and free and who am the Pratyagatma. Devata, you 
are I. I am you. Prostrations on account of myself and yourself 
who are infinite and who are Chidatma, myself being the supreme 
Is a (Lord) and yourself being S iva (of a beneficent nature). 
What should I do ? Where should I go ? What should I reject ? 
(Nothing, because) the universe is filled by me as with the waters 
of the universal deluge. Whoever gives up (fond) love of the 
external, love of the internal and love of the body and 
thus gives up all associations, is merged in me. There is no 
doubt about it. That Paramahamsa (ascetic) who, thoagh 
living in the world, keeps aloof from human congregation as 
from serpent, who regards a beautiful woman as a (living) 


corpse and the endless sensual objects as poison, and who 
has abandoned all passion and is indifferent towards all 
objects is no other than Vasudeva, 1 (viz.,) myself. This 
is satya (truth). This is nothing but truth. It is truth 
alone that is now said. I am Brahman, 1Jie truth. There is 
naught else but I. 

" (The word) upavasa (lit., dwelling near) signifies the 
dwelling near (or union) of jivatma and Paramatma and not (the 
religious observance as accepted by the worldy of) emaciating 
* the body through fasts. To the ignorant, what is the use of the 
mere drying up of the body ? By beating about the hole of a snake, 
can we be said to have killed ihe big snake within. A man is 
said to attain paroksha (indirect) wisdom when he knows (theoreti 
cally) that there is Brahman ; but he is said to attain sakshatkara 
(direct cognition) when he knows (or realises) that he is himself 
Brahman. When a yogin knows his Atma to be the Absolute, 
then he becomes a jivanmukta. To mahatmas, to be always in 
the state I am Brahman conduces to their salvation. There 
are two words for bondage and moksha. They are mine and 
not mine . Man is bound by mine , but he is released by 
not mine . He should abandon all the thoughts relating to 
externals and so also with reference to internals. Rbhu 
having given up all thoughts, you should rest content (in your 
Atma) ever. 

" The whole of the universe is caused through sankalpa 
alone. It is only through sankalpa that the universe manifests. 
Having abandoned the universe, which is of the form of sankalpa 
and naving fixed your mind upon the nirvikalpa (one which is 
changeless), meditate upon my abode in your heart. most 
intelligent being, pass your time in meditating upon me, glo 
rifying me in songs, talking about me to one another and thus 
devoting yourself entirely to me as the Supreme. Whatever is chit 
(consciousness) in the universe is only Chinmatra. This universe 
is Chinmaya only. You are Chit. I am Chit : contemplate upon 
the* worlds also as Chit. Make the desires nil. Always be with 
out any stain. How then can the bright lamp of Atmic vijnana 

1 Viz., Vishnu, the Lord of all persons. 


arising through the Yedas be affected by the karma arising 
from the ignorance of the actor and the agent ? Having given 
up not-Atina and being in the world unaffected by it, delight 
only in the Chinmatra within, ever intent on the One. As the 
akas of the pot ai^d that of the house are both located in the 
all-pervading akas , so the jivas and Is vara are only evolved out 
of me, the Chidakas (the one akas of universal consciousness). 
So that which did not exisfc before the evolution of Atinas (jivas 
and Is vara) and that which is rejected at the end (viz., universal 
deluge) is called maya by Brahmajnams through their dis- c 
crimination. Should maya and its effects (the universe) be 
annihilated, there is no state of Is vara, there is no state of 
jiva. Therefore like the akas without its vehicle, I am the 
immaculate and Chit. 

" The creation, sentient as well as non-sentient from ikshana 
(thinking) to praves a (entry) (as stated in Chhandogya-Upanishad, 
Prapathaka VI, Khandas n and in) of those having the forms of 
jivas and Is vara is due to the creation (or illusion) of ts vara ; 
while the samsara (worldly existence) from the waking state to 
salvation is due to the creation of jiva. So the karmas ordained 
in the sacrifice (called) Trinachaka (so called after Nachiketas of 
Katha-Upanishad) to yoga are dependent upon the illusion of 
Is vara ; while (the systems from) Lokayata (atheistical system) 
to sankhya rest on the illusion of jiva. Therefore aspirants after 
salvation should never make their heads enter into the field 
of controversy regarding jiva and Is vara. But with an un 
disturbed mind, the tattvas of Brahman should be investi 
gated. Those who do not cognise the tattva oi: the 
secondless Brahman are all deluded persons only. Whence 
(then) is salvation to them ? Whence then is happiness (to them) 
in this universe ? What if they have the thoughts of the 
superiority and inferiority (of Is vara and jiva) ? Will sovereignty 
and mendicancy (experienced by a person) in the dreaming state 
affect him in his waking state ? When buddhi is absorbed in 
ajnana, then it is termed, by the wise, sleep. Whence then is 
sleep to me who have not ajnana and its effects ? When buddhi 
is in full bloom, then it is said to be the jagra^ (waking state). 


As I have no changes, etc., there is no waking state to me. The 
moving about of buddhi in the subtle nadis constitutes the 
dreaming state. In me without the act of moving about, there is 
no dreaming. Then at the time of sushupti wh^en all things are 
absorbed, enveloped by tamas, he then enjoys the highest bliss 
of his own nature in an invisible state. If he sees everything 
as Chit without any difference, he alone is an actual vijnani, 
He alone is S iva. He alone is Hari. He alone is Brahma. 
This mundane existence which is an ocean of sorrow, is nothing 
but a long-lived dream, or an illusion of the mind or a long-lived 
reign of the mind. From rising from sleep till going to bed, 
the one Brahman alone should be contemplated upon. By 
causing to be absorbed this universe which is but a super- 
imposition, the chitta partakes of my nature. Having annihilated 
all the six* powerful enemies, through their destruction become 
the non-dual One like the scent-elephant. Whether the body 
perishes now or lasts the age of moon and stars, what matters 
it to me having Chit alone as my body ? What matters 
it to the akas in the pot, whether it (the pot) is destroyed 
now or exists for a long time. While the slough of a serpent 
lies cast off lifeless in its hole, it (the serpent) does not 
evince any affection towards it. Likewise the wise do 
not identify themselves with their gross and subtle bodies. 
If the delusive knowledge (that the universe is real) with 
its cause should be destroyed by the fire of atmajnana, the 
wise man becomes bodiless, through the idea It (Brahman) is 
not this ; It is not this/ Through the study of S astras, the 
knowledge of reality (of the universe) perishes. Through direct 
perception of truth, one s fitness for action (in this universe) 
ceases. With the cessation of prarabdha (the portion of the 
past karma which is being enjoyed in this life), the destruction 
of the manifestation (of the universe) takes place. Maya 
is thus destroyed in a threefold manner. If within himself no 
identification (of jiva) with Brahman takes place, the state (of 
ths separateness) of jiva does not perish. If the non-dual one 
is truly discerned, then all affinities (for objects) cease. With 
the cessation of prarabdha (arising from the cessation of 


affinities), there is that of the body. Therefore it is certain 
that maya perishes thus entirely. 

" If it is said that all the universe is, that Brahman alone is 

that is of thevnature of Sat. If it is said that the universe 

shines, then it is Prahman alone that shines. (The mirage of) 

all the water in an oasis is really no other than the oasis 

itself. Through inquiry of one s Self, the three worlds (above, 

below and middle) are only of the nature of Chit. In 

Brahman, which is one and alone, the essence of whose 

nature is absolute Consciousness and which is remote from 

the differences of jiva, ts vara and guru, there is no 

ajfiana. Such being the case, where then is the occasion for 

the universe there ? I am that Brahman which is all full. 

While the full moon of wisdom is robbed of its lustre by the rahu 

(one of the two nodes of the moon) of delusion, ail actions x 

such as the rites of bathing, alms-giving and sacrifice performed 

during the time of eclipse are all fruitless. As salt dissolved in 

water becomes one, so if Atrna and manas become identified, it 

is termed samadhi. Without the grace of a good (perfect) 

guru, the abandonment of sensual objects is very difficult of 

attainment; so also the perception of (divine) truth and the 

attainment of one s true state. Then the state of being in one s 

own self shines of its own accord in a yogin in whom jnana- 

s akti 2 has dawned and who has abandoned all karmas. The 

(property of) fluctuation is natural to mercury and mind. If 

either mercury is bound (or consolidated) or mind is bound 

(or controlled) , what then on this earth cannot be accomplished ? 

He who obtains murchchha 3 cures all diseases. The dead are 

brought to life again. He who has bound (his mind or mercury) 

is able to move in the air. Therefore mercury and mind confer 

upon one the state of Brahman. The master of indriyas (the 

organs) is manas (mind). The master of manas is prana. The 

master of prana is laya (absorption yoga). Therefore laya-yoga 

should be practised. To the yogins, laya (-yoga) is said to be 

1 During the solar and lunar eclipses, these rites are done by the Hindus. 
3 Of the six saktis, she is one that gives wisdom. 

3 Either controlling the breath through pranayama or the consolidation of 
mercury through some means, leading in both cases to siddhis, etc. 


without actions and changes. This laya (absorption) of mind 
which is above speech and in which one has to abandon all sari- 
kalpas and to give up completely all actions, should be known 
through one s own (experience) . As an actress, though subject (or 
dancing in harmony) to music, cymbals and o^ier musical instru 
ments of time, has her mind intent upon the protection of the pot 
on her head, so the yogin, though intent for the time being upon 
the hosts of objects, never leaves off the mind contemplating on 
Brahman. The person who desires all the wealth of yoga 
* should, after having given up all thoughts, practise with 
a subdued mind concentration on nada (spiritual sound) 


" The One Principle cannot at any time become of manifold 
forms. As I am the partless, there is none else but myself. 
Whatever is seen and whatever is heard is no other than 
Brahman. I am that Parabrahman, which is the eternal, the 
immaculate, the free, the one, the undivided bliss, the non-dual, 
the truth, the wisdom, and the endless. I am of the nature of 
bliss ; I am of undivided wisdom ; I am the supreme of the supreme ; 
I am the resplendent absolute Consciousness. As the clouds do 
not touch the akas , so the miseries attendant on mundane 
existence do not affect me. Know all to be happiness through 
the annihilation of sorrow and all to be of the nature of sa 
(be-ness) through the annihilation of asat (not-be-ness). It is 
only the nature of Chit (Consciousness) that is associated with 
this visible universe. Therefore my form is partless. To an 
exalted yogin, there is neither birth nor death, nor going (to 
other spheres), nor returning (to earth) ; there is no stain or 
purity or knowledge but (the universe) shines to him as absolute 
Consciousness. Practise always silence I am (viz., that you 
yourself are) Parabrahman which is truth and absolute 
Consciousness, which is undivided and non-dual, which 
is invisible, which is stainless, which is pure, which is second- 
less, and which is beneficent. It (Brahman) is not subject to 


birth and death, happiness and misery. It is not subject 
to caste, law, family and gotra (clan). Practise silence 
I am Chit which is the vivarta-upadana 1 (viz., the illusory 
cause) of the ^universe. Always practise silence I am (viz., 
you are) the Brahman, that is the full, the secondless, the 
undivided consciousness which has neither the relationship nor 
the differences existing in the universe and which partakes of 
the essence of the non-dual and the supreme Sat and Chit. 

" That which always is and that which preserves the same 
nature during the three periods of time, unaffected by anything, 
is my eternal form of Sat. Even the state of happiness which 
is eternal without upadhis (vehicles) and which is superior to 
all the happiness derivable from sushupti is of my bliss only. 
As by the rays of the sun, thick gloom is soon destroyed, so 
darkness, the cause of rebirth is destroyed by H&ri (Vishnu) 
viz., the sun s lustre, Through the contemplation and worship 
of my (Hari s) feet, every person is delivered from his ignorance. 
The means of destroying deaths and births is only through the 
contemplation of my feet. As a lover of wealth praises a wealthy 
man, so if with earnestness a person praises the Cause of 
the universe, who will not be delivered from bondage ? 

" As in presence of the sun the world of its own accord 
begins to perform its actions, so in my presence all the worlds are 
animated to action. As to the mother-of-pearl, the illusory 
conception of silver is falsely attributed, so to me is falsely 
attributed through maya this universe which is composed of 
mahat, etc. I am not with those differences that are (observable) 
in the body of low caste men, the body of cow, etc., the fixed 
ones, the bodies of brahmanas and others. As to a person, even 
after being relieved from the misconception of the directions, 
the (same misconception of) direction continues (as before), 

1 Of the two causes of the universe, Spirit is the nimitta (instrumental) 
cause while matter is the upadana (material) cause. This material cause is 
again subdivided into three: viz., arambha (initial), parinama (changed) and 
vivarta (illusory). The first or material cause may be exemplified by the 
cotton or woollen thread being the initial material cause of cloth or drpsses 
which are woven out of these threads without changing the threads ; the second 
by milk being the changed cause of curd, since a change takes place in the 
milk which becomes curd ; the third by a serpent being the illusory cause of a 
rope, for here through illusion we mistake the rope for the serpent, 


just so is to me the universe though destroyed by vijnana. 
Therefore the universe is not. I ain neither the body nor the 
organs of sense and action, nor pranas, nor manas, nor buddhi, 
nor ahankara, nor chitta, nor maya, nor the un^erse including 
akas and others. Neither am I the actor, #ie enjoyer, nor he 
who causes the enjoyment. I am Brahman that is Chit, Sat 
and Ananda alone and that is Janardana (Vishnu). 

" As, through the fluctuation of water, the sun (reflected there 
in) is moved, so Atma arises in this mundane existence through 
its mere connection with ahankara. This mundane existence has 
chitta as its root. This (chitta) should be cleansed by repeated 
effort. How is it you have your confidence in the greatness of 
chitta ? Alas, where is all the wealth of the kings ! Where are 
the Brahmas ? Where are all the worlds ? All old ones are gone. 
Many f resh evolutions have occurred. Many crores of Brahmas 
have passed away. Many kings have flitted away like particles of 
dust. Even to a jnani, the love of the body may arise through the 
asura (demoniacal) nature. If the asura nature should arise in 
a wise man, his knowledge of truth becomes fruitless. 
Should rajas and others generated in us be burnt by the fire of 
discriminative (divine) wisdom, how can they germinate again ? 
Just as a very intelligent person delights in the shortcomings 
of another, so if one finds out his own faults (and corrects them) 
who will not be relieved from bondage ? Lord of munis, only 
he who has not atmajiiana and who is not an emancipated per 
son, longs after siddhis. He attains such siddhis through medi 
cine, l (or wealth), mantras, religious works, time and skill. In 
the eyes of an atmajnani, these siddhis are of no importance. 
One who has become an atmajfianl, one who has his sight solely 
on atma, and one who is content with Atma (the higher self) 
through (his) atma (or the lower self), never follows (the dictates 
of) avidya. Whatever exists in this world, he knows to be of 
the nature of avidya. How then will an atmajnani who has 
relinquished avidya be immersed in (or affected by) it. Though 
medicine, mantras, religious work, time and skill (or mystical 

1 The mystic Hindii Tamil books teem with works on medicine through which 
the higher siddhis can be developed. 


expressions) lead to the development of siddhis, yet they 
cannot in any way help one to attain the seat of Paramatma. 
How then can one who is an atmajnam and who is without his 
mind be said o long after siddhis, while all the actions of his 
desires are controlled ? " 


On another occasion Nidagha asked Lord Rbhu to enlighten 
him as to the characteristics of jivanmukti. 1 To which Rbhu 
replied in the affirmative and said the following : 

" In the seven bhumikas or (stages of development of wisdom) 
there are four kinds of jiva^imuktas. 1 Of these the first 
stage 3 is s ubhechchha (good desire) ; the second is vicharana 
(inquiry) ; the third is tanumanasi (or pertaining to the 
thinned mind) ; the fourth is sattvapatti (the attainment of 
sattva) ; the fifth is asamsakti (non-attachment) ; the sixth is 
the padarthabhavana (analysis of objects) and the seventh is 
the turya (fourth or final stage). The bhumika which is of the 
form of pranava (On) is formed of (or is divided into) akara A, 
ukara U, makara M, and ardhamatra. Akara and others are 
of four kinds on account of the difference of sthula (gross), 
sukshma (subtle), bija (seed or causal), and sakshi (witness). 
Their avasthas are four : waking, dreaming, dreamless sleeping 
and turya (fourth) . He who is in (or the entity that identifies 
itself with) the waking state in the gross ams a (essence or part) 
of akara is named Vis va ; in the subtle essence, he is termed 
Taijasa ; in the bija essence, he is termed Prajna ; and in the 
sakshi essence, he is termed Turya. 

" He who is in the dreaming state (or the entity which 
identifies itself with the dreaming state) in the gross essence of 
ukara is Yis va ; in the subtle essence, he is termed Taijasa ; in 
the bija essence, is termed Prajna ; and in the sakshi essence, 
he is termed Turya. 

" He who is in the sushupti state in the gross essence of 
makara is termed Vis va; in the subtle essence, Taijasa; irf the 

1 Jivanmnkti is emancipation. Jivanmuktas are those that have attained 

3 This word and others are explained in full later on in the text. 


bija essence, he is termed Prajfia ; and in the sakshi essence, he 
is termed Turya. 

" He who is in turya state in the gross essence of ardhamatra 
is termed Turya- vis va. In the subtle, he is germed Taijasa ; 
in the bija essence, he is termed Prajnaj^and in the sakshi 
essence, he is termed Turya-turya. 

" The turya essence of akara is (of embraces) the first, second 
and third (bhurnikas or stages of the seven). The turya 
essence of ukara embraces the fourth bhumika. The turya 
essence of makara embraces the fifth bhumika. The turya 
essence of ardhamatra is the sixth stage. Beyond this, is the 
seventh stage. 

" One who functions in the (first) three bhurnikas is called 
mumukshu ; one who functions in the fourth bhumika is 
called a bruhmavit ; one who functions in the fifth bhumika is 
called a brahmavidvara ; one who functions in the sixth bhumika 
is called a brahmavidvarlya ; and one in the seventh bhumika is 
called a brahmavidvarishtha. With reference to this, there are 
s lokas. They are : 

" f S ubhechchha is said to be the first jiianabhumi (or stage 
of wisdom) ; vicharana, the second ; tanumanasi, the third ; 
sattvapatti, the fourth ; then come asamsakti as the fifth, padar- 
thabhavana as the sixth and turya as the seventh/ 

" The desire that arises in one through sheer vairagya 
(after resolving) Shall I be ignorant ? I will be seen by the 
Sfastras and the wise (or I will study the books and be with the 
wise) is termed by the wise as S ubhechchha. The association 
with *the wise and S astras and the following of the right path 
preceding the practice of indifference is termed vicharana. 
That stage wherein the hankering after sensual objects is 
thinned through the first and second stages is said to be 
tanumanasi. That stage wherein having become indifferent to 
all sensual objects through the exercise in the (above) three 
stages, the purified chitta rests on Atma which is of the nature 
of ,sat is called sattvapatti. The light (or manifestation) of 
sattvaguna that is firmly rooted (in one) without any desire for the 
fruits of actions through the practice in the above four stages 



is termed asamsakti. That stage wherein through the practice 
in the (above) five stages one, having found delight in Atma, has 
no conception of the internals or externals (though before him) 
and engages in actions only when impelled to do so by others is 
termed padarthablmvana, the sixth stage. The stage wherein 
after exceedingly long practice in the (above) six stages one 
is (immovably) fixed in tile contemplation of Atma alone with 
out the difference (of the universe) is the seventh stage called 
turya. The three stages beginning with S ubhechcha are said 
to be attained with (or amidst) differences and non-differences. 
(Because) the universe one sees in the waking state he thinks 
to be really existent. When he mind is firmly fixed on the 
non-dual One and the conception of duality is put down, then he 
sees this universe as a dream through his union with the fourth 
stage. As the autumnal cloud being dispersed vanishes, so this 
universe perishes. O Nidagha, be convinced that such a per 
son has only sattva remaining. Then having ascended the fifth 
stage called sushuptipada (dreamless sleeping seat), he remains 
simply in the non-dual state, being freed from all the various 
differences. Having always introvision though ever participating 
in external actions, those that are engaged in the practice of 
this (sixth stage) are seen like one sleeping when fatigued (viz., 
being freed from all affinities). (Lastly) the seventh stage which 
is the ancient and which is called gudhasupti * is generally 
attained. Then one remains in that secondless state without 
fear and with his consciousness almost annihilated where there 
is neither sat nor asat, neither self nor not-self. Like an 
empty pot in the akas , there is void both within and with 
out ; like a filled vessel in the midst of an ocean, he is full both 
within and without. Do not become either the knower or the 
known. May you become the Reality which remains after all 
thoughts are given up. Having discarded (all the distinctions 
of) the seer, the sight and the seen with their affinities, meditate 
solely upon Atma which shines as the supreme Light. 

" He is said to be a jivanmukta (emancipated person) in 
whom, though participating in the material concerns of the 
1 Lit., secret sleep. 


world, the universe is not seen to exist like the invisible akas . 
He is said to be a jivanmukta, the light of whose mind never sets 
or rises in misery or happiness, and who does not seek to change 
what happens to him (viz., either to diminish his misery or in 
crease his happiness). He is said to be a jivanmukta who 

though in his sushupti is awake and to whon/the waking state is 
unknown and whose wisdom is fr^e from the affinities (of 

" He is said to be a jivanmukta whose heart is pure like akas , 

though acting (as if) in consonance to love, hatred, fear and 
others. He is said to be a jivanmukta who has not the con 
ception of his being the actor and whose buddhi is not attached 
to material objects, whether he performs actions or not. He is 
said to be a jivanmukta, of whom people are not afraid, who is 
not afraid^ of people and who has given up joy, anger and fear. 
He is said to be a jivanmukta who, though participating in all 
the illusory objects, is cool amidst them and is a full Atma, (being) 
as if they belonged to others. O muni, he is called a 
jivanmukta who, having eradicated all the desires of his 
chitta, is (fully) content with me who am the Atma of all. He 
is said to be a jivanmukta who rests with an unshaken mind in 
that all pure abode which is Chinmatra and free from all the modi 
fications of chitta. He is said to be a jivanmukta in whose chitta 
do n<jt dawn (the distinctions of) the universe, I, he, thou and 
others that are visible and unreal. Through the path of the 
guru and S astras, enter soon Sat the Brahman that is immuta 
ble, great, full and without objects and be firmly seated there. 
S iva #lone is Guru ; S iva alone is Vedas ; Siva alone is Lord ; 
S iva alone is I ; Siva alone is all. There is none other than 
S iva. The undaunted Brahmana having known Him (S iva) 
should attain wisdom. One need not utter many words as they 
but injure the organ of speech. 

"(The ftshi) S uka 1 is a mukta (emancipated person). 
(The Rshi) Vamadeva is a mukta. There are no others (who 
have attained emancipation) than through these (viz., the two 

1 Suka is a Rshi, the son of the present Vyasa and the narrator of Bhagavata 
Purana. Vatnadeva is also a Rshi. 


paths of these two Rshis) . Those brave men who follow the path 
of S uka in this world become sadyomuktas (viz., emancipated) im 
mediately after (the body wers away) ; while those who always 
follow the path of vedanta in this world are subject again and 
again to rebirthsund attain krama (gradual) emancipation, through 
yoga, sankhya and Larmas associated with sattva (guna). Thus 
there are two paths laid down by the Lord of Pevas (viz.,) the 
Sfuka and Vamadeva paths. The S uka path is called the bird s 
path : while the Vamadeva path is called the ant s path. 1 Those 
persons that have cognised the true nature of their Atma 
through the mandatory and prohibitory injunctions (of the 
Vedas), the inquiry into (the true meaning of) mahavakyas (the 
sacred sentences of the Vedas], the samadhi of sankhya yoga 
or asamprajfiata samadhi 3 and that have thereby purified them 
selves, attain the supreme seat through the S^uka path. Having, 
through hathayoga 3 practice with the pain caused by yama, 
postures, etc., become liable to the ever recurring obstacles 
caused by anima and other (siddhis) and having not obtained 
good results, one is born again in a great family and practises 
yoga through his previous (karmic) affinities. Then through 
the practice of yoga during many lives, he attains salvation 
(viz.,) the supreme seat of Vishnu through the Vamadeva path. 
Thus there are two paths that lead to the attainment of Brahman 
and that are beneficent. The one confers instantaneous salva 
tion and the other confers gradual salvation. 

" To one that sees (all) as the one (Brahman), where is 
delusion ? Where is sorrow ? Those that are under the 
eyes of those whose buddhi is solely occupied with the $rath 
(of Brahman) that is the end of all experience are releas 
ed from all heinous sins. All beings inhabiting heaven 
and earth that fall under the vision of Brahmavits are at once 
emancipated from the sins committed during many crores of 

1 Bird s path, like birds which fly at once to the place they intend to go j 
Ant s path, like ants which move slowly. 

a It is that of intense self -absorption when one loses his consciousness of 

3 Hathayoga, as stated in Patanjali s Toga Philosophy. 



Then Nidagha asked Lord Rbhu to enlighten him as to 
the rules (to be observed) in the practice of Yoga. Accordingly 
He (the Lord) said thus : * 

" The body is composed of the five elements. It is filled 
with five mandalas (spheres). 1 That which is hard is Prthivi 
(earth), one of them; that which is liquid is Apas; that which 
is bright is Tejas (fire) ; motion is the property of Vayu ; that 
which pervades everywhere is Akas . All these should be known 
by an aspirant after Yoga. Through the blowing of Vayu- 
mandala in this body, (there are caused) 21,600 breaths every 
day and night. If there is a diminution in the Prthivimandala, 
there arise folds in the body ; if there is diminution in the 
essence of Apas, there arises gradually greyness of hair ; if there 
is diminution in the essence of Tejas, there is loss of hunger and 
lustre ; if there is diminution in the essence of Vayu, there is 
incessant tremor ; if there is diminution in the essence of Abas , 
one dies. The jivita (viz., Prana) which possesses these elements 
having no place to rest (in the body) owing to the diminution 
of the elements, rises up like birds flying up in the air. It is 
for this reason that it is called Udyana (lit., flying up). With 
reference to this, there is said to be a bandha (binding, 
also meaning a posture called Uddiyanabandha, by which this 
flight can be arrested). This Uddiyanabandha a is to (or does 
away with) death, as a lion to an elephant. Its experience is in 
the body, as also the bandha. Its binding (in the body) is 
hurtful. If there is agitation of Agni (fire) within the belly, 
then there will be caused much of pain. Therefore this (Uddiyana 
bandha) should not be practised by one who is hungry or who 
has urgency to make water or void excrement. He should take 

1 There are either the five elements or Muladhara (sacral plexus), Svadhish- 
thana (epigastric or prostatic plexus), Manipuraka (solar plexus), AnahatA 
(cardiac plexus) and Visuddhi (laryngeal or pharyngeal plexus). These are 
situated respectively in the anus, the genital organs, navel, heart and throat. 
The last or the sixth plexua is omitted here, as the five plexuses mentioned 
above correspond to the five elements. This chapter treating of yoga is rery mys 

a This is one of the postures treated of in Siva, Samhita and other books. 


many times in small quantities proper and moderate food. He 
should practise Mantrayoga, l Layayoga and Hathayoga, 
through mild, middling and transcendental methods (or periods) 
respectively. Laya, Mantra, and Hathayogas have each (the 
same) eight su bservients. They are yama, niyama, asana, 
pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi. 2 (Of 
these), yama is of ten kinds. They are non-injury, truth, non- 
coveting, continence, compassion, straightforwardness, patience, 
courage, moderate eating, and purity (bodily and mental). 
Niyama is of ten kinds. They are tapas (religious austerities), 
contentment, belief in the existence of God or Vedas, charity, 
worship of Is vara (or God), listening to the exposition of re 
ligious doctrines, modesty, a (good) intellect, japa (muttering 
of prayers), andvrata (religious observances). There are eleven 
postures beginning with chakra. Chakra, padma, kurma, 
mayura, kukkuta, vira, svastika, bhadra, simha, mukta, and 
gomukha, are the postures enumerated by the knowers of yoga. 
Placing the left ankle on the right thigh and the right ankle 
on the left thigh, and keeping the body erect (while sitting) is 
the posture " Chakra ". Pranayama should be practised 
again and again in the following order, viz., inspiration, re 
straint of breath and expiration. The pranayama is done through 
the nadis (nerves). Hence it is called the nadis themselves. 

" The body of every sentient being is ninety-six digits long. 
In the middle of the body, two digits above the anus and two 
digits below the sexual organ, is the centre of the body (called 
Muladhara or sacral plexus). Nine digits above the genitals, 
there is kanda of nadis which revolves oval-shaped, four .digits 
high and four digits broad. It is surrounded by fat, flesh, bone, and 
blood. In it, is situate a nadi-chakra (wheel of nerves) having 
twelve spokes. Kui^dali by which this body is supported is there. 
It is covering by its face the Brahmarandhra (viz., Brahma s 
hole) of Sushumna. (By the side) of Sushumna dwell the nadis 

1 There are four kinds of yoga the fourth being Rajayoga. Mantrayoga is 
that in which perfection is obtained through the pronunciation of mantras. 
Layayoga is that in which perfection is obtained through laya (absorption)., 

2 They mean respectively forbearance, religious restraint, posture, restraint 
of breath, subjugation of the senses, contemplation, meditation, and intense self- 


Alambusa and Kuhuh. In the next two (spokes) are Varuna and 
Yas asvini. On the spoke south of Sushumna is, in regular 
course, Pingala. On the next two spokes, are Pusha and 
Payasvini. On the spoke west of Sushumna is the niidi called 
Sarasva^i. On the next two spokes are Sankhini and Gandhari. To 

1 the north of Sushumna dwells Ida ; in the next is Hastijihva ; in 
the next is Vis vodara. In these spobes of the wheel, the twelve 
nadis carry the twelve vayus from left to right (to the different 
parts of the body). The nadis are like (i.e., woven like the warp 

and woof of) cloth. They are said to have different colours. The 
central portion of the cloth (here the collection of the nadis) is 
called the Nabhichakra (navel plexus). Jvalanti, Nadarupini, 
Pararandhra, and Sushumna are called the (basic) supports of 
nada (spiritual sound). These four nadis are of ruby colour. The 
central portion of Brahmarandhra is again and again 
covered by Kundali. Thus ten vayus move in these nadis. A 
wise man who has understood the course of nadis and vayus 
should, after keeping his neck and body erect with his mouth 
closed, contemplate immovably upon Turyaka (Atma) at the 
tip of his nose, in the centre of his heart and in the middle of 
bindu, 1 and should see, with a tranquil mind through the 
(mental) eyes, the nectar flowing from there. Having closed 
the anus and drawn up the vayu and caused it to rise through 
(the repetition of) pranava (Om), he should complete with 
SVl bija. He should contemplate upon his Atma as S ri (or 
Paras akti) and as being bathed by nectar. This is kalavanchana 
(lit., time illusion). It is said to be the most important of all. 
Whatever is thought of by the mind is accomplished by the 
mind itself. (Then) agni (fire) will flame in jala (water) and in 
the flame (of agni) will arise the branches and blossoms. Then 
the words uttered and the actions done regarding the universe, 
are not in vain. By checking the bindu in the path, by 
making the fire flame up in the water and by causing the water 
to dry up, the body is made firm. Having contracted 
simultaneously the anus and yoni (the womb) united together, 
he should draw up Apana and unite with it Samana. He 

1 Lit., germ. 



should contemplate upon his Atma as S iva and then as being 
bathed by nectar. In the central part of each spoke, the 
yogin should commence to concentrate bala (will or strength). 
He should try to go up by the union of Prana and Apana. 
This most important yoga brightens up in the body the path of 
siddhis. As a dam across the water serves as an obstacle to the 
floods, so it should ever be &nown by the yogins that the chhaya 
of the body is (to jiva). This bandha is said of all nadis. 
Through the grace of this bandha, the Devata (goddess) becomes 
visible. This bandha of four feet serves as a check to the three 
paths. This brightens up the path through which the siddhas 
obtained (their siddhis). If with Prana is made to rise up soon 
Udana, this bandha checking all nadis goes up. This is called 
Samputayoga or Mulabandha. Through the practising of this 
yoga, the three bandhas are mastered. By practising day and 
night intermittingly or at any convenient time, the vayu will 
come under his control. With the control of vayu, agni (the 
gastric fire) in the body will increase daily. With the increase 
of agni, food, etc., will be easily digested. Should food be 
properly digested, there is increase of rasa (essence of food). 
With the daily increase of rasa, there is the increase of dhatus 
(spiritual substances). With the increase of dhatus, there is the 
increase of wisdom in the body. Thus all the sins collected 
together during many crores of births are burnt up. 

" In the centre of the anus and the genitals, there is the 
triangular Muladhara. It illumines the seat of S iva of the form 
of bindu. There is located the Paras akti named kundalini. 
From that seat, vayu arises. From that seat, agni beoomes 
increased. From that seat, bindu originates and nada becomes 
increased. From that seat, Hamsa is born. From that seat, 
manas is born. The six chakras beginning with Muladhara are 
said to be the seat of S akti (Goddess). From the neck to the 
top of the head is said to the seat of S ambhu (S iva). To the 
nadis, the body is the support (or vehicle) ; to Prana, the nadis 
are the support ; to jiva, Prana is the dwelling place ; to Hanisa, 
jiva is the support ; to S akti, Hamsa is the seat and the 
locomotive and fixed universe. 


" Being without distraction and of a calm mind, one should 
practise pranayama. Even a person who is well-skilled in the 
practice of the three bandhas should try always to cognise with 
a true heart that Principle which should be known and is the 
cause of all objects and their attributes. *Both expiration 
and inspiration should (be stopped and nl^de to) rest in re 
straint of breath (alone). He should depend solely on Brahman 
which is the highest aim of all visibles. (The giving out of) all 
external objects is said to be rechaka (expiration). The (taking 
in of the) spiritual knowledge of the S astras is said to be 
puraka (inspiration) and (the keeping to oneself of) such know 
ledge is said to be kumbhaka (or restraint of breath). He is 
an emancipated person who practises thus such a chitta. There 
is no doubt about it. Through kumbhaka, it (the mind) should 
be always^ taken up, and through kumbhaka alone it should be 
filled up within. It is only through kumbhaka that kumbhaka 
should be firmly mastered. Within it is Paramas iva. That 
(vayu) which is non-motionless should be shaken again through 
kantha-mudra (throat-posture). Having checked the course of 
vayu, having become perfect in the practice of expiration and 
restraint of breath and having planted evenly on the ground 
the two hands and the two feet, one should pierce the four seats 
through vayu through the three yogas. He should shake 
Mahfuneru with the (aid of) prakotis (forces) * at the mouth of 
vayu. The two putas (cavities) being drawn, vayu throbs 
quickly. The union of moon, sun and agni should be known on 
account of nectar. Through the motion of Meru, the devatas 
whotay in the centre of Meru move. At first in his Brahma- 
gran thi, there is produced soon a hole (or passage). Then 
having pierced Brahma-granthi, he pierces Vishnu-granthi : 
then he pierces E/udra-granthi. Then to the yogin comes 
vedha a (piercing) through his liberation from the impurities of 
delusion, through the religious ceremonies (performed) in 
various births, through the grace of gurus and devatas and 
through the practice of yoga. 

1 It is mystic here and later on. 

a He has pierced all the granthis and hence becomes a waster of yedha. 


" In the mandala (sphere or region) of Sushumna (situated 
between Ida and Pingala, vayu should be made to rise up through 
the feature known as Mudra-bandha. The short pronunciation 
(of Pranava) frees (one) from sins : its long pronunciation con 
fers (on one) moksha. So also its pronunciation in apyayana or 
pluta svara (tone)! He is a knower of Veda, who through the 
above-mentioned three wa^ys of pronunciation knows the end of 
Pranava which is beyond the power of speech, like the never- 
ceasing flow of oil or the long-drawn bell-sound. The short svara 
goes to bindu. The long svara goes to brahmarandhra : the pluta 
to dvadas anta (twelfth centre) . The mantras should be uttered 
on account of getting mantra siddhis. This Pranava (On) will 
remove all obstacles. It will remove all sins. Of this, are four 
bhumikas (states) predicated, viz., arambha, ghata, parichaya, 
and nishpatti. Arambha is that state in which one having aban 
doned external karmas performed by the three organs (mind, 
speech and body), is always engaged in mental karma only. It 
is said by the wise that the ghata state is that in which vayu 
having forced an opening on the western side and being full, is 
firmly fixed there. Parichaya state is that in which vayu is 
firmly fixed to akas , neither associated with jiva nor not, while 
the body is immovable. It is said that nishpatti state is that 
in which there take place creation and dissolution through 
At ma or that state in which a yogin having become a jivanmukta 
performs yoga without effort. 

" Whoever recites this Upanishad becomes immaculate like 
agni. Like vayu, he becomes pure. He becomes freed from 
the sin of drinking alcohol. He becomes freed from the sjns of 
the theft of gold. He becomes a jivanmukta. This is what 
is said by the Rgveda. Like the eye pervading the akas 
(seeing without effort everything above), a wise man sees 
(always) the supreme seat of Vishnu. The brahmanas who have 
always their spiritual eyes wide open praise and illuminate in 
diverse ways the spiritual seat of Vishnu. 

" OM, thus is the Upanishad/ 

1 There are the three kinds of pronunciation with 1 matra, 2 matras and 
3 matras. They are respectively hrasva, dlrgha and pluta which may be trans 
lated as short, long and very long. 





OM. The* great muni Yajnavalkya went to Adityaloka (the 
sun s world) and saluting him (the Purusha of the sun) said : 
" O reverend sir, describe to me the Atma-tattva (the tattva 
or truth of Atma)." 

(To which,) Namyana (viz., the Purusha of the sun) re 
plied : " I shall describe the eightfold yoga together with 
Jnana. The conquering of cold and heat as well as hunger 
and sleep, the preserving of (sweet) patience and unruffledness 
ever and the restraining of the organs (from sensual objects) 
all these come under (or are) yama. Devotion to one s guru, 
love of the true path, enjoyment of objects producing happiness, 
internal satisfaction, freedom from association, living in a 
retired place, the controlling of the manas and the not longing 
after *the fruits of actions and a state of vairagya all these con- 
situ te niyama. The sitting in any posture pleasant to one and 
clothed in tatters (or bark) is prescribed for asana (posture). 
Inspiration, restraint of breath and expiration, which have re 
spectively 16, 64 and 32 (matras) constitute pranayama (restraint 
of breath). The restraining of the mind from the objects of 

1 Mandala means sphere. As the Purusha in the mandala or sphere of the 
stfu gives out this Upanishad to Yajuavalkya, hence it is called Mandala-Brah- 
mana. It is very mystic. There is a book called Rajayoga Bhashya which ia 
a commentary thereon ; in the light of it which is by some attributed to Sri 
Sarikaracharya, notes are given herein. 


senses is pratyahara (subjugation of the senses). The con 
templation of the oneness of consciousness in all objects is 
dhyana. The mind having been drawn away from the objects 
of the senses, the fixing of the chaitanya (consciousness) (on 
one alone) is dharana. The forgetting of oneself in dhyana is 
samadhi. He who thus knows the eight subtle parts of yoga 
attains salvation. 

" The body has five stains (viz.,) passion, anger, out- 
breathing, fear, and sleep. The removal of these can be 
effected respectively by absence of sankalpa, forgiveness, moder 
ate food, carefulness, and a spiritual eight of tattvas. In order 
to cross the ocean of samsara where sleep and fear are the 
serpents, injury, etc., are the waves, trshna (thirst) is the 
whirlpool, and wife is the mire, one should adhere to the subtle 
path and overstepping fattva x and other gunas should look out 
for Taraka. 2 Taraka is Brahman which being in the middle 
of the two eyebrows, is of the nature of the spiritual effiulgence 
of Sachchidananda. The (spiritual) seeing through the three 
lakshyas (or the three kinds of introvision) is the means to It 
(Brahman). Sushumna which is from the muladhara to brah- 
marandhra has the radiance of the sun. In the centre of it, is 
kundalini shining like crores of lightning and subtle as the 
thread in the lotus-stalk. Tamas is destroyed there. Through 
seeing it, all sins are destroyed. When the two ears are closed 
by the tips of the forefingers, a phutkara (or booming) sound is 
heard. When the mind is fixed on it, it sees a blue light be 
tween the eyes as also in the heart. (This is antarlakshya or 
internal introvison). In the bahirlakshya (or external in 
trovision) one sees in order before his nose at distance of 
4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 digits, the space of blue colour, then a colour 
resembling s yama (indigo-black) and then shining as rakta (red) 
wave and then with the two pita (yellow and orange red) colours. 
Then he is a yogin. When one looks at the external space, moving 

1 Comm. : Rising above the seven Pranas, one should with introvision cognise 
in the region of Akas, Tamas and should then make Tamas get into Rajas, Rajas 
into Sattva, Sattva into Narayana and Narayana, into the Supreme One. 

2 Taraka is from <r., to cross, as it enables one to cross samsara. The 
higher" vision is here said to take place in a centre between the eyebrow 
probably in the brain. 


the eyes and sees streaks of light at the corners of his eyes, then 
his vision can be made steady. When one sees jyotis (spiritual 
light) above his head 12 digits in length, then he attains the 
state of nectar. In the madhyalakshya (or the middle one), 
one sees the variegated colours of the morning AS if the sun, the 
moon*and the fire had joined together in the Ukas 7 that is without 
them. Then he comes to have their nature (of light). Through 
practice, he becomes one with akas 7 , devoid of all gunas and peculi 
arities. At first akas 7 with its shining stars becomes to him Para- 
akas 7 as dark as tamas itself, and he becomes one with Para- 
akas 7 shining with stars and deep as tamas. (Then) he becomes 
one with Maha-akas resplendent (as) with the fire of the deluge. 
Then he becomes one with Tattva-akas 7 , lighted with the 
brightness which is the highest and the best of all. Then he 
becomes one with Surya-akas 7 (sun-akas 7 ) brightened by a 
crore of suns. By practising thus, he becomes one with them. 
He w4io knows them becomes thus. 

" Know that yoga is twofold through its division into 
the purva (earlier) and the uttara (later). The earlier is 
taraka and the later is amanaska (the mindless). Taraka is 
divided into murti (with limitation) and amurti (without 
limitation). That is murti taraka which goes to the end of 
the senses (or exists till the senses are conquered). That is 
amurti taraka which goes beyond the two eyebrows (above the 
senses). Both these should be performed through manas. An- 
tardrshti (internal vision) associated with manas comes to aid 
taraka. Tejas (spiritual light) appears in the hole between the 
two syebrows. This taraka is the earlier one. The later is 
amanaska. The great jyotis (light) 1 is above the root of the 
palate. By seeing it, one gets the siddhis anima, etc. 
S ambhavimudra occurs when the lakshya (spiritual vision) 
is internal while the (physical) eyes are seeing externally with 
out winking. This is the great science which is concealed in all 
the tantras. When this is known, one does not stay in samsara. 
Its worship (or practice) gives salvation. Antarlakshya is of 

1 The commentator puts it as 12 digits above the root of the palate perhaps 
the Dvadasanta or twelfth centre corresponding to the pituitary body. 


the nature of Jalajyotis (or water jyotis). It is known by the 
great Rshis and is invisible both to the internal and external 

" Sahasrara (viz., the thousand-petalled lotus of the pineal 
gland) Jalajyotis x is the antarlakshya. Some say the form of 
Purusha in the cave of buddhi beautiful in all its parts r is an 
tarlakshya. Some again say that the all-quiescent Nilakantha 
accompanied by Uma (his wife) and having five mouths and 
latent in the midst of the sphere in the brain is antarlakshya. 
Whilst others say that the Purusha of the dimension of a 
thumb is antarlakshya. A few again say antarlakshya is the One 
Self made supreme through introvision in the state of a jivan- 
mukta. All the different statements above made pertain to 
Atma alone. He alone is a Brahmanishtha who sees that the 
above lakshya is the pure Atma. The jiva which is the twenty- 
fifth tattva, having abandoned the twenty-four tattvas, becomes a 
jivanmukta through the conviction that the twenty-sixth tattva 
(viz.,) Paramatma is I alone. Becoming one with antarlak 
shya (Brahman) in the emancipated state by means of antarlak 
shya (introvision), jiva becomes one with the partless sphere of 
Paramakas . 

" Thus ends the first Brahmana." 


Then Yajnavalkya asked the Purusha in the sphere of the 
sun : " O Lord, antarlakshya has been described many times, 
but it has never been understood by me (clearly) . Pray describe 
it to me." He replied : " It is the source of the five elements, 
has the lustre of many (streaks of) lightning, and has four seats 
having (or rising from) That (Brahman). In its midst, there 
arises the manifestation of tattva. It is very hidden and 
unmanifested. It can be known (only) by one who has got 
into the boat of jnana. It is the object of both bahir and 
antar (external and internal) lakshyas. In its midst is absorbed 

1 The commentator to support the above that antarlakshya, viz., Brahman 
is jala- or water-jyotis quotes the Pranayama-Gayatri which says : " Om Apo- 
jyoti-raso amrtam-Brahma, etc." Apo-jyotis or water-jyotis is Brahman. 


the whole world. It is the vast partless universe beyond 
Nada, Bindu and Kala. Above it (viz., the sphere of agni) 
is the sphere of the sun ; in its midst is the sphere of the 
nectary moon ; in its midst is the sphere of the partless 
Brahma-tejas (or the spiritual effulgence of Brahman). It 

has Mie brightness of Sfukla (white light} 1 like the ray of 
lightning. It alone has the characterise of Sfambhavi. In see 
ing this, there are three kinds of drshti (sight), viz., amu (the 
new moon), pratipat (the first day of lunar fortnight), and 

purnima (the full moon). The sight of ama is the one (seen) 
with closed eyes. That with half opened eyes is pratipat ; 
while that with fully openeo^ eyes is purnima. Of these, the 
practice of purnima should be resorted to. Its lakshya (or aim) 
is the tip of the nose. Then is seen a deep darkness at the 
root of the, palate. By practising thus, a jyotis (light) of the 
form of an endless sphere is seen. This alone is Brahman, the 
Sachoiiidananda. When the mind is absorbed in bliss thus 
naturally produced, then does S ambhavi take place. She 
(Sfambhavi) alone is called Khechari. By practising it (viz., the 
mudra), a man obtains firmness of mind. Through it, he ob 
tains firmness of vayu. The following are the signs : first it 
is seen like a star ; then a reflecting (or dazzling) diamond ; 2 then 
the sphere of full moon ; then the sphere of the brightness of 
nine gems ; then the sphere of the midday sun ; then the sphere 
of the flame of agni (fire) ; all these are seen in order. 

" (Thus much for the light in purva or first stage.) Then 
there is the light in the western direction (in the uttara 
or second stage). Then the lustres of crystal, smoke, bindu, 
nada, kala, star, firefly, lamp, eye, gold, and nine gems, etc. 
are seen. This alone is the form of Pranava. Having united 
Prana and Apana and holding the breath in kumbhaka, one 
should fix his concentration at the tip of his nose and making 
shanmukhi 3 with the fingers of both his hands, one hears 

1 Comm. : Sukla is Brahman. 
** The original is, * Vajra-Darpanam. 

3 Shanmukhi is said to be the process of hearing the internal sound by 
closing the two ears with the two thumbs, the two eyes with the two forefingers, 
the two nostrils with the two middle fingers, and the mouth with the remaining 
two fingers of both hands. 


the sound of Pranava (Om) in which manas becomes absorbed. 
Such a man has not even the touch of karma. The karma of 
(Sandhyavandaiia or the daily prayers) is verily performed at 
the rising or setting of the sun. As there is no rising or setting 
(but only the eVer shining) of the sun of Chit (the higher con 
sciousness) in the heart of a man who knows thus, he Las no * 
karma to perform. Rising above (the conception of) day and 
night through the annihilation of sound and time, he becomes 
one with Brahman through the all-full jfiana and the attain 
ing of the state of unmanl (the state above manas). Through the v 
state of unmanl, he becomes amanaska (or without manas). 

" Not being troubled by any thoughts (of the world) then 
constitutes the dhyana. 1 The abandoning of all karmas consti 
tutes avahana (invocation of god). Being firm in the unshaken 
(spiritual) wisdom constitutes asana (posture). Being in the 
state of unmanl constitutes the padya (offering of water for 
washing the feet of god). Preserving the state of amamaska 
(when manas is offered as sacrifice) constitutes the arghya (offer 
ing of water as oblation generally). Being in state of eternal 
brightness and shoreless nectar constitutes snana (bathing). The 
contemplation of Atma as present in all constitutes (the applica 
tion to the idol of) sandal. The remaining in the real state 
of the drk (spiritual eye) is (the worshipping with) akshata 
(non-broken rice). The attaining of Chit (consciousness) is 
(the worshipping with) flower. The real state of agni (fire) of Chit 
is the dhupa (burning of incense). The state of the sun of Chit 
is the dlpa (light waved before the image). The union of one 
self with the nectar of full moon is the naivedya (offering cif food, 
etc.). 3 The immobility in that state (of the ego being one with 
all) is pradakshina (going round the image). The conception 
of f I am He is namaskara (prostration). The silence (then) is 
the stuti (praise). The all-contentment (or serenity then) is the 
visarjana (giving leave to god or finishing worship). (This is 

1 In this paragraph, the higher or secret meaning is given of all actions done 
in the puja or worship of God in the Hindu houses as well as temples. Regard 
ing the clothing of the idol which is left out here, the commentator explains it as 
avarana or screen. 

* Here also the commentator brings in nlrajana or the waving of the light 
before the image. That is according to him, the idea, " I am the self -shining." 


the worship of Atma by all Raja-yogins). He who knows this 
knows all. 

" When the triputi l are thus dispelled, he becomes the 
kaivalya jyotis without bhfiva (existence) or abhava (non- 
existence), full .and motionless, like the ocean without the tides 
or lifee the lamp without the wind. He becomes a brahmavit 
(knower of Brahman) by cognising th*e end of the sleeping state, 
even while in the waking state. Though the (same) mind is 
absorbed in sushupti as also in samadhi, there is much difference 
between them. (In the former case) as the mind is absorbed 
in tamas, it does not become the means of salvation, (but) in 
samadhi as the modifications^of tamas in him are rooted away, 
the mind raises itself to the nature of the Partless. All that is 
no other than Sakshi-Chaitanya (witness-consciousness or the 
Higher Self) into which the absorption of the whole universe 
takes place, inasmuch as the universe is but a delusion (or 
creation) of the mind and is therefore not different from it. 
Though the universe appears perhaps as outside of the mind, 
still it is unreal. He who knows Brahman and who is the sole 
enjoyer of brahmic bliss which is eternal and has dawned once 
(for all in him) that man becomes one with Brahman. He in 
whom sankalpa perishes has got mukti in his hand. Therefore 
one becomes an emancipated person through the contemplation 
of Paramatma. Having given up both bhava and abhava, one 
becomes a jivanmukta by leaving off again and again in all 
states jnana (wisdom) and jfieya (object of wisdom), dhyana 
(meditation) and dhyeya (object of meditation), lakshya (the aim) 
and alakshya (non-aim), drs ya (the visible) and adrs ya (the non- 
visible and uha (reasoning) and apoha (negative reasoning). 2 
He who knows this knows all. 

" There are fiveavasthas (states), viz.: jagrat ( waking), svapna 
(dreaming), sushupti (dreamless sleeping), the turya (fourth) 
and turyatita (that beyond the fourth). The jiva (ego) that is 
engaged in the waking state becomes attached to the pravrtti 
(w*orldly) path and is the participator of naraka (hell) as the 

1 The Triputi arc the three, the knower, the known and the knowledge. 
Comm. : Dhyana and others stated before wherein the three distinctions are made. 
a t)ha and apoha the consideration of the pros and cons. 



fruit of sins. He desires svarga (heaven) as the fruit of his 
virtuous actions. This very same person becomes (afterwards) 
indifferent to all these saying, " Enough of the births tending to 
actions, the fruits of which tend to bondage till the end of this 
mundane existence." Then he pursues the nivrtti (return) 

^ Q 

path with a view to attain emancipation. And this person then 
takes refuge in a spiritual instructor in order to cross this 
mundane existence. Giving up passion and others, he does only 
those he is asked to do. Then having acquired the four 
sadhanas (means to salvation), he attains, in the middle of the 
lotus of his heart, the Reality of antarlakshya that is but the 
Sat of Lord and begins to recognise (or recollect) the bliss of 
Brahman which he had left (or enjoyed) in his sushupti state. 
At last he attains this state of discrimination (thus) : I think I 
am the non-dual One only. I was in a jnana for som^ 
time (in the waking state and called therefore Vis va). 
I became somehow (or involuntarily) a Taijasa (in the 
dreaming state) through the reflection (in that state) of 
the affinities of the forgotten waking state; and now I 
am a Prajfia through the disappearance of those two states. 
Therefore I am one only. I (appear) as more than one 
through the differences of state and place. And there is 
nothing of differentiation of class besides me/ Having 
expelled even the smack of the difference (of conception) 
between I ; and That through the thought I am the pure 
and the secondless Brahman , and having attained the path 
of salvation which is of the nature of Parabrahman, after 
having become one with It through the dhyana of the sun s 
sphere as shining with himself, he becomes fully ripened for 
getting salvation. Sankalpa and others are the causes of the 
bondage of the mind ; and the mind devoid of these becomes 
fit for salvation. Possessing such a mind free from all 
(sankalpa, etc.,) and withdrawing himself from the outer world 
of sight and others and so keeping himself out of the odour of the 
universe, he looks upon all the world as Atma, abandons the con 
ception of I , thinks I am Brahman and considers all these 
as Atma. Through these, he becomes one who has done his duty. 


" The yogin is one that has realised Brahman that is all- 
full beyond turya. They (the people) extol him as Brahman ; 
and becoming the object of the praise of the whole world, he 
wanders over different countries. Placing the bindu in the 
akas of ParamaUna and pursuing the path of the partless bliss 

A * 

produced by the pure, secondless, stainless, and innate yoga 
sleep of amanaska, he becomes an emancipated person. Then 
the yogin becomes immersed in the ocean of bliss. When com 
pared to it, the bliss of Indra and others is very little. He who 
gets this bliss is the supreme yogin. 

" Thus ends the second Brahmana." 


The great "sage Yajfiavalkya then asked the Purusha in 
the sphere (of the sun) : " Lord, though the nature of ama 
naska has been defined (by you), yet I forget it (or do not un 
derstand it clearly). Therefore pray explain it again to me/ 
Accordingly the Purusha said : " This amanaska is a great secret. 
By knowing this, one becomes a person who has done his duty. 
One should look upon it asParamatma, associated with S ambhavi- 
mudra and should know also all those that can be known through 
a (thorough) cognition of them. Then seeing Parabrahman in 
his own Atma as the Lord of all, the immeasurable, the birthless, 
the auspicious, the supreme akas , the supportless, the secondless 
the only goal of Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra and the cause of all 
and assuring himself that he who plays in the cave (of the heart) 
is such a one, he should raise himself above the dualities of 
existence and non-existence ; and knowing the experience of 
the unmani of his manas, he then attains the state of Parabrah 
man which is motionless as a lamp in a windless place, having 
reached the ocean of brahmic bliss by means of the river of 
amanaska-yoga through the destruction of all his senses. Then 
he resembles a dry tree. Having lost all (idea of) the universe 
through the disappearance of growth, sleep, disease, expiration 
and inspiration, his body being always steady, he comes to 
have a supreme quiescence, being devoid of the movements of 


his manas and becomes absorbed in Paramatma. The destruction 
of manas takes place after the destruction of the collective 
senses, like the cow s udder (that shrivels up) after the milk 
has been drawn. It is this that is amanaska. By follow 
ing this, one becomes always pure and becomes one that has 
done his duty, having been filled with the partless bliss by means 
of the path of taraka-yoga 1 through the initiation into the sacred 
sentences ( I am Paramatma, That art thou/ ( I am thou 
alone/ Thou art I alone/ etc. 

" When his manas is immersed in the akas and he becomes 
all-full, and when he attains the unmani state, having abandoned 
all his collective senses, he conquers all sorrows and impurities 
through the partless bliss, having attained the fruits of kaivalya, 
ripened through the collective merits gathered in all his previous 
lives and thinking always f l am Brahman / becomes one 
that has done his duty. f l am thou alone. There is no 
difference between thee and me owing to the fullness of Para 
matma. Saying thus, he (the Purusha of the sun) embraced 
his pupil 1 and made him understand it. 

" Thus ends the third Brahmana." 


Then Yajnavalkya addressed the Purusha in the sphere (of 
the sun) thus : " Pray explain to me in detail the nature of the 
fivefold division of akas ." He replied : " There are five (viz) : akas , 
parakas , mahakas , suryakas , and paramakas . That which is of 
the nature of darkness, both in and out is the first akas . 
That which has the fire of the deluge, both in and out is truly 
mahakas . That which has the brightness of the sun, both in and 
out is suryakas . That brightness which is indescribable, all- 
pervading and of the nature of unrivalled bliss is paramakas . 
By cognising these according to this description, one becomes of 
their nature. He is a yogin only in name, who does not cognise 
well the nine chakras, the six adharas, the three lakshyas and 
the five akas . Thus ends the fourth Brahmana." 

1 This is a reference to the secret way of imparting higher truth. 



" The manas influenced by worldly objects is liable to bond 
age ; and that (manas) which is not so influenced by these is fit 
for salvation. Jlence all the world becomes an object of chitta ; 
whefeas the same chitta when it is supportless and well-ripe in 
the state of unmam, becomes worthy of laya (absorption in 
Brahman). This absorption you should learn from me who am 
the all-full. I alone am the cause of the absorption of manas. 
The manas is within the jyotis (spiritual light) which again is 
latent in the spiritual sound which pertains to the anahata 
(heart) sound. That manas^which is the agent of creation, 
preservation, and destruction of the three worlds that same 
manas becomes absorbed in that which is the highest seat of 
Vishnu ; through such an absorption, one gets the pure and 
secondless state, owing to the absence of difference then. This 
alone is the highest truth. He who knows this, will wander in 
the world like a lad or an idiot or a demon or a simpleton. By 
practising this amanaska, one is ever contented, his urine and 
faeces become diminished, his food becomes lessened : he becomes 
strong in body and his limbs are free from disease and sleep. 
Then his breath and eyes being motionless, he realises Brahman 
and attains the nature of bliss. 

" That ascetic who is intent on drinking the nectar of Brah 
man produced by the long practice of this kind of samadhi, 
becomes a paramahamsa (ascetic) or an avadhuta (naked ascetic). 
By seeing him, all the world becomes pure, and even an illiter 
ate person who serves him is freed from bondage. He (the 
ascetic) enables the members of his family for one hundred and 
one generations to cross the ocean of samsara ; and his mother, 
father, wife, and children all these are similarly freed. Thus is 
the Upanishad. Thus ends the fifth Brahmana." 





THE syllable A is considered to be its (the bird Om s) right 
wing, U, its left : M 3 , its tail ; and the ardhamatra (half-metre) is 
said to be its head. 

The (rajasic and tamasic) qualities, its feet upwards (to the 
loins) ; sattva, its (main) body ; 3 dharma is considererd to be its 
right eye, and adharma, its left. 

The Bhurloka is situated in its feet ; the Bhuvarloka, in its 
knees; the Suvarloka, in its loins ; and the Maharloka, in its navel. 

In its heart is situate the Janoloka ; the tapoloka in its 
throat, and the Satyaloka in the centre of the forehead between 
the eyebrows. 

Then the matra (or mantra) beyond the Sahasrara (thousand- 
rayed) is explained (viz.,) should be explained. 

An adept in yoga who bestrides the Hamsa (bird) thus 
(viz., contemplates on Om) is not affected by karmic influences 
or by tens of crores of sins. 4 

1 Lit., Sound-seed. 

2 The commentator says that M is the last letter and hence tail and 
ardhamatra is the head, as it enables one to attain to higher worlds. 

3 Another reading is : The qualities are its feet, etc., and Tattva is its body. 
* Comm. : Since this mantra has already occurred in the preceding 

khanda of the same sakha, it is simply referred in the text. The mantra is : 

The meaning seems to be the letters A and U are the two wings of the 
Hamsa (Om) of the form of Vishnu which goes to svarga, the abode of Surya, 
the thousand-rayed God ; that syllable, Om bearing in its heart all the devas 
(of sattvaguna). He goes up to Sahasranha seeing the worlds personally : 
Sahasranha being the seat of the spiritual sun. 


The first matra has agni as its devata (presiding deity) ; the 
second, vayu as its devata ; the next matra is resplendent 
like the sphere of the sun and the last, the Ardharnatra the 
wise know as belonging to Varuna (the presiding deity of 
water) . 

THach of these matras has indeed three kalas (parts). This 
is called Omkara. Know it by means of the dharanas, viz., 
concentration on each of the twelve kalas, or the variations of 
the matras produced by the difference of svaras or intonation). 
The first matra is called ghoshini ; the second, vidyunmali (or 
vidyunmatra) ; the third, patarigini ; the fourth, vayuvegini ; the 
fifth, narnadheya ; the sixth aindri ; the seventh, vaishnavi ; 
the eighth, s ahkari; the ninth, mahati; the tenth, dhrti 
(dhruva, Calcutta ed.) ; the eleventh, nari (mauni, Calcutta 
ed.) ; and *the ftvelfth, brahmi. 1 

If a person happens to die in the first matra (while con 
templating on it), he is born again as a great emperor in 

If in the second matra, he becomes an illustrious yaksha; 
if in the third matra, a vidyaclhara ; if in the fourth, a gandharva 
(these three being the celestial hosts). 

If he happens to die in the fifth, viz., ardhamatra, he lives 
in the world of the moon, with the rank of a deva greatly 
glorified there. 

If in the sixth, he merges into Indra;ifin the seventh, 
he reaches the seat of Vishnu ; if in the eighth, Ruclra, the Lord 
of all creatures. 

\\ in the ninth, in Maharloka ; if in the tenth, in Janoloka 
(Dhruvaloka, Calcutta ed.) ; if in the eleventh, Tapoloka, and 
if in the twelfth, he attains the eternal a state of Brahma. 

1 Comm. : The four matras are subdivided into twelve by their having 
each three svaras, U (latin, Anudltta. and Svarihk. Here the author goes on to 
give the names of the twelve kalas and shows the method of practising Dharana 
on each. Ghoshini is that which gives Prajfia : Vidyunmali is that which 
secures entrance into the loka of Vidyunmali, the king of the yakshas : 
Patauginl is that which confers the power of movement through air like the 
bird 1 atuTifrinI; Vayuvegini is that which gives the power of moving very 
rapidly : Namadheya means that which confers existence in Pitrloka : Aindri in 
Indraloka: Vaishnavi and Saukarl in Vishnu and Siva-lokas respectively 
MaunI to the loka of Munis or Janoloka and Brahmi to Brahmaloka. 

a Eternal here means the lifetime of Brahma. 


That which is beyond these, (viz.,) Parabrahman which is 
beyond (the above matras), the pure, the all-pervading, beyond 
kalas, the ever resplendent and the source of all jyotis (light) 
should be known. 

1 When the mind goes beyond the organs ard the gunas and 
is absorbed, having no separate existence and no mental 
action, then (the guru) should instruct him (as to his further 
course of development). 

That person always engaged in its contemplation and al 
ways absorbed in it should gradually leave off his body (or 
family) following the course of yoga and avoiding all inter 
course with society. 

Then he, being freed from the bonds of karma and the 
existence as a jiva and being pure, enjoys the supreme bliss 
by his attaining of the state of Brahma. 2 

intelligent man, spend your life always in the 
knowing of the supreme bliss, enjoying the whole of your prarab^ 
dha (that portion of past karma now being enjoyed) without 
making any complaint (of it) . 

Even after atmajriana (knowledge of Atma or Self) has 
awakened (in one), prarabdha does not leave (him) ; but he 
does not feel prarabdha after the dawning of tattvajnana 3 
(knowledge of tattva or truth) because the body and other 
things are asat (unreal), like the things seen in a dream to one 
on awaking from it. 

That (portion of the) karma which is done in former 
births, and called prarabdha does not at all affect the person 
(tattva/jnam), as there is no rebirth to him. 

As the body that exists in the dreaming state is untrue, 
so is this body. Where then is rebirth to a thing that is 
illusory ? How can a thing have any existence, when there is no 
birth (to it) ? 

As the clay is the material cause of the pot, so one 
learns from Vedanta that ajnana is the material cause of the 

1 Another edition says : he should enter through yoga the incomparable 
and quiescent Siva. 

2 Here the Calcutta edition stops. 

3 Tattvajnana is the discrimination of the tattvas of this universe and 
man. Atniajnana the discrimination of Atma or the Self in man. 


universe : and when ajnana ceases to exist, where then is the 
cosmos ? 

As a person through illusion mistakes a rope for a serpent, 
so the fool not knowing Satya (the eternal truth) sees the world 
(to be true.) 

^When he nows it to be a piece of ropci the illusory idea of 
a serpent vanishes. t 

So when he knows the eternal substratum of everything 
and all the universe becomes (therefore) void (to him), where 
then is prarabdha to him, the body being a part of the world ? 
Therefore the word prarabdha is accepted to enlighten the 
ignorant (only). 

Then as prarabdha has, in course of time, worn out, he who 
is the sound resulting from the union of Pranava with Brahman 
who is the absolute effulgence itself, and who is the bestower of 
all good, shines himself like the sun at the dispersion of the clouds. 
The yogin being in the siddhasana (posture) and practising 
the vaishnavimudra, should always hear the internal sound 
through the right ear. 

The sound which he thus practises makes him deaf to all 
external sounds. Having overcome all obstacles, he enters the 
turya state within fifteen days. 

In the beginning of his practice, he hears many loud 
sounds. They gradually increase in pitch and are heard more 
and more subtly. 

At first, the sounds are like those proceeding from the ocean, 
clouds, kettle-drum, and cataracts : in the middle (stage) those 
proceeding from mardala (a musical instrument), bell, and horn. 
At the last stage, those proceeding from tinkling bells, flute, 
vinii (a musical instrument), and bees. Thus he hears many 
such sounds more and more subtle. 

When he comes to that stage when the sound of the great 
kettle-drum is being heard, he should try to distinguish only 
sounds more and more subtle. 

He may change his concentration from the gross sound to 
the subtle, or from the subtle to the gross, but he should not 
allow his mind to be diverted from them towards others. 


The mind having at first concentrated itself on any one 
sound fixes firmly to that and is absorbed in it. 

It (the mind) becoming insensible to the external impressions, 
becomes one with the sound as milk with water, and then becomes 
rapidly absorbed in chidakas (the akas where Chit prevails). 

Being indiffere it towards all objects, the yogin halving 
controlled his passions, should by continual practice concentrate 
his attention upon the sound which destroys the mind. 

Having abandoned all thoughts and being freed from all 
actions, he should always concentrate his attention on the 
sound, and (then) his chitta becomes absorbed in it. 

Just as the bee drinking the honey (alone) does not care for 
the odour, so the chitta which is always absorbed in sound, does 
not long for sensual objects, as it is bound by the sweet smell of 
nada and has abandoned its flitting nature. 

The serpent chitta through listening to the nada is entirely 
absorbed in it, and becoming unconscious of everything concen 
trates itself on the sound. 

The sound serves the purpose of a sharp goad to control the 
maddened elephant chitta which roves in the pleasure-garden 
of the sensual objects. 

It serves the purpose of a snare for binding the deer chitta. 
It also serves the purpose of a shore to the ocean waves of chitta. 

The sound proceeding from Pranava which is Brahman is 
of the nature of effulgence ; the mind becomes absorbed in it ; 
that is the supreme seat of Vishnu. 

The sound exists till there is the akas ic conception (akas a- 
sankalpa). Beyond this, is the (as abda) soundless Para- 
brahman which is Paramatma. 

The mind exists so long as there is sound, but with its 
(sound s) cessation, there is the state called unmani of manas 
(viz., the state of being above the mind). 

This sound is absorbed in the Akshara (indestructible) and 
the soundless state is the supreme seat. 

The mind which along with Prana (Vayu) has (its) karmic 
affinities destroyed by the constant concentration upon nada is 
absorbed in the unstained One. There is no doubt of it. 


Many myriads of nadas and many more of bind as (all) 
become absorbed in the Brahma-Pranava sound. 

Being freed from all states and all thoughts whatever, the 
yogin remains like one dead. He is a mukta. There is no 
doubt about this. 

^After that, lie does not at any time hea the sounds of conch 
or dundubhi (large kettle-drum). t 

The body in the state of unman I is certainly like a log and 
does not feel heat or cold, joy or sorrow. 

The yogin s chitta having given up fame or disgrace is in 
samadhi above* the three states. 

Being freed from the waking and the sleeping states, he 
attains to his true state. 

When the (spiritual) sight becomes fixed without any 
object to be seen, when the vayu (prana) becomes still without 
any effort, and when the chitta becomes firm without any 
support, he becomes of the form of the internal sound of 

Such is the Upanishad. 




CHITTA 2 has two causes, vasanas and (prana) vayu. , If one of 
them is controlled, then both are controlled. Of these two, a 
person should control (prana) vayu always through moderate 
food, postures, and thirdly s akti-chala. 3 I shall explain the 
nature of these. Listen to it, Gautama. One should take a 
sweet and nutritious food, 4 leaving a fourth (of his stomach) 
unfilled) in order to please S iva (the patron of yogins) . This is 
called moderate food. Posture herein required is of two kinds, 
padma and vajra. Placing the two heels over the two opposite 
thighs (respectively) is the padma (posture) which is the destroyer 
of all sins. Placing one heel below the mulakanda 5 and the 
other over it and sitting with the neck, body and head 
erect is the vajra posture. The s akti (mentioned above) is only 
kundalini. A wise man should take it up from its place, (viz., 
the navel, upwards) to the middle of the eyebrows. This 
is called s akti-chala. In practising it, two things are necessary, 

1 In this Upanishad are stated the ways by which the Kundalinl power is 
roused from the navel upwards to the middle of the eyebrows and then up to saha- 
srara in the head : this being one of the important works of an adept to master 
the forces of nature. 

2 Chitta is the flitting aspect of Antahkarana. 

3 Lit., the moving of sakti which is Kundalinl. 

* Regarding the quantity to be taken, one should take of solid food half of 
his stomach : of liquid food, one quarter, leaving the remaining quarter empty for 
the air to percolate. 

5 Mulakanda is the root of kanda, the genital organ. 


Sarasvatichalana l and the restraint of prana (breath). Then 
through practice,kundalini( which is spiral) becomes straightened. 
Of these two, I shall explain to you first Sarasvati-chalana. It 
is said by the wise of old that Sarasvati is no other than 
Arundhati. 2 It is only by rousing her up "that kundalini is 
roused. When prana (breath) is passing through (one s) Ida 
(left nostril), he should assume firmly pad rna-posture and should 
lengthen (inwards) 4 digits the akas of 12 digits. 3 Then the 
wise man should bind the (sarasvati) nadi by means of this 
lengthened (breath) and holding firmly together (both his ribs near 
the navel) by means of the forefingers and thumbs of both hands, 
(one hand on each side) should stir up kundalini with all his 
might from right to left often and often ; for a period of two 
muhurtas (48 minutes), he should be stirring it up fearlessly. 
Then he sjiould.draw up a little when kundalini enters sushumna. 
By this means, kundalini enters the mouth of sushumna. Prana 
(also*) having left (that place) enters of itself the sushumna 
(along with kundalini). By compressing the neck, one should 
also expand the navel. Then by shaking sarasvati, prana goes 
above (to) the chest. Through the contraction of the neck, 
prana goes above from the chest. Sarasvati who has sound in 
her womb should be shaken (or thrown into vibration) each day. 
Therefore by merely shaking it, one is cured of diseases. Gulma 
(a splenetic disease), jalodara (dropsy), pliha (a splenetic 
disease) and all other diseases arising within the belly, are un 
doubtedly destroyed by shaking this S akti. 

I shall now briefly describe to you pranayama. Prana is 
the v^yu that moves in the body and its restraint within is known 
as kumbhaka. It is of two kinds, sahita and kevala. 4 One 
should practise sahita till he gets kevala. There are four bhedas 
(lit., piercings or divisions) viz., surya, ujjayi, s itali, and bhastri. 

1 The moving of sarasvati nadi situated on the west of the navel among the 
14 nadis (Vide Varaha ami other Upanishads). 

2 Sarasvati is called also Arundhati who is literally one that helps good 
actions being done and the wife of Rshi Vasishtha also the star that is shown 
to the bride on marriage occasions. 

3 In exhalation, prana goes out 16 digits and in inhalation, goes in only for 12, 
thus losing 4. But if inhaled for 16, then the power is aroused. 

* Lit., associated with and alone. Vide Sandilya-Upanishad. 


The kumbhaka associated with these four is called sahita 

Being seated in the padraa posture upon a pure and pleasant 
seat which gives ease and is neither too high nor too low, and in 
a place which is pure, lovely and free from pebbles, etc., and which 
for the length of a bow is free from cold, fire, and water^ one 
should shake (or throw into vibration) Sarasvati ; slowly inhal 
ing the breath from outside, as long as he desires, through the 
right nostril, he should exhale it through the left nostril. He 
should exhale it after purifying his skull (by forcing the breath 
up). This destroys the four kinds of evils caused by vayu as 
also by intestinal worms. This should be done often and it is 
this which is spoken of as suryabheda. 

Closing the mouth and drawing up slowly the breath as be 
fore with the nose through both the nadis (or nostrils) a^id retain 
ing it in the space between the heart and the neck, one should ex 
hale it through the left nostril. This destroys the heat caused 
in the head as well as the phlegm in the throat. It removes all 
diseases, purifies his body and increases the (gastric) fire within. 
It removes also the evils arising in the nadis, jalodara (water- 
belly or dropsy) and dhatus. This kumbhaka is called ujjayi 
and may be practised (even) when walking or standing. 

Drawing up the breath as before through the tongue with 
(the hissing sound of) g 1 and retaining it as before, the wise man 
should slowly exhale it through (both) the nostrils. This is 
called s ltalT kumbhaka and destroys diseases, such as gulma, 
pliha, consumption, bile, fever, thirst, and poison. 

Seated in the padma posture with belly and neck erect, the 
wise man should close the mouth and exhale with care through 
the nostrils. Then he should inhale a little with speed up to the 
heart, so that the breath may fill the space with noise between 
the neck and skull. Then he should exhale in the same way and 
inhale often and often. Just as the bellows of a smith are 
moved (viz., stuffed with air within and then the air is let out), 
so he should move the air within his body. If the body gets 
tired, then he should inhale through the right nostril. If his 
belly is full of vayu, then he should press well his nostrils with 


all his fingers except his forefinger, and performing kumbhaka as 
before, should exhale through the left nostril. This frees one 
from diseases of fire in (or inflammation of) the throat, increases 
the gastric fire within, enables one to know the kundalinl, 
produces purity removing sins, gives happines* and pleasure and 
destroys phlegm which is the bolt (or obstacle) to the door at 
the mouth of brahman adi (viz., sushjimna). It pierces also the 
three granthis * (or knots) differentiated through the three 
gunas. This kumbhaka is known as bhastri and should especi 
ally be performed. 

Through tfhese four ways when kumbhaka is near (or is 
about to be performed), the sinless yogin should practise the 
three bandhas. 3 The first is called mulabandha. The second is 
called uddiyana, and the third is jalandhara. Their nature will 
be thus ^described. Apana (breath) which has a downward 
tendency is forced up by one bending down. This process is 
called mulabandha. When apana is raised up and reaches the 
sphere of agni (fire), then the flame of agni grows long, being 
blown about by vayu. Then agni and apana come to (or com 
mingle with) prana in a heated state. Through this agni which 
is very fiery, there arises in the body the flaming (or the fire) 
which rouses the sleeping kundalinl through its heat. Then 
this kundalinl makes a hissing noise, becomes erect like a serpent 
beaten with stick and enters the hole of brahmanadi (sushumna). 
Therefore yogins should daily practise mulabandha often. 
Uddiyana should be performed at the end of kumbhaka and at 
the beginning of expiration. Because prana uddiyate (viz., goes 
up) the sushumna in this bandha, therefore it called uddiyana by 
the yogins. Being seated in the vajra posture and holding 
firmly the two toes by the two hands, he should press at the 
kanda and at the place near the two ankles. Then he should grad 
ually upbear the tana 3 (thread or nadi) which is on the 
western side first to udara (the upper part of the abdomen above 
the navel), then to the heart and then to the neck. When 
prana reaches the sandhi (junction) of navel, slowly it removes 

1 They are Brahmagranthi, Vishnugranthi, and Rudragranthi. 
a Bandhas are certain kinds of position of the body. 
3 This probably refers to Sarasvatl Nadi. 


the impurities (or diseases) in the navel. Therefore this should 
be frequently practised. The bandha called jalandhara should 
be practised at the end of kumbhaka. This jalandhara is of the 
form of the contraction of the neck and is an impediment to the 
passage of vayu --(upwards). When the neck is contracted at 
once by bending downwards (so that the chin may touch the 
breast), prana goes through brahmanadi on the western tana in 
the middle. Assuming the seat as mentioned before, one should 
stir up sarasvati and control prana. On the first day kumbhaka 
should be done four times ; on the second day it should be done 
ten times, and then five times separately ; on the third day, 
twenty times will do, and afterwards kumbfraka should be per 
formed with the three bandhas and with an increase of five 
times each day. 

Diseases are generated in one s body through th% following 
causes, viz., sleeping in daytime, late vigils over night, excess 
of sexual intercourse, moving in crowd, the checking of the 
discharge of .urine and faeces, the evil of unwholesome food and 
laborious mental operation with prana. If a yogin is afraid of such 
diseases (when attacked by them), he says, " my diseases have 
arisen from my practice of yoga." Then he will discontinue 
this practice. This is said to be the first obstacle to yoga. 
The second (obstacle) is doubt; the third is carelessness; the 
fourth, laziness ; the fifth, sleep ; the sixth, the not leaving of 
objects (of sense) ; the seventh, erroneous perception ; the eighth, 
sensual objects ; the ninth, want of faith ;* and the tenth, the 
failure to attain the truth of yoga. A wise man should abandon 
these ten obstacles after great deliberation. The practice of 
pranayama should be performed daily with the mind firmly fixed 
on Truth. Then chitta is absorbed in sushumna, and prana (there 
fore) never moves. When the impurities (of chitta) are thus re 
moved and prana is absorbed in sushumna, he becomes a (true) 
yogin. Apana, which has a downward tendency should be raised 
up with effort by the contraction (of the anus), and this is spoken 
of as mulabandha. Apana thus raised up mixes with agni aij,d 

1 The text is Anakhiam which has no sense. It has been translated as 


then they go up quickly to the seat of prana. Then prana and 
apana uniting with one another go to kundalini, which is coiled 
up and asleep. Kundalini being heated by agni and stirred up by 
vayu, extends her body in the mouth of sushumna, pierces the 
brahmagran^hi formed of rajas, and flashes at once like lightning 
at he mouth *of sushumna. Then it goes^ up at once through 
vishnugranthi to the heart. Then it goes up through rudragran- 
thi and above it to the middle of the eyebrows; having pierced 
this place, it goes up to the mandala (sphere) of the moon. It 
dries up the moisture produced by the moon in the anahatachakra 
having sixteen* petals. 1 When the blood is agitated through 
the speed of prana^ it becomes bile from its contact with the sun, 
after which it goes to the sphere of the moon where it becomes 
of the nature of the flow of pure phlegm. How does it (blood) 
which is^very cold become hot when it flows there ? (Since) at 
the same time the intense white form of moon is speedily heated. 3 
Theji being agitated, it goes up. Through taking in this, chitta 
which was moving amidst sensual objects externally, is re 
strained there. The novice enjoying this high state attains 
peace and becomes devoted to Atma. Kundalini assumes the 
eight 3 forms of prakrti (matter) and attains S iva by encir 
cling him and dissolves itself in Sfiva. Thus rajas-s ukla 4 (seminal 
fluid) which rises up goes to S iva along with marut (vayu) ; 
prana and apana which are always produced become equal. 
Pranas flow in all things, great and small, describable or in 
describable, as fire in gold. Then this body which is adhibhautika 
(composed of elements) becomes adhidaivata (relating to a tu 
telar deity) and is thus purified. Then it attains the stage 
of ativahika. 5 Then the body being freed from the inert state 

1 Twelve seems to be the right number of petals in the anahata-chakra of 
the heart ; but the moon is probably meant having sixteen rays. 

2 The passages here are obscure- 

3 They are Mulaprakrti, Mahat, Ahankara and the five elements. 

* Here it is the astral seminal fluid which, in the case ef a neophyte, not 
having descended to a gross fluid through the absence of sexual desire, rises up 
being conserved as a spiritual energy. 

5 A stage of being able to convey to other bodies the deity appointed by 
God to help in the conveying of sukshma (subtle) body to other bodies 
at the expiry of good actions which contribute to the enjoyment of material 
pleasures (vide Apte s Dictionary). 



becomes stainless and of the nature of Chit. In it, the ativahika 
becomes the chief of all, being of the nature of That. Like the 
conception of the snake in a rope, so the idea of the release from 
wife and samsara is the delusion of time. Whatever appears is 
unreal. Whatever is absorbed is unreal. Like the illusory 
conception of silver ?>n the mother-of-pearl, so is the idea of nan 
and woman. The microcosm and the macrocosm are one and 
the same ; so also the linga and sutratma, svabhava (substance) 
and form and the self-resplendent light and Chidatma. 

The S akti named kundalini, which is like a thread in the 
lotus and is resplendent, is biting with the upper end of its hood 
(namely, mouth) at the root of tEe lotu^ the mulakanda. 
Taking hold of its tail with its mouth, it is in contact with the 
hole of brahmaranclhra (of sushumna). If a person seated in 
the pad ma posture and having accustomed himself to. the con 
traction of his anus makes his vayu go upward with the mind 
intent on kumbhaka, then agni comes to svadhishthana fiam- 
ing, owing to the blowing of vayu. From the blowing of 
vayu and agni, the chief (kundalini) pierces open the brahma- 
granthi and then vishnugranthi. Then it pierces rudragranthi, 
after that, (all) the six lotuses (or plexuses). Then S akti is happy 
with Sava in sahasrara kamala (1,000 lotuses seat or pineal 
gland). This should be known as the highest avastha (state) 
and it alone is the giver of final beatitude. Thus ends the first 


I shall hereafter describe the science called khechari which 

is such that one who knows it is freed from old age and death 
in this world. One who is subject to the pains of death, dis 
ease and old age should, O sage, on knowing this science make 
his mind firm and practise khechari. One should regard that 
person as his guru on earth who knows khechari, the destroyer of 
old age and death, both from knowing the meaning of books 
and practice, and should perform it with all his heart. The 
science of khechari is not easily attainable, as also its practice. 


Its practice and melana * are not accomplished simultaneously. 
Those that are bent upon practice alone do not get melana. Only 
some get the practice, O Brahman, after several births, but melana 
is not obtained even after a hundred births. Having undergone 
the practice after several births, some (solitary) yogin gets the 
mejfma in some* future birth as the result of iiis practice. When a 
yogin gets this melana from the moutji of his guru, then he obtains 
the siddhis mentioned in the several books. When a man gets 
this melana through books and the significance, then he attains 
the state of Siva freed from all rebirth. Even gurus may not 
be able to krtow this without books. Therefore this science is 
very difficult to master. An ascetic should wander over the 
earth so long as he fails to get this science, and when this 
science is obtained, then he has got the siddhi in his hand (viz., 
mastered^ the psychical powers). Therefore one should regard 
as Achyuta (Vishnu) the person who imparts the melana, as also 
him, who gives out the science. He should regard as Sava him 
who teaches the practice. Having got this science from me, 
you should not reveal it to others. Therefore one who knows 
this should protect it with all his efforts (viz., should never give 
it out except to persons who deserve it). O Brahman, one 
should go to the place where lives the guru, who is able to teach 
the divine yoga and there learn from him the science khechari, 
and being then taught well by him, should at first practise it 
carefully. By means of this science, a person will attain the 
siddhi of khechari. Joining with khechari s akti (viz., kundalini 
s akti) by means of the (science) of khechari which contains the 
bija ^seed of letter) of khechari, one becomes the lord of khe- 
charas (Devas) and lives always amongst them. Khechari bija 
(seed-letter) is spoken of as agni encircled with water and as 
the abode of khecharas (Devas). Through this yoga, siddhi is 
mastered. The ninth (bija) letter of somams a (soma or moon part) 
should also be pronounced in the reverse order. Then a letter 
composed of three ams as of the form of moon has been describ- 
^d ; and after that, the eighth letter should be pronounced in 

1 Melana is lit., joining. This is the key to this science which seems to be 
kept profoundly secret and revealed by adepts only at initiation, as will appear 
from the subsequent passages in this Upanishad. 


the reverse order; then consider it as the supreme and its 
beginning as the fifth, and this is said to the kuta (horns) of 
the several bhinnas (or parts) of the moon. 1 This which tends 
to the accomplishment of all yogas, should be learnt through 
the initiation of ? guru. He who recites this twelve times 
every day, will not* get even in sleep that maya (illusion) 
which is born in his bocly and which is the source of all 
vicious deeds. He who recites this five lakhs of times with 
very great care to him the science of khechari will reveal itself. 
All obstacles vanish and the devas are pleased. The destruc 
tion of valipalita (viz., wrinkle and greyness of nair) will take 
place without doubt. Having acquired this great science, one 
should practise it afterwards. If not, Brahman, he will 
suffer without getting any siddhi in the path of khechari. If 
one does not get this nectarlike science in this practice, he 
should get it in the beginning of melana and recite it always ; 
(else) one who is without it never gets siddhi. As soon as he 
gets this science, he should practise it ; and then the sage will 
soon get the siddhi. Having drawn out the tongue from the 
root of the palate, a knower of Atma should clear the impurity 
(of the tongue) for seven days according to the advice of his 
guru. He should take a sharp knife which is oiled and cleaned 
and which resembles the leaf of the plant snuhi (" Euphorbia 
an ti quorum ") and should cut for the space of a hair (the fraenum 
Lingui). Having powdered saindhava (rock-salt) and pathya 
(sea-salt), he should apply it to the place. On the seventh day, 
he should again cut for the space of a hair. Thus for the space 
of six months, he should continue it always gradually with great 
care. In six months, S iro-bandha (bandha at the head), 1 which 
is at the root of the tongue is destroyed. Then the yogin who 
knows timely action should encircle with S iro-vastra (lit., 
the cloth of the head) the Vak-Is varl (the deity presiding over 
speech) and should draw (it) up. Again by daily drawing it 
up for six months, it comes, O sage, as far as the middle of the 
eyebrows and obliquely up to the opening of the ears ; having ( 
gradually practised, it goes to the root of the chin. Then in 

1 All these are very mystic. 


three years, it goes up easily to the end of the hair (of the head) 
It goes up obliquely to S akha x and downwards to the well of 
the throat. In another three years, it occupies brahmarandhra 
and stops there without doubt. Crosswise it goes up to the top 
of the head and downwards to the well of the throat. Gradually 
it apens the great adamantine door in the head. The rare 
science (of khechari) bija has be^n explained before. One 
should perform the six angas (parts) of this mantra by pronounc 
ing it in six different intonations. One should do this in order 
to attain all the siddhis ; and this karanyasam a should be done 
gradually ancf not all at a time, since the body of one who does 
it all at once will $pon decay^ Therefore it should be practised, 
O best of sages, little by little. When the tongue goes to the 
brahtnarandhra through the outer path, then one should place 
the tongue after moving the bolt of Brahma which cannot be 
mastered by the devas. On doing this for three years with the 
poiat of the finger, he should make the tongue enter within: then 
it enters brahmadvara (or hole). On entering the brahmadvara, 
one should practise mathana (churning) well. Some intelligent 
men attain siddhi even without mathana. One who is versed in 
khechari mantra accomplishes it without mathana. By doing 
the japa and mathana, one reaps the fruits soon. By connect 
ing a wire made of gold, silver or iron with the nostrils by 
means of a thread soaked in milk, one should restrain his breath 
in his heart and seated in a convenient posture with 
his eyes concentrated between his eyebrows, he should perform 
mathana slowly. In six months, the state of mathana becomes 
natural like sleep in children. And it is not advisable to do 
mathana always. It should be done (once) only in every 
month. A yogin should not revolve his tongue in the path. 
After doing this for twelve years, siddhi is surely obtained. 
Then he sees the whole universe in his body as not being 
different from Atma. This path of the urclhvakundalini (higher 
kundalini), chief of kings, conquers the macrocosm. Thus ends 
second chapter. 

1 Probably it here means some part below the skull. 

a Certain motions of the fingers and hands in the pronunciation of mantras. 



Melanamantra. ff (Hrim), ^ (bham),g- (sam), q- (sham), 
(pham), ^ (sam), and ^ (ksham). 

The lotus-born (Brahma) said : 

O S ankara, (among) new moon (the first day of the 
fortnight) and full moon," which is spoken of as its (mantra s) 
sign? In the first day of lunar fortnight and during new moon 
and full moon (days), it should be made firm and there is no other 
way (or time). A man longs for an object through passion 
and is infatuated with passion for objects. " One should 
always leave these two and seek tJieNiranjana (stainless). He 
should abandon everything else which he thinks is favourable to 
himself. Keeping the manas in the midst of s akti, and s akti in 
the midst of manas, one should look into manas by < means of 
of manas. Then he leaves even the highest stage. Manas alone 
is the bindu, the cause of creation and preservation. It is cnly 
through manas that bindu is produced, like the curd from milk. 
The organs of manas is not that which is situated in the mid 
dle of bandhana. Bandhana is there where S akti is between 
the sun and moon. Having known sushumna and its bheda 
(piercing) and making the vayu go in the middle, one should 
stand in the seat of bindu, and close the nostrils. Having 
known vayu, the above-mentioned bindu and the sattva-prakrti 
as well as the six chakras, one should enter the sukha-mandala 
(viz., the sahasrara or pineal gland, the sphere of happiness). 
There are six chakras. Muladhara is in the anus ; svadhish- 
thana is near the genital organ ; manipuraka is in the n,avel ; 
anahata is in the heart ; vis uddhi is at the root of the neck 
and ajna is in the head (between the two eyebrows). Having 
known these six mandalas (spheres), one should enter the sukha- 
mandala (pineal gland), drawing up the vayu and should send 
it (vayu) upwards. He who practises thus (the control of) 
vayu becomes one with brahmanda (the macrocosm). He should 
practise (or master) vayu, bindu, chitta, and chakra. 

Yogins attain the nectar of equality through samadhi 
alone. Just as the fire latent in (sacrificial) wood does not 


appear without churning, so the lamp of wisdom does not arise 
without the abhyasa yoga (or practice of yoga). The fire 
placed in a vessel does not give light outside. When the 
vessel is broken, its light appears without. One s body is 
spoken of as the vessel, and the seat of * That " is the fire 
(or^light) witfiin ; and when it (the bodyf is broken through 
the words of a guru, the light f brahmajfiana becomes 
resplendent. With the guru as the helmsman, one crosses 
the subtle body and the ocean of samsara through the affinities 
of practice. That vak l (power of speech) which sprouts 
in para, gives forth two leaves in pas yanti, buds forth in ma- 
dhyama and blossyms in vaikhari that vak which has before 
been described, reaches the stage of the absorption of sound, 
reversing the above order (viz., beginning with vaikhari, etc). 
Whoever^ thinks that He who is the great lord of that vak, 
who is the undifferentiated and who is the illuminator of that 
vakjs Self ; whoever thinks over thus, is never affected by words, 
high or low (or good or bad). The three (aspects 2 of conscious 
ness), vis va, taijasa, and prajfia (in man), the three Virat, Hi- 
ranyagarbha, and Is vara in the universe, the egg of the uni 
verse, the egg of man 3 and the seven worlds all these in turn 
are absorbed in Pratyagatma through the absorption of their 
respective upadhis (vehicles). The egg being heated by the fire 
of jnana is absorbed with its karana (cause) into Paramatma 
(Universal Self). Then it becomes one with Parabrahman. 
It is then neither steadiness nor depth, neither light nor dark 
ness, neither describable nor distinguishable. Sat (Be-ness) 
alone remains. One should think of Atma as being within the 
body like a light in a vessel. Atma is of the dimensions of a 
thumb, is a light without smoke and without form, is shining 
within (the body) and is undifferentiated and immutable. 

1 Vak is of four kinds (as said here) para, pasyantl, madhyama, and 
vaikhari. Vaikhari being the lowest and the grossest of sounds, arid para being 
the highest. In evolution vak begins from the highest to the lowest and in 
involution it takes a reverse order, to merge into the highest subtle sound 

1 The first three aspects of consciousness refer to the gross, subtle, and 
Parana bodies of men, while the second three aspects refer to the three bodies 
of the universe. This is from the standpoint of the three bodies. 

2 The egg of man this shows that man in his formation is and appears as an 
egg, just as the universe is, and appears as an egg. 


The Vijfiana Atma that dwells in this body is deluded by 
maya during the states of waking, dreaming, and dreamless 
sleep ; but after many births, owing to the effect of good karma, 
it wishes to attain its own state. Who am I ? How has this 
stain of mundane existence accrued to me ? What becomes in 
the dreamless sleep^of me who am engaged in business in^he 
waking and dreaming states ? Just as a bale of cotton is burnt 
by fire, so the Chidabhasa * which is the result of non-wisdom, is 
burnt by the (wise) thoughts like the above and by its own 
supreme illumination. The outer burning (of body as done in the 
world) is no burning at all. When the wordly wisdo m is destroyed, 
Pratyagatma that is in the dahara x (akas or ,pther of the heart) 
obtains vijnana, diffusing itself everywhere and burns in an 
instant jnanamaya and manomaya (sheaths). After this, He 
himself shines always within, like a light within a vessel. 

That muni who contemplates thus till sleep and till death 
is to be known as a jivanmukta. Having done what ougb,t to 
be done, he is a fortunate person. And having given up (even) 
the state of a jivanmukta, he attains videhamukti (emancipation 
in a disembodied state), after his body wears off. He attains 
the state, as if of moving in the air. Then That alone remains 
which is soundless, touchless, formless, and deathless, which is 
the rasa (essence), eternal, and odourless, which has neither 
beginning nor end, which is greater than the great, and which 
is permanent, stainless, and decayless. 

Thus ends the Upanishad. 

1 It is the consciousness that becomes distorted and is unable to cognise 
itself through the bodies. 



Achyuta f 










Agni 46, 61, 62, 75, 113, 

116, 121, : 

Ahankara 2 


Akas 46, 61, 62, 75, 113, 



Alambusa 176 


A mrtauada-Upanishad 





... 214 

... 157 


75, 260 



... 14 

... 265 

Antahkarana 44,46, 113 

... 64 


... 244 

... 265 


... 122 

... 64 



... 55 

Apana 177, 

206, 219 

... 128 


60, 69 

... 243 


... 57 

... 27 

Apas 46, 61, 62, 75, 113, 

... 143 


197, 236 



... 249 

197, 237 


... 134 

... 138 


... 242 

... 22 


193, 242 

... 221 


... 203 

... 49 



<, 55, 116 

Ardiiamatra , 203, 

232, 254 

... 121 


... 248 

... 173 


... 173 

... 255 


... 261 

... 213 


... 132 

... 20 

As abdhabrahman 

... 38 

212, 270 


... 232 

232, 254 

Asana 238, 

243, 248 

... 20 


... 10 




197, 237 


... 58 

... 248 


124, 128 

206, 239 

Asipatravanas reni 

... 141 

245, 251 


... 19 

... 200 


... 173 

... 216 


... 22 

... 34 

As valayana 

... 31 

... 245 

As vattha 

... 177 

... 17 


... 10 



... 187 

212, 253 


... 172 

... 16 


... 6,62 






... 265 

Brahma vit 51, 233 


... 208 

Brahmavidvara ... 233 


... 37 

Brahmavidvariya 233 



Brahmavidvarishtha ... 233 


... 256 

Brahmopanishad ... 106 

Atma-Tattva v 

... 243 

Brhadratha ... 24 


... 137 

Brhaspati 124*125 


... * 47 

Buddhi ... 55 


... 153 


... 248 


Avarana-S akti 

43, 130 

Avasthas 47, 

232, 249 

CHAKBA 7, 117, 205, 238 


... 13 

Chandra ... 19 


... 124 

Chandala ... 51 

Avyakta 43 

, 47, 115 

Cuandrayana ... 132 

Chhaiidas 62, 128 


Chidabhasa 47, 272 

Chidananda ... 10 



Chinmatra , * 10, 82 


132, 153 

Chit ... 248 



Chitta 7, 9, 55 

Bhadra 174, 

202, 217 

Colours, Seven ... *117 




124, 132 



... 261 


... 73 

PAHAKA 63, 75, 272 


... 27 

Dakshinagni ... 121 


... 132 

Danti ... 159 


... 268 

Dars anagni ... 121 

Bhuh 74, 

187, 254 

Dattatreya 132, 145, 190 

Bhutas raddha 

... 149 

Daya ... 173 



bevas ... 19 


... 232 

Devadatta 177, 206 

Bhuvah 74, 

187, 254 

Devarshi ... 148 


... 232 

Devas raddha ... 148 

Bindu 200, 

202, 208 

Dhananjaya 177, 206 


... 57 

Dharana 173, 188, 216, 2 ( 38, 243 

Boar- shaped 

... 220 

Dharma ... 110 


... 255 

Dharma-megha 50, 58 


44, 270 

Dharma-S astras ... 62 

Brahma 19, 60, 62, 69 

Dhatus 116, 121 


... 129 

Dhrti 173, 255 

Brahmanas i 

, 62, 110 

Dhruva 188, 255 


16, 18 

Dhupa ... 248 


135, 175 

bhyana 26, 173, 189, 216, 



238, 243, 248 



Dhayanabindu-Upanishad 202 



Dik 46, 221 


... 238 

biksha ... 121 

Brahmavidya 31, 

212, 222 

Dlpa ... 248 






... 264 

Hrdaya 117, 160, 201, 

204, 208 

Divyas raddha 

... 149 

TT - 


... 204 


... 248 

Hrshlkes a 

... 192 


. ... 20 


... 259 

- I 


... 145 

Dvadas anta 

... 184 


... 75 


... 130 

Ida* 122, 176, 

206, 239 


... 27 


... 226 



... 24 

Indra 19, 

187, 221 


... 156 


... 28 


... 27 


... 179 

Is vara 

... 19 


is vara-chaitanya 



... 54 


174, 206 


62, 64 


Gaues a . 

... 179 


... 116 


132, 145 


... 121 

Jagrata 13, 47, 113, 

232, 234 


132, 212 


... 246 


180, 190, 217 

Jalandhara 194, 

207, 263 


193, 242 


... 261 


60, 69 

Jamba van 

... 125 


... 255 


187, 254 


... 174 




... 135 




... 12 


... 64 


... 22 

Jiva 14, 19, 47 


56, 241, 266 

Jivanmukta 6, 88, 

232, 234 


... 135 


122, 237 


... 234 

Jnana 16, 20, 

184, 193 


182, 261 


45, 113 


93, 267 


... 239 


... 75 



... 62 


198, 210 


Hamsa 132, 147, 

153, 161, 

206, 213, 254 




... 212 


... 31 


1, 125 


... 139 


... 137 


... 125 


... 132 


125, 130 


176, 206, 239 


... 202 


196, 238 


... 239 


... 62 

Kalisantarana-Upanishad... 130 


... 44 


... 141 


... 64 







Kan da 

... 238 

Lokas ... 74 


... 214 

Lokaloka ... 77 


... 241 


... 213 



... 20 

Karmendriyas v 

44, 213 



,.. 107 

Madhyama ^22 


.. * 14 

Madhyaraalakshya 245 

Kas i 

... 42 

Mahabandha 194 


... 204 

Mahadeva 25, 41 


... 188 

Mahaimidra 194 


... 188 

Maharloka 254 

Kevala* 56, 

182, 261 

Maharaurava 156 


... 107 

Mali at 44 

Kbanda-paras u 

... 61 

Mf v hatala * 187 

Kbecbarimudra 183, 194, 

207, 266 

Maha-samvartaka 75 


... 213 

Mahavakyas 49 


... 134 

Maba-vichi-vagura 141 


... 134 

Maitrdyam , i 


... 75 

Maitreya-Upanisbad 24 

Kos a 


Maitri 10 


... 121 

Makara 232 


... 236 

Malas 116 


... 75 

Maiiana 49 


... 148 

Manas 34, 54 


177, 206 
... 5 

Mandalabrabmana-Upamshad 243 
Manipuraka 205, 213, 270 



Manomaya ...14,47 


15, 221 

Mantrayoga 193, 238 


62, 110 

Manusbya-Rshi ... 148 


... 122 

Manusbyas raddba ... 149 

Kuhuh 176, 

206, 239 

Manusbyas ... 19 

Kumbhaka 10, 

182, 241 

Mardala 257 

Kundalini vi, 174, 

185, 238 

Matras 179, 194, 216, 218, 254 


177, 188 

Matbana ... 261 



Maya ... 17 



Mayura ... 174 

Kus a 


Melana 267, 270 



Mimamsa ... 62 



Mitabara ... 173 

Kutichaka 132, 

147, 153 

Mitbya ... 17 

Moksha ...13,21 


Manna ... 8, 79 

Mudha ... 27 


197, 210 

Muburta ... 40 


... 222 

Mukta" ... 174 


... 125 

Muktikopanisbad ... 1 

Layayoga 193, 

228, 238 

Mukbya ... 71 


... 216 

Mulakauda ... 260 


... 137 

Muladhara 205, 213, 270 





Mulabandha 79, 194, 263 



Murchchha 47, 228 


... 122 

Murti ... 245 


... 252 

Mftyu ... 221 


... 22 


... 16 



... 215 



... 242 

NADA 200, 202, 214 

Paramahamsa 132, 

147, 153, 212 

Nadabindu-Upanishad ... 254 


... 31 

Nadarupim ... 239 

Parames vara 

... 31 

Nadis 14, 68, 80, 176 


... 239 

Naga 177, 206 


... 218 

Naimis a ... 134 


... 212 

Naivedya ... 248 


193, 242 

Namadheya ... 4255 


... 172 

Namaskara . . . 248 


... 134 

Narada 130, 134 

Pas yanti 

... 122 



... 255 

. shad . ... 134 


... 187 

Naraka 21, 249 


... 268 

Narasimha ... 42 


176, 239 

NaTayana 37, 67, 127 


... 244 

Narayana-Upanishad ... 127 

Pin das 

... 149 

Nasinam ... 72 


... 271 

Nidagha 93, 145, 232 

Pihgala 122, 

176, 206, 239 

Nididhyasana ... 49 


106, 123 

Nllakantha ... 246 

Pis achas 

... 19 

Niralamba-Upanishad ... 18 


... 196 

Nirukta ... 62 

Pitrs raddha 

... 149 

Nirvikalpa Samadhi ... 56 


182, 261 

Nishadas ... 62 


... 248 

JSTishkala ... 190 


115, 171 

Nishpatti 193, 242 Prajapatis 

... 62 

Nivrtti ... 57 


... 138 

Niyama 79, 174, 243 


... 19 

Nyaya ... 62 


37, 168 


47, 169, 232 


... 37 

Prana 10, 177, 

206, 218, 219 

OM 124, 125,128,167, 

Pranamaya 14, 47, 

86, 173, 

180, 202, 254 

216, 238, 243 

Om-namo-Narayanaya 124, 128 


2, 4, 51, 221 


... 123 



... 47 

Pratyahara 79, 173, 


PADA ... 216 

238, 243 

Padarthabhavana ... 232 

Prthivi 45, 61, 62, 

75, 113, 

Padma 174, 205, 217, 260 

116, 197, 237 

Palam ... 123- 

Praves a 

... 226 

Paihgala-Upanisha4 ... 43 


... 24,8 





Pur an as 












Rajas-S akfci 

















Rshis raddha 



... 37 

... 54 

... 217 

... 122 

v ... 245 

... 136 

176, 206,^239 


198, 210 
... 145 
60, 61, 69 
... 112 
.. 265 
... 148 
... 193 
62, 64 
... 60 
... 75 
... 64 
... 187 
... 217 
... 217 
... 121 
... 217 

62, 124, 127 
... 54 

93, 145, 220 


... 145 

... 148 



SA ... 198 

S abdabrahman ... 35 

Sachchidananda 85, 244 

Sadas iva ... 42 

Sadhana-chatushtaya 135, 235 






S akayanya 



vi, 246, 254, 266 
... 194 
... 182 
... 268 
... 24 
134, 269 


Sakala ... 190 

S akti-chalana ... 260 

Sakshi 15, 232 

Salokya ... 2 

Samadhi 10, 173, 189, 216, 238, 246 

Samaveda ... 5^62 

Samana 177, 206, 219 

S ambhavimudra ... 245 







Sains ara 









S andilya-Upanishad 



S ahkhini 

S ahkari 



S anti 




S ar iraka- U pani shad 










S aucha 



S esha 



... 10 

... 240 

132, 148 
... 1,82 
... 212 

... 225 
... 113 
176, 206, 239 
... 255 
13, 151, 152 
22, 151 
... 159 
... 138 
176, 180 

... 113 




16, 138, 173, 187 

... 148 

... 114 

... 232 

26, 173 



... 86 
174, 205, 257 





S ikha 108, 

132, 144 

Svadhishthana 202, 212, 270 

S iksha 

62, 110 

Svarupa-dhyana ... 1 


174, 205 

Syena ... 72 

S irobandha 

... 268 

S iro-vastra 

... 268 

^ T 

S ishya 

... 22 

S iffna 

... 213 

TAIJASA 47, 168, 232 



Tal^tala ... 187 

S ltali 

... 261 

Tamas ... 112 

S iva 

... 187 

Tana ... 263 


... 64 

fanumanasi ... 232 


... 41 

Tanmatras ... 44 


26, 248 

Tapa 181, 187, 254 


... 268 

Tapas ... 22 

So ham 


f araka 2, 124, 244, 245 


... 187 

Tarka ... 216 

S onita 

... 117 

Tarasara-Upanishad ... 124 



fat ... 49 

tounds, geven 

117, 134 
... 239 

fatastha ... 159 
Tattvas 27, 220 

S ri-Rama 


Tattvajnana ... 256 

S ri^S a nkarachary a 
S raddha 

52, 148 

Tattvamasi ... 49 
Tejobindu-Upanishad ... 78 

S raddha 

... 31 

Triangle 78, 210 


... 49 

Trimurti ... 148 


... 133 

friputi ... 249 


... 19 

Trshna ... 244 


... 58 
... 232 

f iirya 14, 70 
furyaka ... 239 

S ubhechchha 

... 61 
... 232 

Turiyatita ... 153 

S udras 

62, 110 

nishad 55 

S ukla-dhyana 

... 133 

Tvam ... 49 

S ukla 

... 117 

Tvambrahmasi ... 49 

S ukla-Yajurveda 
S uka 1, 82, 132, 

155, 235 

fvamtadasi ... 49 
tyaga ... 97 


... 20 

Suks Ama 

... 232 



19, 261 


... 262 

UDANA 177, 219 

Sushumna 122, 176, 

206, 239 

Uddiyana 194, 207, 237, 263 

Sushupti 14, 47, 

113, 232 

Uddiyate . 263 


... 187 

Ujjayl . 261 


... 108 

Ukara . 232 


187, 254 

Uma . 31 

Svapna 13 

, 47, 113 

Unman! . 214 


... 34 

Upanayana . 134 


... 72 

Uparati . 87 

S vetaketu 

132, 145 

Upasya . 21 


174, 217 

Upavasa 142, 225 












Yais vanara 

Yais yas 


Vaj rasuchi-TJpanishad 













Yayu 46, 61, 62 ; 










125, 221 


4, 13, 35 

... 134 


... 255 

... 245 


... 14 

Yiks hepa-S akti 

... 44 


Yin a 

... 257 


... 108 

v 198, 210 


... H4 

... v!45 


... 45 

... 137 


... 136 

... 122 


... 248 

2, 57, 58 



255, 257 

Vishnu-Pur ana 


... 62 

Yis uddhi 

... 213 

62, 111 

Yis va 47, 

168, 232 

... 260 


... 62 

tad ... 110 

Yis vodhari 

76, 239 

.. 200 


... 187 

... 93 


... 230 

132, 145, 235 



... 135 


122, 190 

... 220 


... 62 



177, 06 

187, 221, 239 

... 176 


7, 260 



198, 210 

... 145 

Yajnavalkya 43, 124, 125, 

... 213 

132, 243 

75, 113, 

Yajnopavita 108, 

132, 144 

116, 187, 221 



... 255 




Yama 19, 79, 173, 187, 


238, 243 

... 232 

Yas asvini 176, 

206, 239 

6, 90, 272 


183, 193 

... 10 


... 260 

... 22 

Yogatatt va-Upani shad 

... 192 












Upanishads. English 

Thirty minor